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Brittany N Flores, Mark E Dulchavsky, Amy Krans, Michael R Sawaya, Henry L Paulson, Peter K Todd, Sami J Barmada, Magdalena I Ivanova
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common inherited cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The expansions elicit toxicity in part through repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of the intronic (GGGGCC)n sequence into dipeptide repeat-containing proteins (DPRs). Little is known, however, about the structural characteristics and aggregation propensities of the dipeptide units comprising DPRs. To address this question, we synthesized dipeptide units corresponding to the three sense-strand RAN translation products, analyzed their structures by circular dichroism, electron microscopy and dye binding assays, and assessed their relative toxicity when applied to primary cortical neurons...
2016: PloS One
Heung Joo Yuk, Yeong Hun Song, Marcus J Curtis-Long, Dae Wook Kim, Su Gyeong Woo, Yong Bok Lee, Zia Uddin, Cha Young Kim, Ki Hun Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Meriem Attaf, Stephan J Holland, Istvan Bartok, Julian Dyson
αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katsumi Sakata, Toshiyuki Saito, Hajime Ohyanagi, Jun Okumura, Kentaro Ishige, Harukazu Suzuki, Takuji Nakamura, Setsuko Komatsu
Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state-space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhongfeng Li, Lingxue Jiang, Yansong Ma, Zhongyan Wei, Huilong Hong, Zhangxiong Liu, Jinhui Lei, Ying Liu, Rongxia Guan, Yong Guo, Longguo Jin, Lijuan Zhang, Yinghui Li, Yulong Ren, Wei He, Ming Liu, Nang Myint Phyu Sin Htwe, Lin Liu, Bingfu Guo, Jian Song, Bing Tan, Guifeng Liu, Maiquan Li, Xianli Zhang, Bo Liu, Xuehui Shi, Sining Han, Sunan Hua, Fulai Zhou, Lili Yu, Yanfei Li, Shuang Wang, Jun Wang, Ruzhen Chang, Lijuan Qiu
Mutagenized populations have provided important materials for introducing variation and identifying gene function in plants. In this study, an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) -induced soybean (Glycine max) population, consisting of 21,600 independent M2 lines, was developed. Over one thousand M4 (5) families, with diverse abnormal phenotypes for seed composition, seed shape, plant morphology, and maturity that are stably expressed across different environments and generations were identified. Phenotypic analysis of the population led to the identification of a yellow pigmentation mutant, gyl, that displayed significantly decreased chlorophyll (Chl) content and abnormal chloroplast development...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Lijing Xin, Ivan Tkáč
Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is a noninvasive tool for measuring in vivo neurochemical information in animal and human brains. With the increase of magnetic field strength, whereas localized (1)H-MRS benefits from higher sensitivity and spectral dispersion, it is challenged by increased spatial inhomogeneity of the B0 and B1 fields, larger chemical shift displacement error, and shortened T2 relaxation times of metabolites. Advanced localized (1)H-MRS methodologies developed for high magnetic fields have shown promising results and allow the measurement of neurochemical profiles with up to 19 brain metabolites, including less-abundant metabolites, such as glutathione, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ascorbate...
October 20, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Alina Kurolap, Anja Armbruster, Tova Hershkovitz, Katharina Hauf, Adi Mory, Tamar Paperna, Ewald Hannappel, Galit Tal, Yusif Nijem, Ella Sella, Muhammad Mahajnah, Anat Ilivitzki, Dov Hershkovitz, Nina Ekhilevitch, Hanna Mandel, Volker Eulenburg, Hagit N Baris
Glycine is a major neurotransmitter that activates inhibitory glycine receptors and is a co-agonist for excitatory glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Two transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS. Dysregulation of the extracellular glycine has been associated with hyperekplexia and nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Here, we report four individuals from two families who presented at birth with facial dysmorphism, encephalopathy, arthrogryposis, hypotonia progressing to hypertonicity with startle-like clonus, and respiratory failure...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Alberto Vázquez-Salazar, George Tan, Amanda Stockton, Renato Fani, Arturo Becerra, Antonio Lazcano
The five-membered heterocyclic imidazole group, which is an essential component of purines, histidine and many cofactors, has been abiotically synthesized in different model experiments that attempt to simulate the prebiotic environment. The evolutionary significance of imidazoles is highlighted not only by its presence in nucleic acid components and in histidine, but also by experimental reports of its ability to restore the catalytic activity of ribozymes. However, as of today there are no reports of histidine in carbonaceous chondrites, and although the abiotic synthesis of His reported by Shen et al...
October 22, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Alberto Lagazzo, Fabrizio Barberis, Cristina Carbone, Gianguido Ramis, Elisabetta Finocchio
The interaction of aminoacids (Glycine, Proline, Lysine) with brushite based bone cements has been investigated by several techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry-TG, Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM, mechanical properties studies), with the aim to elucidate the properties of the resulting composite materials and the interaction occurring at molecular level between the inorganic matrix and the organic moieties. Brushite phase is predominantly obtained also in the presence of aminoacids added during preparation of the bone cement...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chencheng Feng, Yang Zhang, Minghui Yang, Minghong Lan, Huan Liu, Jian Wang, Yue Zhou, Bo Huang
Intervertebral disc (IVD) cell senescence is a recognized mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying disc cell senescence will contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of IDD. We previously reported that N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline (N-Ac-PGP), a matrikine, is involved in the process of IDD. However, its roles in IDD are not well understood. Here, using rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, we showed that N-Ac-PGP induced premature senescence of NP cells by binding to CXCR1...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Robinson L Contiero, Denis F Biffe, Jamil Constantin, Rubem S de Oliveira, Guilherme B P Braz, Felipe R Lucio, Jerome J Schleier
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nozzle types and 2,4-D formulations on spray deposition on different targets. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme. Species in experiment 1 were Sumatran fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) and Brazil pusley (Richardia brasiliensis) and in experiment 2 were soybeans (Glycine max) and Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis). For both experiments, the first factor corresponded to spray nozzles with different settings (AD 110...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium towards the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Nidhi Singh, Priyanka Shah, Hemlata Dwivedi, Shikha Mishra, Renu Tripathi, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes the transfer of myristate to the amino-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a co-translational modification involved in trafficking substrate proteins to membrane locations, stabilization and protein-protein interactions. It is a studied and validated pre-clinical drug target for fungal and parasitic infections. In the present study, a machine learning approach, docking studies and CoMFA analysis have been integrated with the objective of translation of knowledge into a pipelined workflow towards the identification of putative hits through the screening of large compound libraries...
October 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Marzieh Zargaran, Ebrahim Saadat, Rassoul Dinarvand, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Farid Dorkoosh
Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Teresa Delgado-Goni, Maria Falck Miniotis, Slawomir Wantuch, Harold G Parkes, Richard Marais, Paul Workman, Martin O Leach, Mounia Beloueche-Babari
Understanding the impact of BRAF signaling inhibition in human melanoma on key disease mechanisms is important for developing biomarkers of therapeutic response and combination strategies to improve long term disease control. This work investigates the downstream metabolic consequences of BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib, the molecular and biochemical processes that underpin them, their significance for antineoplastic activity and potential as non-invasive imaging response biomarkers.(1)H NMR spectroscopy showed that vemurafenib decreases the glycolytic activity of BRAF mutant (WM266...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
N C N Perera, G I Godahewa, Jehee Lee
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi-Hong Zhang, Zhong Han, Xin-An Zeng, Man-Sheng Wang
A novel method for synthesizing Fe-glycine complex by pulsed electric fields (PEFs) was developed, and the physiochemical properties of Fe-glycine complexes were evaluated in this study. Results showed that the highest yield (81.2%) of Fe-glycine complexes was obtained by PEF treatment with 4.0kV/cm for 15min at 25°C, which was higher than thermal treatment of 79.5% at 60°C for 30min. Moreover, the highest Fe-chelating capacity was obtained at 107.13mg/L after PEF treatment with 4.0kV/cm for 15min. Results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis indicated that the structure of the ferrous ion-glycine complexes prepared by PEF and thermal treatment was similar...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xiuju Wang, Loong-Tak Lim
Two CO2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO2. However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO2 formation...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Bin Cai, Xiangxiong Kong, Chao Zhong, Suli Sun, Xiao Feng Zhou, Yin Hua Jin, Youning Wang, Xia Li, Zhendong Zhu, Jing Bo Jin
SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, ABA, and NaCl treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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