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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224114/ha-triggers-the-switch-from-mek1-sumoylation-to-phosphorylation-of-the-erk-pathway-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-cells-and-facilitates-its-infection
#1
Chengmin Wang, Huimin Liu, Jing Luo, Lin Chen, Meng Li, Wen Su, Na Zhao, Shelan Liu, Li Xie, Yaxiong Jia, Hua Ding, Xiufeng Wan, Hongxuan He
Several post-translational modifications in host cells are hijacked by pathogens to facilitate their propagation. A number of components of the influenza virus have been reported to be modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins during infection. We hypothesized that the MAPK/ERK pathway could be modified by SUMO1 because the SUMOylation of MEK1 was quickly eliminated after influenza A virus infection. We identified host cell MEK1 as a target of SUMO1 through LC/MS/MS, and enhanced MEK1 SUMOylation inhibited the infection of the virus, while inhibition of host cell MEK1 SUMOylation facilitated virus propagation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223439/sumoylation-of-turnip-mosaic-virus-rna-polymerase-promotes-viral-infection-by-counteracting-the-host-npr1-mediated-immune-response
#2
Xiaofei Cheng, Ruyi Xiong, Yinzi Li, Fangfang Li, Xueping Zhou, Aiming Wang
Sumoylation is a transient, reversible dynamic posttranslational modification that regulates diverse cellular processes including plant-pathogen interactions. Sumoylation of NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens, activates the defense response. Here, we report that NIb, the only RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) that targets the nucleus upon translation, interacts exclusively with and is sumoylated by SUMO3 (SMALL UBIQUITIN-LIKE MODIFIER3), but not the three other Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO paralogs...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222440/sumo-1-gene-silencing-inhibits-proliferation-and-promotes-apoptosis-of-human-gastric-cancer-sgc-7901-cells
#3
Lifang Jin, Kexin Shen, Tong Chen, Wei Yu, Huaiyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that blocking small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation by silencing SUMO gene remarkably decreased tumor growth in vivo. However, few studies have examined the relationship between SUMO gene silencing and gastric cancer (GC). The study aims to explore the effects of SUMO-1 gene silencing on GC cell proliferation and apoptosis. METHODS: GC cells were cultured and divided into 5 groups: the blank group (without any transfection or treatment), the empty vector group (transfected with empty vector), the shRNA-SUMO-1-1 group (transfected with shRNA-SUMO-1-1 plasmid), the shRNA-SUMO-1-2 group (transfected with shRNA-SUMO-1-2 plasmid), and the shRNA-SUMO-1-3 group (transfected with shRNA-SUMO-1-3 plasmid)...
February 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212444/sumo-modification-of-a-heterochromatin-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-enables-viral-gene-transactivation-and-viral-replication
#4
Wan-Shan Yang, Mel Campbell, Pei-Ching Chang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204881/genetic-evidence-for-functional-interaction-of-smc5-6-complex-and-top1-with-spatial-frequency-of-replication-origins-required-for-maintenance-of-chromosome-stability
#5
Ragini Rai, Shikha Laloraya
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants...
February 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197924/sumoylation-as-an-integral-mechanism-in-bacterial-infection-and-disease-progression
#6
Chittur V Srikanth, Smriti Verma
Post translational modification pathways regulate fundamental processes of cells and thus govern vital functions. Among these, particularly the modification with Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) is being recognized as a pathway crucial for cell homeostasis and health. Understandably, bacterial pathogens intervene with the SUMO pathway of the host for ensuring successful infection. Among the bacterial pathogens known to target host sumoylation varied points of intervention are utilized. Majority of them including Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes target the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197923/viral-interplay-with-the-host-sumoylation-system
#7
Van G Wilson
Viruses have evolved elaborate means to regulate diverse cellular pathways in order to create a cellular environment that facilitates viral survival and reproduction. This includes enhancing viral macromolecular synthesis and assembly, as well as preventing antiviral responses, including intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. There are numerous mechanisms by which viruses mediate their effects on the host cell, and this includes targeting various cellular post-translational modification systems, including sumoylation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197922/coordination-of-cellular-localization-dependent-effects-of-sumoylation-in-regulating-cardiovascular-and-neurological-diseases
#8
Jun-Ichi Abe, Uday G Sandhu, Nguyet Minh Hoang, Manoj Thangam, Raymundo A Quintana-Quezada, Keigi Fujiwara, Nhat Tu Le
Sumoylation, a reversible post-transcriptional modification process, of proteins are involved in cellular differentiation, growth, and even motility by regulating various protein functions. Sumoylation is not limited to cytosolic proteins as recent evidence shows that nuclear proteins, those associated with membranes, and mitochondrial proteins are also sumoylated. Moreover, it is now known that sumoylation plays an important role in the process of major human ailments such as malignant, cardiovascular and neurological diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197921/sumoylation-in-craniofacial-disorders
#9
Erwin Pauws, Philip Stanier
Craniofacial development requires a complex series of coordinated and finely tuned events to take place, during a relatively short time frame. These events are set in motion by switching on and off transcriptional cascades that involve the use of numerous signalling pathways and a multitude of factors that act at the site of gene transcription. It is now well known that amidst the subtlety of this process lies the intricate world of protein modification, and the posttranslational addition of the small ubiquitin -like modifier, SUMO, is an example that has been implicated in this process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197920/sumoylation-modulates-the-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes
#10
Jing Zhang, Zhishui Chen, Zhiguang Zhou, Ping Yang, Cong-Yi Wang
Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by interactions of multiple genes with environmental triggers. Thus far, more than 50 T1D susceptibility regions have been suggested from genetic studies by employing either genome-wide or candidate gene approaches. Because the lack of a linear correlation between the presence of risk genes and the onset of disease, the exact susceptible genes encoded in these regions remain largely elusive. In 2004, we first reported the cloning of a novel small ubiquitin -like modifier (SUMO) gene, SUMO4, in the IDDM5 region on chromosome 6q25, and presented strong genetic and functional evidence suggesting that SUMO4 could be a novel T1D susceptibility gene...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197919/sumoylation-and-its-contribution-to-cancer
#11
Jason S Lee, Hee June Choi, Sung Hee Baek
Post-translational modifications play an important role in regulating protein activity by altering their functions. Sumoylation is a highly dynamic process which is tightly regulated by a fine balance between conjugating and deconjugating enzyme activities. It affects intracellular localization and their interaction with their binding partners, thereby changing gene expression. Consequently, these changes in turn affect signaling mechanisms that regulate many cellular functions, such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis , DNA repair , and cell survival...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197918/sumoylation-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Dina B Anderson, Camila A Zanella, Jeremy M Henley, Helena Cimarosti
The covalent posttranslational modifications of proteins are critical events in signaling cascades that enable cells to efficiently, rapidly and reversibly respond to extracellular stimuli. This is especially important in the CNS where the processes affecting synaptic communication between neurons are highly complex and very tightly regulated. Sumoylation regulates the function and fate of a diverse array of proteins and participates in the complex cell signaling pathways required for cell survival. One of the most complex signaling pathways is synaptic transmission...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197917/sumo-in-drosophila-development
#13
Joseph Cao, Albert J Courey
The ubiquitin -like protein SUMO is conjugated covalently to hundreds of target proteins in organisms throughout the eukaryotic domain. Genetic and biochemical studies using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to reveal many essential functions for SUMO in cell biology and development. For example, SUMO regulates multiple signaling pathways such as the Ras/MAPK, Dpp, and JNK pathways. In addition, SUMO regulates transcription through conjugation to many transcriptional regulatory proteins, including Bicoid, Spalt , Scm, and Groucho...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#14
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197915/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-senescence
#15
Lyndee L Scurr, Sebastian Haferkamp, Helen Rizos
Cellular senescence is a program initiated by many stress signals including aberrant activation of oncogenes, DNA damage, oxidative lesions and telomere attrition. Once engaged senescence irreversibly limits cellular proliferation and potently prevents tumor formation in vivo. The precise mechanisms driving the onset of senescence are still not completely defined, although the pRb and p53 tumor suppressor pathways converge with the SUMO cascade to regulate cellular senescence. Sumoylation translocates p53 to PML nuclear bodies where it can co-operate with many sumoylated co-factors in a program that activates pRb and favors senescence...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197914/sumoylation-in-development-and-differentiation
#16
Adeline F Deyrieux, Van G Wilson
Tissue morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of both developmental biology and regeneration of certain adult organs, and timely control of cellular differentiation is a key to these processes. During development, events interrupting cellular differentiation and leading to organ failure are embryonic lethal; likewise, perturbation of differentiation in regenerating tissues leads to dysfunction and disease. At the molecular level, cellular differentiation is orchestrated by a well-coordinated cascade of transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin remodeling complexes that drive gene expression...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197913/wrestling-with-chromosomes-the-roles-of-sumo-during-meiosis
#17
Amanda C Nottke, Hyun-Min Kim, Monica P Colaiácovo
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#18
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197911/the-roles-of-sumo-in-metabolic-regulation
#19
Elena Kamynina, Patrick J Stover
Protein modification with the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) can affect protein function, enzyme activity, protein-protein interactions, protein stability, protein targeting and cellular localization. SUMO influences the function and regulation of metabolic enzymes within pathways, and in some cases targets entire metabolic pathways by affecting the activity of transcription factors or by facilitating the translocation of entire metabolic pathways to subcellular compartments. SUMO modification is also a key component of nutrient- and metabolic-sensing mechanisms that regulate cellular metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197910/sumo-modification-of-ion-channels
#20
Mark Benson, Jorge A Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jeffrey Martens
Recently, a role for SUMO modification outside of the nucleus has emerged. Although the number of extranuclear proteins known to be sumoylated is comparatively small, ion channels represent one important new class of these proteins. Ion channels are responsible for the control of membrane excitability and therefore are critical for fundamental physiological processes such as muscle contraction, neuronal firing, and cellular homeostasis. As such, these ion-conducting proteins are subject to precise regulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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