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Hormone treatments and effects on endometrium

Clara de Andrés, Lidia Fernández-Paredes, Marta Tejera-Alhambra, Bárbara Alonso, Rocío Ramos-Medina, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón
A striking common feature of most autoimmune diseases is their female predominance, with at least twice as common among women than men in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevailing MS clinical form with onset at childbearing age. This fact, together with the protective effect on disease activity during pregnancy, when there are many biological changes including high levels of estrogens and progesterone, puts sex hormones under the spotlight. The role of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in MS disease beginning and course is still to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Frank Köster, Li Jin, Yuanming Shen, Andrew V Schally, Ren-Zhi Cai, Norman L Block, Daniela Hornung, Gabriele Marschner, Achim Rody, Jörg B Engel, Dominique Finas
Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disorder causing dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Receptors for the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were found in endometriotic tissues. Antagonists of GHRH have been used to inhibit the growth of endometriotic endometrial stromal cells. In this study, the GHRH receptor splice variant (SV) 1 was detected in human endometrial tissue samples by Western blots and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The highest messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of SV1 were found in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis compared to ectopic endometriotic tissues and endometrium from normal patients...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Xiaomeng Guo, Wei Li, Jialin Zhou, Wanqing Hou, Xue Wen, Hanbo Zhang, Fenfen Kong, Lihua Luo, Qingpo Li, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Endometriosis is difficult to treat since the side effects of the current therapeutic method and the high recurrence rate; thus, newer and safer therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. This work investigates the enhanced permeability and retention effect of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) in endometriosis to increase the delivery of HAuNS into lesion cells. The surface of HAuNS is successfully conjugated with a TNYL peptide that has specific affinity for the EphB4 receptor, which is a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases...
February 1, 2017: Small
P R Manna, D Molehin, A U Ahmed
Aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which play crucial roles on a spectrum of developmental and physiological processes. The biological actions of estrogens are classically mediated by binding to two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. Encoded by the cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1) gene, aromatase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, as well as benign and malignant tumors, and is regulated in a pathway- and tissue-specific manner...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Magdalena Szymanska, Agnieszka Blitek
The aim of the study was to determine how supplementation with exogenous progesterone (P4) affects the expression of genes important for endometrial receptivity and conceptus development during the peri-implantation period in pigs. Gilts with PMSG/hCG-induced first estrus received daily injections of corn oil (CO; n=7) or P4 (n=7) on days 3 to 10 after insemination. The dose of P4 was 25mg/100kg BW on days 3 and 4 of gestation, then increased to 50mg/100kg BW on days 5 to 10. Blood samples were collected each day to monitor concentrations of circulating P4...
November 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink, Carole Verhoeven, Yvette Zimmerman, Monique Visser, Jean-Michel Foidart, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson
OBJECTIVE: Estetrol (E4) is a natural fetal estrogen. The safety of increasing doses of E4 and its preliminary effects on the vagina, endometrium and menopausal vasomotor symptoms were investigated. STUDY DESIGN: This was a partly randomized, open-label, multiple-rising-dose study in 49 postmenopausal women. Subjects with an intact uterus were randomized to receive either 2mg E4 or 2mg estradiol-valerate (E2V) for 28days. Subsequent dose-escalation groups (non-randomized) were: 10mg E4 (intact uterus and ≥35 hot flushes/week); and 20mg and 40mg E4 (hysterectomized subjects)...
September 2016: Maturitas
Zheng Shen, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Mickey V Patel, Fiona D Barr, Charles R Wira
PROBLEM: The programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway regulates peripheral tolerance, immune responses, and is up-regulated in chronic viral infections, including HIV infection. However, expression of PD-1/PD-L1 on immune cells from the human female reproductive tract (FRT) and possible regulation by menopause and sex hormones are poorly understood. METHOD OF STUDY: PD-1/PD-L1 expression was analyzed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD163(+) macrophages, and CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DC) from endometrium (EM), endocervix (CX) and ectocervix (ECX)...
August 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Andrea Wagenfeld, Philippa T K Saunders, Lucy Whitaker, Hilary O D Critchley
INTRODUCTION: The progesterone receptor plays an essential role in uterine physiology and reproduction. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have emerged as a valuable treatment option for hormone dependent conditions like uterine fibroids, which have a major impact on women's quality of life. SPRMs offer potential for longer term medical treatment and thereby patients may avoid surgical intervention. AREAS COVERED: The authors have reviewed the functional role of the progesterone receptor and its isoforms and their molecular mechanisms of action via genomic and non-genomic pathways...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Ewelina Jursza-Piotrowska, Marta J Siemieniuch
Endotoxins released by Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate plasma levels of TNF-α, TNF-α secretion, and mRNA levels of TNF and TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For this, we used cultured endometrial cells or organ cultures, throughout the estrous cycle, after hormone treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and during pyometra. Plasma TNF-α concentrations were increased in animals at estrus (P < 0...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Douglas A Gibson, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Philippa T K Saunders
During the establishment of pregnancy, the ovarian-derived hormones progesterone and oestradiol regulate remodelling of the endometrium to promote an environment that is able to support and maintain a successful pregnancy. Decidualisation is characterised by differentiation of endometrial stromal cells that secrete growth factors and cytokines that regulate vascular remodelling and immune cell influx. This differentiation process is critical for reproduction, and inadequate decidualisation is implicated in the aetiology of pregnancy disorders such as foetal growth restriction and preeclampsia...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Kun Ma, Yan-feng Liu, Jun-qin He, Min Li, Jing Shan
OBJECTIVE: The multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-simulated and positive-control trial was used to verify the contribution degree of Bushen Huoxue for the treatment of ovulatory dysfunction caused infertility, which provided scientific basis for clinical treatment. METHOD: According to diagnostic, inclusion and exclusion criteria, we observed 349 patients which were divided into the treated group (n = 177, treated with Bushen Huoxue ricipe) and control group (n = 172, treated with clomiphene)...
October 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hareesh B Nair, Bindu Santhamma, Naveen K Krishnegowda, Kalarikkal V Dileep, Klaus J Nickisch
Use of estrogen or estrogen/progestin combination was an approved regimen for menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). However, more recent patient-centered studies revealed an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women receiving menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin rather than estrogen alone. Tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) has been proposed to eliminate the progesterone component of MHT with supporting evidences. Based on our previous studies it is evident that SPRMs have a safer profile on endometrium in preventing unopposed estrogenicity...
2016: PloS One
Panagiotis Drakopoulos, Nicola Pluchino, Paul Bischof, Pablo Cantero, Patrick Meyer, Didier Chardonnens
BACKGROUND: The role of growth hormone (GH) in female reproduction has become a topic of increasing interest over the last decade. The replacement of GH for ovulation induction in women with hypopituitarism remains controversial. The role of GH in the human endometrium is still largely unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first case report showing evidence that GH might play a role not only for ovulation induction, but also for the development of endometrial thickness in women with hypopituitarism...
January 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Kabir A Raheem, Waleed F A Marei, Bruce K Campbell, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta
In this study, we investigated the expression of mucin 1 (MUC1) mRNA and protein in sheep endometrium at different time points during follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle, and also determined the effect of steroid hormone treatments and interferon tau (IFNτ) on MUC1 mRNA expression in endometrial cell culture in vitro. In experiment one, 15 Welsh mountain ewes were synchronized to a common estrus and killed at precise stages of estrous cycle corresponding to (1) pre-LH peak, (2) LH peak, (3) post-LH peak, (4) early luteal, and (5) mid-luteal...
June 2016: Theriogenology
C Jesam, L Cochon, A M Salvatierra, A Williams, N Kapp, D Levy-Gompel, V Brache
OBJECTIVE: Ulipristal acetate (UPA) 30 mg is safe and effective for emergency contraception (EC). This prospective open-label exploratory study was conducted to obtain additional data on the pharmacodynamic effects of repeated dose of UPA 30 mg during an 8-week period (effects on ovulation inhibition, hormonal levels, endometrium and cervical mucus). Safety and tolerability data of repeated use of UPA EC were also collected. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 23 healthy female, healthy sterilized women participated in two substudies receiving UPA for 8 consecutive weeks...
April 2016: Contraception
Sachiko Matsuzaki, Michel Canis, Jean-Luc Pouly, Claude Darcha
STUDY QUESTION: Can deep infiltrating endometriotic stromal cells (DES) sense changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness and respond to them? SUMMARY ANSWER: Soft matrices inhibit cell proliferation and inactivate the fibrotic phenotype of DES in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is characterized histologically by dense fibrous tissue. Tissue stiffening is a hallmark of fibrosis. Studies show that matrix stiffness is involved in the progression of numerous diseases, including cancer and fibrosis...
March 2016: Human Reproduction
Annica Andersson, Angelina I Bernardi, Merja Nurkkala-Karlsson, Alexandra Stubelius, Louise Grahnemo, Claes Ohlsson, Hans Carlsten, Ulrika Islander
In addition to the systemic inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), decreased estradiol levels in postmenopausal RA patients further accelerate bone loss in these patients. The tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC), an estrogen combined with a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is a new hormone replacement therapy option. The first approved TSEC, containing conjugated estrogens and bazedoxifene (BZA), reduces menopausal symptoms and prevents osteoporosis with an improved safety profile compared with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
March 2016: Endocrinology
R G Ahmed, M Abdel-Latif, Emad A Mahdi, Khalid A El-Nesr
The potentiation of the immune system in pregnant rats was performed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant [CFA; 20μl, subcutaneous at gestation day (GD) 18] in experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism by Levo-thyroxine (L-T4; 10μg/100g of b.w., intraperitoneal from GD 2 to 17). The potential effects on the fetal neuroendocrine function were evaluated by observing some histopathological investigations in pregnant rats and measuring some biochemical parameters in dams and their fetuses at GD 20. In hyperthyroid group, an increase in maternofetal serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and a decrease in thyrotropin (TSH) levels were noticed, while the concentrations of fetal serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) levels were increased at tested GD with respect to control and CFA groups...
December 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Atsushi Kiba, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Mari Asada, Yusuke Nakayama, Daisuke Aoki, Tatsuya Watanabe
AIM: Leuprolide acetate, an analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), regresses endometriotic tissue and reduces pain, resulting in clinical improvement upon treatment. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regression of endometriotic tissue, however, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we performed genome-wide gene expression profiling of clinical specimens of ovarian endometrioma to obtain insight into the effects of leuprolide acetate treatment. METHODS: We obtained clinical samples from nine normal eutopic endometrium tissues, eight ovarian endometriotic tissues, and 12 leuprolide acetate-treated endometriotic tissues...
October 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Damian Best, Siladitya Bhattacharya
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed...
October 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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