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Rivka R Colen, Islam Hassan, Nabil Elshafeey, Pascal O Zinn
The new World Health Organization classification of brain tumors depends on combining the histologic light microscopy features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors with canonical genetic alterations. This integrated diagnosis is redrawing the pedigree chart of brain tumors with rearrangement of tumor groups on the basis of geno-phenotypical behaviors into meaningful groups. Multiple radiogenomic studies provide a bridge between imaging features and tumor microenvironment. An overlap that can be integrated within the genophenotypical classification of CNS tumors for a better understanding of different clinically relevant entities...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Pascal O Zinn, Rivka R Colen
The role of radiomics in the diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy planning of brain tumors is becoming increasingly clear. Incorporation of quantitative approaches in radiology, in combination with increased computer power, offers unique insights into macroscopic tumor characteristics and their direct association with the underlying pathophysiology. This article presents the most recent findings in radiomics and radiogenomics with respect to identifying potential imaging biomarkers with prognostic value that can lead to individualized therapy...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
E Sala, E Mema, Y Himoto, H Veeraraghavan, J D Brenton, A Snyder, B Weigelt, H A Vargas
Tumour heterogeneity in cancers has been observed at the histological and genetic levels, and increased levels of intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity have been reported to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This review provides an overview of radiomics, radiogenomics, and habitat imaging, and examines the use of these newly emergent fields in assessing tumour heterogeneity and its implications. It reviews the potential value of radiomics and radiogenomics in assisting in the diagnosis of cancer disease and determining cancer aggressiveness...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Benedikt Wiestler, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Stefan Förster, Thomas Pyka, Christine Preibisch
Non-invasive, imaging-based examination of glioma biology has received increasing attention in the past couple of years. To this end, the development and refinement of novel MRI techniques, reflecting underlying oncogenic processes such as hypoxia or angiogenesis, has greatly benefitted this research area. We have recently established a novel BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) based MRI method for the measurement of relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) in glioma patients. In a set of 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioma, we assessed the performance of a machine learning model based on multiple MRI modalities including rOEF and perfusion imaging to predict WHO grade...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
E K Chie, P Gopal, M Abazeed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Antonella Castellano, Andrea Falini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
J G Cohen, E Reymond, A Jankowski, E Brambilla, F Arbib, S Lantuejoul, G R Ferretti
Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. Recent lung adenocarcinoma classifications from the International Association for the Study of Lung cancer, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ETS/ERS, 2011) and World Health Organization (WHO, 2015) define a wide range of adenocarcinoma types and subtypes featuring different prognosis and management. This spectrum of lesions translates into various CT presentations and features, which generally show good correlation with histopathology, stressing the key role of the radiologist in the diagnosis and management of those patients...
October 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Philipp Kickingereder, David Bonekamp, Martha Nowosielski, Annekathrin Kratz, Martin Sill, Sina Burth, Antje Wick, Oliver Eidel, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Alexander Radbruch, Jürgen Debus, Christel Herold-Mende, Andreas Unterberg, David Jones, Stefan Pfister, Wolfgang Wick, Andreas von Deimling, Martin Bendszus, David Capper
Purpose To evaluate the association of multiparametric and multiregional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features with key molecular characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Materials and Methods Retrospective data evaluation was approved by the local ethics committee, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Preoperative MR imaging features were correlated with key molecular characteristics within a single-institution cohort of 152 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma...
December 2016: Radiology
Jennifer B Permuth, Jung Choi, Yoganand Balarunathan, Jongphil Kim, Dung-Tsa Chen, Lu Chen, Sonia Orcutt, Matthew P Doepker, Kenneth Gage, Geoffrey Zhang, Kujtim Latifi, Sarah Hoffe, Kun Jiang, Domenico Coppola, Barbara A Centeno, Anthony Magliocco, Qian Li, Jose Trevino, Nipun Merchant, Robert Gillies, Mokenge Malafa
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cancer precursors incidentally discovered by cross-sectional imaging. Consensus guidelines for IPMN management rely on standard radiologic features to predict pathology, but they lack accuracy. Using a retrospective cohort of 38 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (20 benign; 18 malignant) with preoperative computed tomography (CT) images and matched plasma-based 'miRNA genomic classifier (MGC)' data, we determined whether quantitative 'radiomic' CT features (+/- the MGC) can more accurately predict IPMN pathology than standard radiologic features 'high-risk' or 'worrisome' for malignancy...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
John D Roberson, Omer L Burnett, Nathaniel Robin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates the field of radiogenomics within recent developments in genomics and radiation biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Many pediatric cancer survivors have undergone treatment with radiation, putting them at risk for long-term side-effects associated with this therapy, especially cardiac disease and secondary malignancies. Advancements in our understanding of radiation biology have led to the understanding that genetics plays a major role in determining a patient's susceptibility to developing long-term side-effects, leading to the field of 'radiogenomics'...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Sarah L Kerns, Leila Dorling, Laura Fachal, Søren Bentzen, Paul D P Pharoah, Daniel R Barnes, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño, Ana M Carballo, David P Dearnaley, Paula Peleteiro, Sarah L Gulliford, Emma Hall, Kyriaki Michailidou, Ángel Carracedo, Michael Sia, Richard Stock, Nelson N Stone, Matthew R Sydes, Jonathan P Tyrer, Shahana Ahmed, Matthew Parliament, Harry Ostrer, Barry S Rosenstein, Ana Vega, Neil G Burnet, Alison M Dunning, Gillian C Barnett, Catharine M L West
Nearly 50% of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Late radiotherapy toxicity affects quality-of-life in long-term cancer survivors and risk of side-effects in a minority limits doses prescribed to the majority of patients. Development of a test predicting risk of toxicity could benefit many cancer patients. We aimed to meta-analyze individual level data from four genome-wide association studies from prostate cancer radiotherapy cohorts including 1564 men to identify genetic markers of toxicity. Prospectively assessed two-year toxicity endpoints (urinary frequency, decreased urine stream, rectal bleeding, overall toxicity) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were tested using multivariable regression, adjusting for clinical and patient-related risk factors...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
Leland S Hu, Shuluo Ning, Jennifer M Eschbacher, Leslie C Baxter, Nathan Gaw, Sara Ranjbar, Jonathan Plasencia, Amylou C Dueck, Sen Peng, Kris A Smith, Peter Nakaji, John P Karis, C Chad Quarles, Teresa Wu, Joseph C Loftus, Robert B Jenkins, Hugues Sicotte, Thomas M Kollmeyer, Brian P O'Neill, William Elmquist, Joseph M Hoxworth, David Frakes, Jann Sarkaria, Kristin R Swanson, Nhan L Tran, Jing Li, J Ross Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) exhibits profound intratumoral genetic heterogeneity. Each tumor comprises multiple genetically distinct clonal populations with different therapeutic sensitivities. This has implications for targeted therapy and genetically informed paradigms. Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI and conventional sampling techniques have failed to resolve this heterogeneity, particularly for nonenhancing tumor populations. This study explores the feasibility of using multiparametric MRI and texture analysis to characterize regional genetic heterogeneity throughout MRI-enhancing and nonenhancing tumor segments...
August 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
Ashirbani Saha, Lars J Grimm, Michael Harowicz, Sujata V Ghate, Connie Kim, Ruth Walsh, Maciej A Mazurowski
PURPOSE: To assess the interobserver variability of readers when outlining breast tumors in MRI, study the reasons behind the variability, and quantify the effect of the variability on algorithmic imaging features extracted from breast MRI. METHODS: Four readers annotated breast tumors from the MRI examinations of 50 patients from one institution using a bounding box to indicate a tumor. All of the annotated tumors were biopsy proven cancers. The similarity of bounding boxes was analyzed using Dice coefficients...
August 2016: Medical Physics
Shaveta Mehta, Nick P Hughes, Sonia Li, Adrian Jubb, Rosie Adams, Simon Lord, Lefteris Koumakis, Ruud van Stiphout, Anwar Padhani, Andreas Makris, Francesca M Buffa, Adrian L Harris
Anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab has prolonged progression-free survival in several cancer types, however acquired resistance is common. Adaption has been observed pre-clinically, but no human study has shown timing and genes involved, enabling formulation of new clinical paradigms. In a window-of-opportunity study in 35 ductal breast cancer patients for 2weeks prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we monitored bevacizumab response by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance [DCE-MRI], transcriptomic and pathology...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
Achal Singh Achrol, Gary K Steinberg
Cerebral aneurysms are common vascular lesions. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these lesions and the process by which they destabilize and progress to rupture. Treatment decisions are motivated by a desire to prevent rupture and the devastating morbidity and mortality associated with resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For patients presenting with SAH, urgent intervention is required to stabilize the lesion and prevent re-rupture. Those patients fortunate enough to survive a presenting SAH and subsequent securing of their aneurysm must still face a spectrum of secondary sequelae, which can include cerebral vasospasm, delayed ischemia, seizures, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and endocrinologic and catecholamine-induced systemic dysfunction in cardiac, pulmonary, and renal systems...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Christian Nicolaj Andreassen, Barry S Rosenstein, Sarah L Kerns, Harry Ostrer, Dirk De Ruysscher, Jamie A Cesaretti, Gillian C Barnett, Alison M Dunning, Leila Dorling, Catharine M L West, Neil G Burnet, Rebecca Elliott, Charlotte Coles, Emma Hall, Laura Fachal, Ana Vega, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño, Christopher J Talbot, R Paul Symonds, Kim De Ruyck, Hubert Thierens, Piet Ost, Jenny Chang-Claude, Petra Seibold, Odilia Popanda, Marie Overgaard, David Dearnaley, Matthew R Sydes, David Azria, Christine Anne Koch, Matthew Parliament, Michael Blackshaw, Michael Sia, Maria J Fuentes-Raspall, Teresa Ramon Y Cajal, Agustin Barnadas, Danny Vesprini, Sara Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Meritxell Mollà, Orland Díez, John R Yarnold, Jens Overgaard, Søren M Bentzen, Jan Alsner
PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried out by the International Radiogenomics Consortium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis included 5456 patients from 17 different cohorts. 2759 patients were given radiotherapy for breast cancer and 2697 for prostate cancer...
July 18, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Radka Stoyanova, Alan Pollack, Mandeep Takhar, Charles Lynne, Nestor Parra, Lucia L C Lam, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Christine Buerki, Rosa Castillo, Merce Jorda, Hussam Al-Deen Ashab, Oleksandr N Kryvenko, Sanoj Punnen, Dipen J Parekh, Matthew C Abramowitz, Robert J Gillies, Elai Davicioni, Nicholas Erho, Adrian Ishkanian
Standard clinicopathological variables are inadequate for optimal management of prostate cancer patients. While genomic classifiers have improved patient risk classification, the multifocality and heterogeneity of prostate cancer can confound pre-treatment assessment. The objective was to investigate the association of multiparametric (mp)MRI quantitative features with prostate cancer risk gene expression profiles in mpMRI-guided biopsies tissues.Global gene expression profiles were generated from 17 mpMRI-directed diagnostic prostate biopsies using an Affimetrix platform...
July 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiaohua Qian, Hua Tan, Jian Zhang, Keqin Liu, Tielin Yang, Maode Wang, Waldemar Debinskie, Weilin Zhao, Michael D Chan, Xiaobo Zhou
The diagnosis for pseudoprogression (PsP) and true tumor progression (TTP) of GBM is a challenging task in clinical practices. The purpose of this study is to identify potential genetic biomarkers associated with PsP and TTP based on the clinical records, longitudinal imaging features, and genomics data. We are the first to introduce the radiogenomics approach to identify candidate genes for PsP and TTP of GBM. Specifically, a novel longitudinal sparse regression model was developed to construct the relationship between gene expression and imaging features...
July 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Kai Miller, Sharon Berendsen, Tatjana Seute, Kristen Yeom, Melanie Gephart Hayden, Gerald A Grant, Pierre Robe
INTRODUCTION: Fractal structure is found throughout many processes in nature, and often arises from sets of simple rules. We examined the contrast enhancement pattern in glioblastoma brain tumor MRIs for evidence of fractal structure, which might then be compared with expression of specific gene sets obtained from surgical specimens of each tumor. METHODS: Volumetric T1 postcontrast imaging was obtained in 39 patients prior to surgical resection of pathology-confirmed glioblastoma lesions...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Hye Jin You, Ho-Young Park, Jinkuk Kim, In-Hee Lee, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Doo-Sik Kong, Do-Hyun Nam
Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. In particular, leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) has a dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify tumor molecular phenotype, which has a great propensity to develop LMD. Between May 2004 and December 2012, a total of 145 GBM tumor samples were obtained from data registry. A total of 20 of the 145 patients with GBM were found to develop LMD. A specialized radiologist confirmed the diagnosis of LMD on magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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