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Hojun Sung, Hyun Sik Kim, June-Young Lee, Woorim Kang, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Euon Jung Tak, Mi-Ja Jung, Ji-Hyun Yun, Min-Soo Kim, Na-Ri Shin, Tae Woong Whon, Jeong Rae Rho, Sun Duk Park, Hyung Eun Shim, Jin-Woo Bae
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic, spore-forming, oxidase-positive, catalase- and DNase-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, AR23208T , was isolated from the gut of a cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus), collected at Seoul Grand Park Zoo (Republic of Korea). Strain AR23208T grew optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 7 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AR23208T shared 98.2 and 97.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tumebacillus algifaecis THMBR28T and Tumebacilluslipolyticus NIO-S10T , respectively...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Masahiro Ikejiri, Haruka Kojima, Yuumi Fugono, Aki Fujisaka, Yoshiko Chihara, Kazuyuki Miyashita
We have developed a novel analog of the GFP chromophore: geo-DAIN. Since geo-DAIN is equipped with an E/Z-photoisomerizable geometrical diarylmethylene moiety instead of benzylidene of the GFP chromophore, different-colored reversible emissions are expected. We synthesized geo-DAIN by a condensation with methyl imidate and N-(diarylmethylene)glycinate. We found the emission from geo-DAIN to be different from that of benzylidene-type analogs; in the powder state, the E- and Z-isomers of geo-DAIN emitted different fluorescence colors...
March 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ya-Ni Tang, Cheng-Fu Tan, Wei-Wei Liu, Jie Yan, Chao Wang, Mi Liu, Dong-Hai Lin, Cai-Hua Huang, Lin Du, Mei-Lin Chen, Jiao-Lan Li, Ding-Ming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: We have repeatedly demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan"(PC 6) can improve myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the metabolomic profile of peripheral blood se-rum and myocardium involving EA-induced improvement of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were equally randomized into blank control, model and EA groups...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Brenda K Schroeder, William L Schneider, Douglas G Luster, Aaron Sechler, Timothy D Murray
Aplanobacter agropyri was first described in 1915 by O'Gara and later transferred to the genus Corynebacterium by Burkholder in 1948 but it was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in 1980 and, consequently, is not recognized as a validly published species. In the 1980s, bacteria resembling Corynebacterium agropyri were isolated from plant samples stored at the Washington State Mycological Herbarium and from a diseased wheatgrass plant collected in Cardwell, Montana, USA. In the framework of this study, eight additional isolates were recovered from the same herbarium plant samples in 2011...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Shuaifei Wang, Xiaoyan Qian, Yuanyu Chang, Jiayue Sun, Xiujing Xing, Wendy Fields Ballard, Jason J Chruma
The impact of the steric and electronic factors in both the para-substituted benzaldimine and 2,2-diarylglycine components on the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation of allyl 2,2-diarylglycinate aryl imines was explored. These studies revealed that using 2,2-di(2-methoxyphenyl)glycine as the amino acid linchpin allowed for the exclusive synthesis of the desired homoallylic benzophenone imine regioisomers, independent of the nature of the imine moiety, in typically high yields...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Rosli Md Illias, Shevin Rizal Feroz, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
Dienelactone hydrolase, an α/β hydrolase enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of dienelactone to maleylacetate, an intermediate for the Krebs cycle. Genome sequencing of the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica predicted a putative open reading frame (ORF) for dienelactone hydrolase (GaDlh) with 52% sequence similarity to that from Coniophora puteana. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that GaDlh is closely related to other reported dienelactone hydrolases, and distantly related to other α/β hydrolases...
March 20, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Avtar Singh, Amanjot Kaur, Arun Kumar Patra, Ritu Mahajan
The objective of this research was to develop an appropriate, eco-friendly, cost-effective bioscouring methodology for removing natural impurities from cotton fabric. Maximum bioscouring was achieved using 5.0 IU xylanase and 4.0 IU pectinase with material to liquid ratio of 1:15 in a 50 mM buffer (glycine-NaOH buffer, 1.0 mM EDTA and 1% Tween-80, pH 8.5) with a treatment time of 60 min at 50 °C and an agitation speed of 60 rpm. The bioscoured cotton fabrics showed a gain of 1.17% in whiteness, 3.23% in brightness and a reduction of 4...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Yuanyuan Zhao, Zhanyong Wang, Jing Zhang, Tingting Su
The production of Hasma generates plentiful non-edible by-products in China and Central Asia. As one of main by-products, the skin of Rana chensinensis is discarded as waste without utilization. In this work, R. chensinensis skin collagen (RCSC) hydrolysates were extracted using pepsin under acidic conditions. The yield of RCSC is 15.1% (w/w). Amino acid analysis revealed that RCSC contained glycine (204.5/1000 residues) and imino acids (182/1000 residues). RCSC exhibited high solubility in acidic pH (1-4) and low NaCl concentrations (< 2%, w/v)...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Michaela Lichtenegger, Oleksandra Tiapko, Barbora Svobodova, Thomas Stockner, Toma N Glasnov, Wolfgang Schreibmayer, Dieter Platzer, Gema Guedes de la Cruz, Sarah Krenn, Romana Schober, Niroj Shrestha, Rainer Schindl, Christoph Romanin, Klaus Groschner
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPC7 are able to sense the lipid messenger diacylglycerol (DAG). The DAG-sensing and lipid-gating processes in these ion channels are still unknown. To gain insights into the lipid-sensing principle, we generated a DAG photoswitch, OptoDArG, that enabled efficient control of TRPC3 by light. A structure-guided mutagenesis screen of the TRPC3 pore domain unveiled a single glycine residue behind the selectivity filter (G652) that is exposed to lipid through a subunit-joining fenestration...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Erica C Dresselhaus, Matthew C H Boersma, Mollie K Meffert
Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine-enrichment (ΔSEp65) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jianhua Ren, Yadwinder S Mann, Yuntao Zhang, Michael D Browne
Peptoids are sequence-controlled peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. Among many potential applications, peptoids have been thought of as a type of molecular information storage. Mass spectrometry analysis has been considered the method of choice for sequencing peptoids. Peptoids can be synthesized via solid phase chemistry using a repeating two-step reaction cycle. Here we present a method to manually synthesize oligo-peptoids and to analyze the sequence of the peptoids using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tomislav Rončević, Damir Vukičević, Nada Ilić, Lucija Krce, Goran Gajski, Marija Tonkić, Ivana Goić-Barišić, Larisa Zoranić, Yogesh Sonavane, Monica Benincasa, Davor Juretić, Ana Maravić, Alessandro Tossi
Antimicrobial peptides often show broad-spectrum activity due to a mechanism based on bacterial membrane disruption, which also reduces development of permanent resistance, a desirable characteristic in view of the escalating multidrug resistance problem. Host cell toxicity however requires design of artificial variants of natural AMPs to increase selectivity and reduce side effects. Kiadins were designed using rules obtained from natural peptides active against E. coli and a validated computational algorithm based on a training set of such peptides, followed by rational conformational alterations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sanne D'hondt, Brecht Guillemyn, Delfien Syx, Sofie Symoens, Riet De Rycke, Leen Vanhoutte, Wendy Toussaint, Bart N Lambrecht, Anne De Paepe, Douglas R Keene, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Hans Peter Bächinger, Sophie Janssens, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Fransiska Malfait
Type III collagen is a major fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical α1 (III)-chains that is particularly present in tissues exhibiting elastic properties, such as the skin and the arterial wall. Heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene result in vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS), a severe, life-threatening disorder, characterized by thin, translucent skin and propensity to arterial, intestinal and uterine rupture. Most human vEDS cases result from a missense mutation substituting a crucial glycine residue in the triple helical domain of the α1 (III)-chains...
March 15, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Zhi-Shu Tang, Yan-Ru Liu, Yang Lv, Jin-Ao Duan, Shi-Zhong Chen, Jing Sun, Zhong-Xing Song, Xiao-Min Wu, Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Common farming environmental elements, such as longitude, latitude, and altitude, and physiological conditions, such as age and body weight, are thought to influence medicinal animal homeostasis and material quality by altering endocrine functions for primary and secondary metabolite formation. However, the currently available methods for evaluating complex components of traditional Chinese animal medicines have insufficient sensitivity and specificity. PURPOSE: Characterizing the primary/secondary metabolomes of medicinal animals is essential for understanding their material basis, controlling product quality, and reflecting on distribution interactions...
March 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Steffen Priebe, Giovanna Grigolon, Leonid Rozanov, Marco Groth, Beate Laube, Reinhard Guthke, Matthias Platzer, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Whether and how regulation of genes and pathways contributes to physiological aging is topic of intense scientific debate. By performing an RNA expression-based screen for genes downregulated during aging of three different species, we identified glycine-C-acetyltransferase (GCAT, EC Impairing gcat expression promotes the lifespan of C. elegans by interfering with threonine catabolism to promote methylglyoxal (MGO; CAS 78-98-8) formation in an amine oxidase-dependent manner. MGO is a reactive dicarbonyl inducing diabetic complications in mammals by causing oxidative stress and damaging cellular components, including proteins...
March 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
Zhong-Feng Li, Yong Guo, Lin Ou, Huilong Hong, Jun Wang, Zhang-Xiong Liu, Bingfu Guo, Lijuan Zhang, Lijuan Qiu
GmDW1 encodes an ent-kaurene synthase (KS) acting at the early step of the biosynthesis pathway for gibberellins (GAs) and regulates the development of plant height in soybean. Plant height is an important component of plant architecture, and significantly affects crop breeding practices and yield. Here, we report the characterization of an EMS-induced dwarf mutant (dw) of the soybean cultivar Zhongpin 661 (ZDD23893). The dw mutant displayed reduced plant height and shortened internodes, both of which were mainly attributed to the longitudinally decreased cell length...
March 17, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Erika Contreras-Nuñez, Gerardo Blancas-Flores, Miguel Cruz, Julio Cesar Almanza-Perez, Jaime H Gomez-Zamudio, Jose Luis Ventura-Gallegosc, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Roberto-Lazzarini, Ruben Roman-Ramos, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
Glycine modulates inflammatory processes mediated by macrophages and adipocytes through decreasing the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and leptin, while increasing adiponectin. These effects have been associated with the inactivation of NF-κB in response to TNF-α, across an increase of its inhibitor IκB-α in adipocytes. However, glycine upstream mainly influences the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a multi-protein kinase complex considered a critical point in regulation of the NF-κB pathway; whether that is responsible for the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IkB has not been explored...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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