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Acid base balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812768/chemical-nutritive-composition-and-a-wide-range-of-bioactive-properties-of-honey-mushroom-armillaria-mellea-vahl-fr-kummer
#1
Marina Kostić, Marija Smiljković, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamočlija, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković
A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects...
August 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809535/ternary-organic-solar-cells-with-coumarin7-as-the-donor-exhibiting-over-10-power-conversion-efficiency-and-a-high-fill-factor-of-75
#2
Xinwei Chen, Si-Lu Tao, Cong Fan, Dongcheng Chen, Ling Zhou, Hui Lin, Cai-Jun Zheng, Shi-Jian Su
Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), since the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC71 BM)...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806601/influence-of-sublethal-doses-of-acetamiprid-and-halosulfuron-methyl-on-metabolites-of-zebra-fish-brachydanio-rerio
#3
Hong Zhang, Lijuan Zhao
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, is reported to have adverse sublethal effects on non-target beneficial organisms. Halosulfuron-methyl (HM), one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the toxicity of acetamiprid and HM. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) software program and the retention index method were used to identify 51 metabolites in zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio)...
August 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795233/bicarbonate-transport-during-enamel-maturation
#4
REVIEW
Kaifeng Yin, Michael L Paine
Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways...
August 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783410/adsorption-characteristics-of-trace-levels-of-bromate-in-drinking-water-by-modified-bamboo-based-activated-carbons
#5
Ho-Wen Chen, Yen Hsun Chuang, Cheng-Feng Hsu, Winn-Jung Huang
This study was undertaken to investigate the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromate (BrO3(-)) on bamboo charcoals that are activated with nitrogen and water vapor. Bamboo-based activated carbon (AC) was dipped in acid and oxidized in a mixture of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. Oxidation treatment considerably improved the physicochemical properties of AC, including purity, pore structure and surface nature, significantly enhancing BrO3(-) adsorption capacity. AC with many oxygenated groups and a high mesopore volume exhibited a particularly favorable tendency for BrO3(-) adsorption...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783022/environmental-life-cycle-assessment-on-the-separation-of-rare-earth-oxides-through-solvent-extraction
#6
Ehsan Vahidi, Fu Zhao
Over the past decade, Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have gained special interests due to their significance in many industrial applications, especially those related to clean energy. While REEs production is known to cause damage to the ecosystem, only a handful of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) investigations have been conducted in recent years, mainly due to lack of data and information. This is especially true for the solvent extraction separation of REEs from aqueous solution which is a challenging step in the REEs production route...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777016/threonine-supplementation-reduces-dietary-protein-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-pekin-ducks
#7
Y Jiang, J Tang, M Xie, Z G Wen, S Y Qiao, S-S Hou
1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190, and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid, and plasma profiles was determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720 day-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight...
August 4, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776979/coralloid-like-nanostructured-c-nsi-siox-cy-anodes-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-battery
#8
Xianhuan Zhuang, Pingan Song, Guorong Chen, Liyi Shi, Yuan Wu, Xinyong Tao, Hongjiang Liu, Dengsong Zhang
Balancing the size of primary Si unit and void space are considered to be an effective approach for developing high performance silicon based anode materials, and is vital to create lithium ion battery with high energy density. We herein have demonstrated the facile fabrication of coralloid-like nanostructured silicon composites (c-nSi/SiOx@Cy) via sulfuric acid etching the Al60Si40 alloy and followed by surface growth carbon layer approach. The HRTEM images of pristine and cycled c-nSi/SiOx@Cy show that abundant nanoscale internal pores and the continuous conductive carbon layer effectively avoid the pulverization and agglomeration of Si units during multiple cycles...
August 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775294/anti-allergic-activity-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-on-ige-mediated-allergic-reaction-by-regulation-of-allergy-related-immune-cells
#9
Shiwen Han, Lu Sun, Feng He, Huilian Che
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the major bioactive triterpene glycoside of glycyrrhiza, has been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. However, few studies have examined the anti-allergic activity and exact mechanism of action of GA. In the present work, the anti-allergic activity and possible mechanisms of action of GA on an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reaction has been studied using three models of allergic reaction in vivo and in vitro...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774715/dendritic-cell-recruitment-and-activation-in-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Silvano Sozzani, Annalisa Del Prete, Daniela Bosisio
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells displaying the unique capability to activate naïve T cells. DCs react to pathogen encounter also by the production of mediators of inflammation, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because of this complex role, any imbalance in DC function reflects into defective or exaggerated immune response and tissue damage. DCs comprise two main subsets, namely conventional or classical DCs (cDCs), that are dedicated antigen presenting cells, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), that respond to nucleic acids by releasing high amounts of type I interferons (IFNs)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774625/halogen-specific-total-organic-halogen-analysis-assessment-by-recovery-of-total-bromine
#11
Markus Langsa, Sebastien Allard, Ina Kristiana, Anna Heitz, Cynthia A Joll
Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#12
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766290/polyadenylation-site-based-analysis-of-transcript-expression-by-3-reads
#13
Dinghai Zheng, Bin Tian
Deep sequencing of the 3' end region of poly(A)+ RNA identifies the cleavage and polyadenylation site (PAS) and measures transcript abundance. However, mispriming at internal A-rich regions by the oligo-dT oligo in reverse transcription can lead to falsely identified PASs. This problem can be resolved by direct ligation of an adapter to the 3' end of RNA. However, ligation-based methods are often inefficient. Here, we describe 3'READS+, an accurate and sensitive method for deep sequencing of the 3' end of poly(A)+ RNA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766105/the-development-of-a-novel-knowledge-based-weaning-algorithm-using-pulmonary-parameters-a-simulation-study
#14
Hasan Guler, Ugur Kilic
Weaning is important for patients and clinicians who have to determine correct weaning time so that patients do not become addicted to the ventilator. There are already some predictors developed, such as the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), the pressure time index (PTI), and Jabour weaning index. Many important dimensions of weaning are sometimes ignored by these predictors. This is an attempt to develop a knowledge-based weaning process via fuzzy logic that eliminates the disadvantages of the present predictors...
August 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762448/comparison-of-warm-fluid-and-cold-fluid-resuscitation-during-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-model-in-rats
#15
Serkan Dilmen, Mehmet Eryılmaz, Salih Müjdat Balkan, Muhittin Serdar, Murat Durusu, Ali Osman Yıldırım, Sanem Aslıhan Dilmen
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the effects of resuscitation with cold and warm fluid on survival time, rate and volume of hemorrhage, hemodynamics, hypothermia, coagulopathy, acid-base balance, hematocrit, lactate, and base deficit during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (HS) model in rats. METHODS: HS model was created with splenic vascular and parenchymal injury in 29 rats under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia. Thirty minutes after the hemorrhage, the rats were randomized to receive 14...
July 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756970/phase-separated-surfactant-monolayers-exploiting-immiscibility-of-fluorocarbons-and-hydrocarbons-to-pattern-interfaces
#16
REVIEW
Matthew F Paige, Ala'a F Eftaiha
The mutual immiscibility of hydrogenated and fluorinated surfactants at interfaces frequently leads to phase-separation, which provides a useful and flexible method for patterning air-water and solid-air interfaces. In this article, we review recent advances in the use of hydrogenated-fluorinated surfactant mixtures to achieve interfacial patterning. For even relatively simple systems comprised of binary mixed monolayers of hydrogenated and perfluorinated fatty acids, a diverse range of film morphologies can be generated at the air-water interface and successfully transferred onto solid substrates...
July 20, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755932/relationships-between-postruminal-casein-infusion-and-milk-production-and-concentrations-of-plasma-amino-acids-and-blood-urea-in-dairy-cows-a-multilevel-mixed-effects-meta-analysis
#17
R Martineau, D R Ouellet, E Kebreab, R R White, H Lapierre
The relationships between postruminal casein infusion and production variables and concentrations of plasma AA and blood urea were evaluated using multilevel mixed-effects models derived from literature data collected in dairy cows. The data set contained 147 treatment means [i.e., 66 controls (CTL) and 81 casein-infused (CAS) means]. Each CAS mean was paired with its corresponding CTL mean to create 81 mean differences (CAS minus CTL), which were analyzed as absolute and percentage-based units (i.e., percentage increase or decrease in CAS relative to CTL)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753924/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-iga-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Junichi Hirahashi
IgA nephropathy is a common disease that causes end-stage renal failure and requires renal replacement therapy. The main purpose of therapeutic intervention in this disease is not limited to improvement of prognosis and prevention of transition to end-stage renal failure, but also prevention of the occurrence of cardiovascular lesions, which increases risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. Steroids and immunosuppressants have been widely used as remission induction therapies; however, the balance between their therapeutic benefits and detrimental side-effects are controversial...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753026/tropospheric-aqueous-phase-oxidation-of-isoprene-derived-dihydroxycarbonyl-compounds
#19
Tobias Otto, Bastian Stieger, Peter Mettke, Hartmut Herrmann
The dihydroxycarbonyls 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone (DHBO) and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylpropanal (DHMP) formed from isoprene oxidation products in the atmospheric gas phase under low-NO conditions can be expected to form aqSOA in the tropospheric aqueous phase because of their solubility. In the present study, DHBO and DHMP were investigated concerning their radical-driven aqueous-phase oxidation reaction kinetics. For DHBO and DHMP the following rate constants at 298 K are reported: k (OH + DHBO) = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1), k (NO3 + DHBO) = (2...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752050/nrg4-promotes-fuel-oxidation-and-a-healthy-adipokine-profile-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#20
Zhimin Chen, Guo-Xiao Wang, Sara L Ma, Dae Young Jung, Hyekyung Ha, Tariq Altamimi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Liang Guo, Peng Zhang, Chun-Rui Hu, Ji-Xin Cheng, Gary D Lopaschuk, Jason K Kim, Jiandie D Lin
OBJECTIVE: Brown and white adipose tissue exerts pleiotropic effects on systemic energy metabolism in part by releasing endocrine factors. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) was recently identified as a brown fat-enriched secreted factor that ameliorates diet-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. However, the physiological mechanisms through which Nrg4 regulates energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism remain incompletely understood. The aims of the current study were: i) to investigate the regulation of adipose Nrg4 expression during obesity and the physiological signals involved, ii) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Nrg4 regulation of energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism, and iii) to explore whether Nrg4 regulates adipose tissue secretome gene expression and adipokine secretion...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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