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Acid base balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792192/detection-technologies-and-metabolic-profiling-of-bile-acids-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Yanan Liu, Zhihui Rong, Dong Xiang, Chengliang Zhang, Dong Liu
Bile acids (BAs) are important regulatory factors of life activities, which are involved in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms, and closely associated with intestinal hormones, microbiotas and energy balance. BAs abnormalities easily lead to inflammation and metabolic diseases, in turn, the progress of diseases could influence characteristics of BAs. Therefore, accurate detection of BAs contents is of great significance to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. At present, the most widely used enzymatic method in clinical practice is applicable to the detection of total bile acid (TBA)...
May 23, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790530/balancing-the-acidity-of-the-pendant-urea-arm-of-bis-heteroleptic-ruthenium-ii-complex-containing-pyridyl-triazole-for-improved-oxyanion-recognition
#2
Tamal Kanti Ghosh, Pradyut Ghosh
Two new RuII-based bis-heteroleptic ditopic receptors 1[PF6]2 (C44H34F12N10OP2Ru) and 2[PF6]2 (C40H27F17N10OP2Ru), decorated with a 1-naphthyl and pentafluorophenyl urea pendant arm, respectively, along with the previously reported 3[PF6]2 (C40H31F13N10OP2Ru), containing a pendant 4-fluorophenyl urea unit and 4[PF6]2, devoid of a pendant urea arm, have been studied to establish the role of urea proton acidity on the sensing and extraction of oxyanions in the presence of triazole C-H as an additional hydrogen bonding motif...
May 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788904/genetic-diversity-of-bola-drb3-in-south-american-zebu-cattle-populations
#3
Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Claudia Corbi-Botto, Guillermo Giovambattista, Yoko Aida
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers of disease and immunological traits in cattle. However, until now, characterization of BoLA gene polymorphisms in Zebu breeds using high resolution typing methods has been poor. Here, we used a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method to sequence exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 421 cattle (116 Bolivian Nellore, 110 Bolivian Gir, and 195 Peruvian Nellore-Brahman). Data from 1416 Taurine and Zebu samples were also included in the analysis...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788485/enzymatic-synthesis-of-random-sequences-of-rna-and-rna-analogues-by-dna-polymerase-theta-mutants-for-the-generation-of-aptamer-libraries
#4
Irina Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, Sandrine Rosario, Odile Sismeiro, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Valérie Huteau, Sylvie Pochet, Marc Delarue
Nucleic acid aptamers, especially RNA, exhibit valuable advantages compared to protein therapeutics in terms of size, affinity and specificity. However, the synthesis of libraries of large random RNAs is still difficult and expensive. The engineering of polymerases able to directly generate these libraries has the potential to replace the chemical synthesis approach. Here, we start with a DNA polymerase that already displays a significant template-free nucleotidyltransferase activity, human DNA polymerase theta, and we mutate it based on the knowledge of its three-dimensional structure as well as previous mutational studies on members of the same polA family...
May 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779413/tailoring-tacrolimus-therapy-in-kidney-transplantation
#5
Thomas Jouve, Johan Noble, Lionel Rostaing, Paolo Malvezzi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is increasing worldwide. The best treatment is kidney transplantation, although life-long immunosuppressive therapy is then mandatory. Currently, the cornerstone immunosuppressive therapy relies on tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor that is nephrotoxic but whose exposition can be minimized in a delicate balance. Area covered: We addressed whether, in the setting of kidney transplantation, tacrolimus-based therapy can be tailored to medical needs: to achieve this, we searched for suitable articles in PubMed...
May 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776674/migration-behavior-of-organic-dyes-based-on-physicochemical-properties-of-solvents-as-background-electrolytes-in-non-aqueous-capillary-electrophoresis
#6
Minjeong Gu, Keunchang Cho, Seong Ho Kang
The migration behavior of organic fluorescent dyes (i.e., crystal violet, methyl violet base, methyl violet B base, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine B base) in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was investigated by focusing on the physicochemical properties of various organic solvents [ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol, dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] in background electrolyte (BGE). Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and UV/Vis detectors were employed to observe both the migration time of organic dyes and the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in NACE, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773684/when-fed-foods-with-similar-palatability-healthy-adult-dogs-and-cats-choose-different-macronutrient-compositions
#7
Jean A Hall, Jodi C Vondran, Melissa A Vanchina, Dennis E Jewell
Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772775/ph-responsive-mercaptoundecanoic-acid-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-and-applications-in-catalysis
#8
Siyam M Ansar, Saptarshi Chakraborty, Christopher L Kitchens
Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNP-MUA) were synthesized and demonstrated to possess pH-triggered aggregation and re-dispersion, as well as the capability of phase transfer between aqueous and organic phases in response to changes in pH. The pH of aggregation for AuNP-MUA is consistent with the pKa of MUA (pH ~4) in solution, while AuNP-MUA phase transition between aqueous and organic phases occurs at pH ~9. The ion pair formation between the amine group in octadecylamine (ODA), the carboxylate group in MUA, and the hydrophobic alkyl chain of ODA facilitates the phase transfer of AuNP-MUA into an organic medium...
May 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#9
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765659/self-assembly-behaviours-of-peptide-drug-conjugates-influence-of-multiple-factors-on-aggregate-morphology-and-potential-self-assembly-mechanism
#10
Qin Fan, Yujie Ji, Jingjing Wang, Li Wu, Weidong Li, Rui Chen, Zhipeng Chen
Peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs) as self-assembly prodrugs have the unique and specific features to build one-component nanomedicines. Supramolecular structure based on PDCs could form various morphologies ranging from nanotube, nanofibre, nanobelt to hydrogel. However, the assembly process of PDCs is too complex to predict or control. Herein, we investigated the effects of extrinsic factors on assembly morphology and the possible formation of nanostructures based on PDCs. To this end, we designed a PDC consisting of hydrophobic drug ( S )-ketoprofen (Ket) and valine-glutamic acid dimeric repeats peptide (L-VEVE) to study their assembly behaviour...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765379/-vitis-vinifera-l-fruit-diversity-to-breed-varieties-anticipating-climate-changes
#11
Antoine Bigard, Dargie T Berhe, Eleonora Maoddi, Yannick Sire, Jean-Michel Boursiquot, Hernan Ojeda, Jean-Pierre Péros, Agnès Doligez, Charles Romieu, Laurent Torregrosa
The wine industry is facing critical issues due to climate changes since production is established on very tight Genotype × Environment interaction bases. While, some cultivation practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vines, e.g., the use of irrigation to mitigate drought, the deleterious impacts of warming on fruit development are difficult to manage. Elevated temperature alters grapevine fruit growth and composition, with a critical increase of the sugars/organic acids ratio. Select grapes with improved metabolite balances to offset high temperature effects is a valuable option to sustain viticulture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762715/effect-of-diet-type-and-added-copper-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-energy-digestibility-gut-morphology-and-mucosal-mrna-expression-of-finishing-pigs
#12
Kyle F Coble, Derris D Burnett, Joel M DeRouchey, Mike D Tokach, John M Gonzalez, Fangzhou Wu, Steve S Dritz, Robert D Goodband, Jason C Woodworth, John R Pluske
A total of 757 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 27.6 kg body weight) were used in a 117-d experiment to determine the effects of added Cu from tribasic copper chloride and diet type on growth performance, carcass characteristics, energy digestibility, gut morphology, and mucosal mRNA expression of finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 7 replications per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of diet type, a corn-soybean meal-based diet (corn-soy) or a high byproduct diet (byproduct) with 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 15% bakery meal, and added Cu (0 or 150 mg/kg added Cu)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755482/silicon-improves-chilling-tolerance-during-early-growth-of-maize-by-effects-on-micronutrient-homeostasis-and-hormonal-balances
#13
Narges Moradtalab, Markus Weinmann, Frank Walker, Birgit Höglinger, Uwe Ludewig, Guenter Neumann
Low soil temperature in spring is a major constraint for the cultivation of tropical and subtropical crops in temperate climates, associated with inhibition of root growth and activity, affecting early growth and frequently plant performance and final yield. This study was initiated to investigate the physiological base of cold-protective effects induced by supplementation with silicon (Si), widely recommended as a stress-protective mineral nutrient. Maize was used as a cold-sensitive model plant, exposed to chilling stress and low root-zone temperature (RZT) during early growth in a lab to field approach...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751994/dietary-potential-renal-acid-load-and-risk-of-albuminuria-and-reduced-kidney-function-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#14
Tanushree Banerjee, Katherine Tucker, Michael Griswold, Sharon B Wyatt, Jane Harman, Bessie Young, Herman Taylor, Neil R Powe
OBJECTIVE: Diets high in sulfur-rich protein and low in fruit and vegetables affect human acid-base balance adversely and may have a harmful effect on progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Little is known about the relationship of participant characteristics, dietary acid load (DAL), and kidney injury in African-Americans with high risk of CKD progression. DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the association of DAL with CKD in 3,257 African-Americans aged >20 years in Jackson Heart Study...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743626/role-of-igf-1r-in-ameliorating-apoptosis-of-gne-deficient-cells
#15
Reema Singh, Priyanka Chaudhary, Ranjana Arya
Sialic acids (SAs) are nine carbon acidic amino sugars, found at the outermost termini of glycoconjugates performing various physiological and pathological functions. SA synthesis is regulated by UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) that catalyzes rate limiting steps. Mutations in GNE result in rare genetic disorders, GNE myopathy and Sialuria. Recent studies indicate an alternate role of GNE in cell apoptosis and adhesion, besides SA biosynthesis. In the present study, using a HEK cell-based model for GNE myopathy, the role of Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-1R) as cell survival receptor protein was studied to counter the apoptotic effect of non-functional GNE...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737890/formulation-and-evaluation-of-carrot-seed-oil-based-cosmetic-emulsions
#16
Shalini Singh, Alka Lohani, Arun Kumar Mishra, Anurag Verma
The present study deals with the evaluation of antiaging potential of carrot seed oil-based cosmetic emulsions. Briefly, cosmetic emulsions composed of carrot seed oil in varying proportions (2, 4, and 6% w/v) were prepared using the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) technique. Coconut oil, nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 80), and xanthan gum were used as the oil phase, emulgent, and emulsion stabilizer, respectively. The formed emulsions were evaluated for various physical, chemical, and biochemical parameters such as the zeta potential, globule size measurement, antioxidant activity, sun protection factor (SPF), skin irritation, and biochemical studies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733929/development-of-a-novel-chitosan-based-biocompatible-and-self-healing-hydrogel-for-controlled-release-of-hydrophilic-drug
#17
Swati Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Deepak, Rajesh Kumar, Nishant Kumar Rana, Biplob Koch
Smart polymeric hydrogels of chitosan and acryloyl-phenylalanine having potential of fast intrinsic shape memory properties (self-healing), non-toxic, biocompatible with moderate mechanical strength have been developed. The hydrogel has been formed by linking its network with flexible pendant side chains of chitosan and acryloyl-phenylalanine (exhibiting optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties). The non-toxic and biocompatible behavior of the synthesized chitosan based hydrogel reveals its potential use towards the biomedical field...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733756/-1-h-nmr-plasma-metabolomic-profiling-of-ovarian-quiescence-in-energy-balanced-postpartum-dairy-cows
#18
Jiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Chang Zhao, Yunlong Bai, Shi Shu, Ziling Fan, Cheng Xia
BACKGROUND: As the milk production of dairy cows increases, the reproductive capacity gradually declines. Ovarian quiescence has become one of the concerns of the dairy industry. OBJECTIVE: To explore the different plasma metabolites levels between estrus and anestrus in energy balanced (EB) dairy cows. METHODS: Ten estrous and ten anestrus EB Holstein cows in early lactation were selected for the study. EB cows, 14 to 21 days post-partum (Holstein; parity 3...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733430/combinatorial-synthetic-pathway-fine-tuning-and-comparative-transcriptomics-for-metabolic-engineering-of-raoultella-ornithinolytica-bf60-to-efficiently-synthesize-2-5-furandicarboxylic-acid
#19
Haibo Yuan, Yanfeng Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Zhongping Shi, Jian Chen, Long Liu
The compound, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), has attracted much attention due to its versatility as an important bio-based platform chemical. Here, we engineered Raoultella ornithinolytica BF60 as a whole-cell biocatalyst for highly efficient synthesis of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) from HMF. Specifically, various expression cassettes of key genes, such as hmfH (gene encoding HMF/furfural oxidoreductase [HmfH]) and hmfo (gene encoding HMF oxidase [HMFO]) were designed and constructed for fine-tuning FDCA synthesis from HMF...
May 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728893/adaptive-evolution-of-osmoregulatory-related-genes-provides-insight-into-salinity-adaptation-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#20
Zhengfei Wang, Yuze Bai, Daizhen Zhang, Boping Tang
Osmoregulation is an important mechanism by which euryhaline crustaceans regulate osmotic and ionic concentrations. The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a strong osmoregulating animal model among crustacean species, as it can maintain its hemolymph composition and survives well in either seawater or freshwater. Osmoregulation by E. sinensis during physiological adaptation has been studied extensively. However, the genetic basis of osmoregulation in E. sinensis for acclimating to changing salinities remains unclear...
May 4, 2018: Genetica
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