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Acid base balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#1
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148022/hemodialysis-versus-peritoneal-dialysis-an-observational-study-in-two-international-centers
#2
Renhua Lu, Carla Estremadoyro, Xiaohuan Chen, Mingli Zhu, Leonardo C Ribeiro, Yucheng Yan, Alessandra Brendolan, Wei Fang, Carlo Crepaldi, Zhaohui Ni, Leyi Gu, Claudio Ronco
INTRODUCTION: Given that it is difficult to randomize end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients to either hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD), differences between these renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities are of major interest and remain controversial. METHODS: All data on maintenance dialysis patients during 2009 to 2013 in the Renji Hospital in Shanghai, China and in the San Bortolo Hospital in Vicenza, Italy were selected. Patients who changed their therapy from HD to PD or PD to HD during this study were excluded...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147917/recommendations-for-perioperative-management-of-lung-cancer-patients-with-comorbidities
#3
REVIEW
Hiroyoshi Tsubochi, Tomoki Shibano, Shunsuke Endo
OBJECTIVES: To improve surgical outcomes, clinicians must provide optimal perioperative care for comorbidities identified as significant factors in risk models for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. METHODS: We reviewed trends in perioperative care for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cardiovascular diseases, and end-stage renal diseases in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, as large clinical databases indicate that these comorbidities are significant risk factors for lung cancer surgery...
November 16, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146559/development-of-poly-lactic-acid-microspheres-and-their-potential-application-in-pickering-emulsions-stabilization
#4
Hao Zhang, Sheng Xiang, Qian Luan, Yuping Bao, Qianchun Deng, Mingming Zheng, Shilin Liu, Jia Song, Hu Tang, Fenghong Huang
The aim of the present work was to study the feasibility of fabricating poly (lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres stabilized Pickering emulsions. For this purpose, the PLA microspheres were first prepared by oil-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of preparation conditions such as hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, emulsifier concentration, oil-water ratio and preparation temperature were evaluated by using optical microscopy. Besides, orthogonal experiments were designed to investigate the influence of preparation parameters on average diameter and uniformity, include stirring time, stirring speed, and PLA and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141617/comparison-of-hso4-cl-and-meco2-as-anions-in-pretreatment-of-aspen-and-spruce-with-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids
#5
Zhao Wang, John Gräsvik, Leif J Jönsson, Sandra Winestrand
BACKGROUND: Ionic liquids (ILs) draw attention as green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulose before enzymatic saccharification. Imidazolium-based ILs with different anionic constituents ([HSO4](-), [Cl](-), [MeCO2](-)) were compared with regard to pretreatment of wood from aspen and spruce. The objective was to elucidate how the choice of anionic constituent affected the suitability of using the IL for pretreatment of hardwood, such as aspen, and softwood, such as spruce. The investigation covered a thorough analysis of the mass balance of the IL pretreatments, the effects of pretreatment on the cell wall structure as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, and the effects of pretreatment on the susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification...
November 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140821/retarding-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-use-of-modalities-that-counter-acid-retention
#6
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid retention because of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases tissue acidity and accelerates progression of CKD, whereas reduction in acid retention slows progression of CKD. Herein, we describe the mechanisms through which increased tissue acidity worsens CKD, modalities for countering acid retention and their impact on progression of CKD, and current recommendations for therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in animals and humans show that increased tissue acidity raises the renal levels of endothelin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ammoniagenesis, thereby worsening renal fibrosis and causing progression of CKD...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135217/vitamin-c-conjugated-nanoparticle-protects-cells-from-oxidative-stress-at-low-dose-but-induces-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-at-high-dose
#7
Atanu Chakraborty, Nikhil R Jana
Although antioxidant property of vitamin C is well known for protecting cells from oxidative stress, recent study shows that it can also generate oxidative stress under high intra-cellular concentration and induce cell death. However, poor chemical stability and low biological concentration (micromolar) of vitamin C restrict their function primarily as antioxidant. Here we report two different nanoparticle forms of vitamin C with its intact chemical stability, glucose responsive release from nanoparticle and efficient cell delivery in micro to millimolar concentration...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130334/pulsed-epr-imaging-applications-in-the-studies-of-tumor-physiology
#8
Shun Kishimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Keita Saito, Ayano Enomoto, Shingo Matsumoto, James Mitchell, Nallathamby Devasahayam, Murali C Krishna
SIGNIFICANCE: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique capable of generating images of tissue oxygenation using exogenous paramagnetic probes such as trityl radicals or nitroxyl radicals. Using principles similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with field gradients, the spatial distribution of the paramagnetic probecan be generatedand,from its spectral features, spatial maps of oxygen can be obtained from live objects. In this review, two methods of signal acquisition, image formation/reconstruction will be described...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129907/balancing-activity-stability-and-conductivity-of-nanoporous-core-shell-iridium-iridium-oxide-oxygen-evolution-catalysts
#9
Yong-Tae Kim, Pietro Papa Lopes, Shin-Ae Park, A-Yeong Lee, Jinkyu Lim, Hyunjoo Lee, Seoin Back, Yousung Jung, Nemanja Danilovic, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Jonah Erlebacher, Joshua Snyder, Nenad M Markovic
The selection of oxide materials for catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction in acid-based electrolyzers must be guided by the proper balance between activity, stability and conductivity-a challenging mission of great importance for delivering affordable and environmentally friendly hydrogen. Here we report that the highly conductive nanoporous architecture of an iridium oxide shell on a metallic iridium core, formed through the fast dealloying of osmium from an Ir25Os75 alloy, exhibits an exceptional balance between oxygen evolution activity and stability as quantified by the activity-stability factor...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128224/effect-of-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoate-hmtba-on-risk-of-biohydrogenation-induced-milk-fat-depression
#10
M Baldin, G I Zanton, K J Harvatine
Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial condition resulting from the interaction of numerous risk factors, including diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acids concentration, feed additives, and individual cow effects. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a methionine analog that has been observed to increase milk fat in some cases, and interactions with MFD risk factors may exist. The objective was to evaluate the effect of HMTBa supplementation on milk fat synthesis in cows with different levels of milk production and fed diets with increasing risk of biohydrogenation-induced MFD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127457/the-promise-and-challenges-of-exploiting-the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-for-selective-therapeutic-targeting-of-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Larry H Matherly, Zhanjun Hou, Aleem Gangjee
This review considers the "promise" of exploiting the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) for selective therapeutic targeting of cancer. PCFT was discovered in 2006 and was identified as the principal folate transporter involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary folates. The recognition that PCFT was highly expressed in many tumors stimulated substantial interest in using PCFT for cytotoxic drug targeting, taking advantage of its high level transport activity under the acidic pH conditions that characterize many tumors...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123085/airway-surface-liquid-ph-is-not-acidic-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
André Schultz, Ramaa Puvvadi, Sergey M Borisov, Nicole C Shaw, Ingo Klimant, Luke J Berry, Samuel T Montgomery, Thien Nguyen, Silvia M Kreda, Anthony Kicic, Peter B Noble, Brian Button, Stephen M Stick
Modulation of airway surface liquid (ASL) pH has been proposed as a therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF). However, evidence that ASL pH is reduced in CF is limited and conflicting. The technical challenges associated with measuring ASL pH in vivo have precluded accurate measurements in humans. In order to address this deficiency, ASL pH was measured in vivo in children using a novel luminescent technology integrated with fibre-optic probes. Here we show that ASL pH in children with CF is similar to that of children without CF...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122209/choice-of-fluids-in-the-perioperative-period-of-kidney-transplantation
#13
Alejandro Gonzalez-Castro, María Ortiz-Lasa, Yhivian Peñasco, Camilo González, Carmen Blanco, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Borregan
Normal saline has traditionally been the resuscitation fluid of choice in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation over balanced potassium solutions. However, the problems arising from hyperchloraemia triggered by the infusion of normal saline have led to studies being conducted that compare this solution with balanced solutions. From this narrative review it can be concluded that the use of balanced crystalloids containing potassium in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation can be considered safe...
November 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120634/double-layered-composite-methods-extrapolating-to-complete-basis-set-limit-for-the-systems-involving-more-than-ten-heavy-atoms-application-to-the-reaction-of-heptafluoroisobutyronitrile-with-hydroxyl-radical
#14
Xiaojuan Yu, Hua Hou, Baoshan Wang
Two versions of the double-layered composite methods, including the restricted open-shell model chemistry based on the complete basis set quadratic mode (DL-ROCBS-Q) and the extrapolated CBS limit of electronic energy on the basis of the coupled cluster with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations with the hierarchical sequence of the correlation-consistent basis sets (DL-RCCSD(T)/CBS), were developed to calculate the energetic reaction routes for the systems involving 13/14 heavy atoms with good balance between efficiency and accuracy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115382/resveratrol-prevents-osteoporosis-by-upregulating-foxo1-transcriptional-activity
#15
Yan-Ling Feng, Xiao-Tong Jiang, Fang-Fang Ma, Jie Han, Xu-Lei Tang
Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene, RES), a natural antioxidant, prevents bone loss by attenuating damage caused by oxidative stress. Our previous research revealed that the forkhead box O1 (FoxO1)/β-catenin signaling pathway affected the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through its regulation of redox balance, and RES regulated the expression of FoxO1 to control white adipose tissue and then ameliorate an overweight condition. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that RES regulates FoxO1 transcriptional activity through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway to achieve an antioxidative effect on osteoporosis and then we confirmed this hypothesis in the present study...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112104/cardiogenic-shock-due-to-end-stage-heart-failure-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-characteristics-and-outcome-of-temporary-mechanical-circulatory-support
#16
Hoong Sern Lim, Neil Howell
BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but outcomes may differ between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or end-stage heart failure (ESHF). This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI and ESHF. METHODS: Single centre study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI (n = 26) and ESHF (n = 42) who underwent MCS (extracorporeal life support, Impella or temporary ventricular assist devices)...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109689/molecular-plasticity-under-ocean-warming-proteomics-and-fitness-data-provides-clues-for-a-better-understanding-of-the-thermal-tolerance-in-fish
#17
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata, taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097310/design-and-application-of-genetically-encoded-malonyl-coa-biosensors-for-metabolic-engineering-of-microbial-cell-factories
#18
REVIEW
Abayomi Oluwanbe Johnson, Miriam Gonzalez-Villanueva, Lynn Wong, Alexander Steinbüchel, Kang Lan Tee, Peng Xu, Tuck Seng Wong
Malonyl-CoA is the basic building block for synthesizing a range of important compounds including fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and non-ribosomal polyketides. Centering around malonyl-CoA, we summarized here the various metabolic engineering strategies employed recently to regulate and control malonyl-CoA metabolism and improve cellular productivity. Effective metabolic engineering of microorganisms requires the introduction of heterologous pathways and dynamically rerouting metabolic flux towards products of interest...
October 31, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089216/-causes-consequences-and-treatment-of-hypophosphatemia-a-systematic-review
#19
Maël Padelli, Cyril Leven, Mehdi Sakka, Emmanuelle Plée-Gautier, Jean-Luc Carré
CONTEXT: Although hypophosphatemia is usually very seldom, it can reach two to 3% of hospitalized patients and until 28% of intensive care unit patients. Due to the lack of knowledge, clinical practice regarding seeking or treatment of hypophosphatemia is very heterogenous. However its clinical consequences might be heavy. A better knowledge of its causes, physiopathological effects and treatment should lead to a documented and homogenous care of these patients in clinics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was a systematic review of littérature, seeking for publications about causes, consequences and treatment of hypophosphatemia...
October 28, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080881/-computational-prediction-of-human-immunodeficiency-resistance-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#20
O A Tarasova, D A Filimonov, V V Poroikov
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leads to over one million of deaths annually. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a gold standard in the HIV/AIDS therapy. Nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) are important component of HAART, but their effect depends on the HIV susceptibility/resistance. HIV resistance mainly occurs due to mutations leading to conformational changes in the three-dimensional structure of HIV RT...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
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