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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800632/radar-a-novel-fast-screening-method-for-reading-difficulties-with-special-focus-on-dyslexia
#2
Ioannis Smyrnakis, Vassilios Andreadakis, Vassilios Selimis, Michail Kalaitzakis, Theodora Bachourou, Georgios Kaloutsakis, George D Kymionis, Stelios Smirnakis, Ioannis M Aslanides
Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795834/contrasting-gist-based-and-template-based-guidance-during-real-world-visual-search
#3
Brett Bahle, Michi Matsukura, Andrew Hollingworth
Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794193/sequential-hemifield-gating-of-alpha-and-beta-behavioral-performance-oscillations-after-microsaccades
#4
Joachim Bellet, Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are tiny saccades that occur during gaze fixation. Even though visual processing has been shown to be strongly modulated close to the time of microsaccades, both at central and peripheral eccentricities, it is not clear how these eye movements might influence longer-term fluctuations in brain activity and behavior. Here we found that visual processing is significantly affected, and in a rhythmic manner, even several hundreds of milliseconds after a microsaccade. Human visual detection efficiency, as measured by reaction time, exhibited coherent rhythmic oscillations in the α and β frequency bands for up to ~650-700 ms after a microsaccade...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794192/neural-correlates-for-task-switching-in-the-macaque-superior-colliculus
#5
Jason Lloyd Chan, Michael J Koval, Kevin Johnston, Stefan Everling
Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790966/randomized-controlled-study-of-a-remote-flipped-classroom-neuro-otology-curriculum
#6
Frederick Robert Carrick, Mahera Abdulrahman, Ahmed Hankir, Maksim Zayaruzny, Kinda Najem, Palita Lungchukiet, Roger A Edwards
CONTEXT: Medical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789960/multisensory-integration-in-orienting-behavior-pupil-size-microsaccades-and-saccades
#7
Chin-An Wang, Gunnar Blohm, Jeff Huang, Susan E Boehnke, Douglas P Munoz
Signals from different sensory modalities are integrated in the brain to optimize behavior. Although multisensory integration has been demonstrated in saccadic eye movements, its influence on other orienting responses, including pupil size and microsaccades, is still poorly understood. We examined human gaze orienting responses following presentation of visual, auditory, or combined audiovisual stimuli. Transient pupil dilation and microsaccade inhibition were evoked shortly after the appearance of a salient stimulus...
August 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782543/the-active-construction-of-the-visual-world
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
What we see is fundamentally dependent on where we look. Despite this seemingly obvious statement, many accounts of the neurobiology underpinning visual perception fail to consider the active nature of how we sample our sensory world. This review offers an overview of the neurobiology of visual perception, which begins with the control of saccadic eye movements. Starting from here, we can follow the anatomy backwards, to try to understand the functional architecture of neuronal networks that support the interrogation of a visual scene...
August 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769866/eye-control-deficits-coupled-to-hand-control-deficits-eye-hand-incoordination-in-chronic-cerebral-injury
#9
John-Ross Rizzo, James K Fung, Maryam Hosseini, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Edmond Ahdoot, Rosa M Pasculli, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy, Todd E Hudson
It is widely accepted that cerebral pathology can impair ocular motor and manual motor control. This is true in indolent and chronic processes, such as neurodegeneration and in acute processes such as stroke or those secondary to neurotrauma. More recently, it has been suggested that disruptions in these control systems are useful markers for prognostication and longitudinal monitoring. The utility of examining the relationship or the coupling between these systems has yet to be determined. We measured eye and hand-movement control in chronic, middle cerebral artery stroke, relative to healthy controls, in saccade-to-reach paradigms to assess eye-hand coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768742/multiple-spatial-representations-interact-to-increase-reach-accuracy-when-coordinating-a-saccade-with-a-reach
#10
Yuriria Vazquez, Laura Federici, Bijan Pesaran
Reaching is an essential behavior that allows primates to interact with the environment. Precise reaching to visual targets depends on our ability to localize and foveate the target. Despite this, how the saccade system contributes to improvements in reach accuracy remains poorly understood. To assess spatial contributions of eye movements to reach accuracy, we performed a series of behavioral psychophysics experiments in non-human primates (M. mulatta). We found that a coordinated saccade with a reach to a remembered target location increases reach accuracy without target foveation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767650/the-stochastic-early-reaction-inhibition-and-late-action-seria-model-for-antisaccades
#11
Eduardo A Aponte, Dario Schöbi, Klaas E Stephan, Jakob Heinzle
The antisaccade task is a classic paradigm used to study the voluntary control of eye movements. It requires participants to suppress a reactive eye movement to a visual target and to concurrently initiate a saccade in the opposite direction. Although several models have been proposed to explain error rates and reaction times in this task, no formal model comparison has yet been performed. Here, we describe a Bayesian modeling approach to the antisaccade task that allows us to formally compare different models on the basis of their evidence...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765992/inhibition-in-movement-plan-competition-reach-trajectories-curve-away-from-remembered-and-task-irrelevant-present-but-not-from-task-irrelevant-past-visual-stimuli
#12
Tobias Moehler, Katja Fiehler
The current study investigated the role of automatic encoding and maintenance of remembered, past, and present visual distractors for reach movement planning. The previous research on eye movements showed that saccades curve away from locations actively kept in working memory and also from task-irrelevant perceptually present visual distractors, but not from task-irrelevant past distractors. Curvature away has been associated with an inhibitory mechanism resolving the competition between multiple active movement plans...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762086/regional-microstructural-damage-and-patterns-of-eye-movement-impairment-a-dti-and-video-oculography-study-in-neurodegenerative-parkinsonian-syndromes
#13
Martin Gorges, Melanie N Maier, Johannes Rosskopf, Olga Vintonyak, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
Characteristic alterations of eye movement control are a common feature of neurodegenerative parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Regional microstructural alterations as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported in PD, PSP, and MSA. Therefore, we investigated the specific association between eye movement disturbances and microstructural impairment in these diseases. Video-oculographic recordings of smooth pursuit and visually guided reactive saccades as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) maps computed from whole-brain DTI data were analyzed for 36 PD, 30 PSP, 18 MSA patients, and 23 matched healthy control subjects...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762028/word-predictability-affects-saccade-length-in-chinese-reading-an-evaluation-of-the-dynamic-adjustment-model
#14
Yanping Liu, Siyuan Guo, Lei Yu, Erik D Reichle
How does a word's within-sentence predictability influence saccade length during reading? An eye-movement experiment manipulating the predictability of target words indicates that, relative to low-predictability target words, high-predictability targets elicit longer saccades to themselves. Simulations using computational models that respectively instantiate the targeting of saccades to default locations (Yan, Kliegl, Richter, Nuthmann, & Shu in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705-725, 2010) versus the dynamic adjustment of saccade length (Liu, Reichle, & Li in Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 41, 1229-1236, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 1008-1025, 2016) indicate that the latter model provides a more accurate and parsimonious account of saccade-targeting behavior in Chinese reading...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760076/saccades-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-trigger-equivalent-gaze-cued-orienting-effects
#15
Stephen R H Langton, Alex H McIntyre, Peter J B Hancock, Helmut Leder
Research has established that a perceived eye gaze produces a concomitant shift in a viewer's spatial attention in the direction of that gaze. The two experiments reported here investigate the extent to which the nature of the eye movement made by the gazer contributes to this orienting effect. On each trial in these experiments participants were asked to make a speeded response to a target that could appear in a location toward which a centrally presented face had just gazed (a cued target), or in a location that was not the recipient of a gaze (an uncued target)...
August 1, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759882/oculomotricity-and-neurological-soft-signs-can-we-refine-the-endophenotype-a-study-in-subjects-belonging-to-the-spectrum-of-schizophrenia
#16
Simona Caldani, Isabelle Amado, Narjes Bendjemaa, François Vialatte, Célia Mam-Lam-Fook, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs, Maria Pia Bucci
Alterations in eye tracking and motor impairments as well as Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia as well as in their relatives, and are proposed as endophenotype of the disease. This study investigated smooth pursuit eye movement and fixation task with distractors with a gap condition, two markers of inhibitory control mechanism, in 49 patients with schizophrenia, 24 ultra-high risk subjects, 41 full biological clinical siblings of patients and 48 controls. NSS were assessed as a marker of abnormal neurodevelopment...
June 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755238/dissociating-the-capture-of-attention-from-saccade-activation-by-subliminal-abrupt-onsets
#17
Tobias Schoeberl, Ulrich Ansorge
Attentional capture and effects on saccade metrics by subliminal abrupt onset cues have been studied with peripheral cues at one out of several (two to four) display locations, swiftly followed by additional onsets at the other display locations. The lead time of the cue was too short to be seen. Here, we were interested in whether such subliminal onset cues influenced saccades primarily by way of attention or by way of direct saccade activation. In separate blocks, participants made speeded pro-saccades towards a black target or anti-saccades away from the target...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746352/eyes-versus-hands-how-perceived-stimuli-influence-motor-actions
#18
Alexander Geiger, Eva Niessen, Gary Bente, Kai Vogeley
Many studies showed that biological (e.g., gaze-shifts or hand movements) and non-biological stimuli (e.g., arrows or moving points) redirect attention. Biological stimuli seem to be more suitable than non-biological to perform this task. However, the question remains if biological stimuli do have different influences on redirecting attention and if this property is dependent on how we react to those stimuli. In two separate experiments, participants interact either with a biological or a non-biological stimulus (experiment 1), or with two biological stimuli (gaze-shifts, hand movements)(experiment 2) to which they responded with two different actions (saccade, button press), either in a congruent or incongruent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746058/rapid-number-naming-and-quantitative-eye-movements-may-reflect-contact-sport-exposure-in-a-collegiate-ice-hockey-cohort
#19
Lisena Hasanaj, Sujata P Thawani, Nikki Webb, Julia D Drattell, Liliana Serrano, Rachel C Nolan, Jenelle Raynowska, Todd E Hudson, John-Ross Rizzo, Weiwei Dai, Bryan McComb, Judith D Goldberg, Janet C Rucker, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: The King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid number naming is a reliable visual performance measure that is a sensitive sideline indicator of concussion when time scores worsen (lengthen) from preseason baseline. Within cohorts of youth athletes <18 years old, baseline K-D times become faster with increasing age. We determined the relation of rapid number-naming time scores on the K-D test to electronic measurements of saccade performance during preseason baseline assessments in a collegiate ice hockey team cohort...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744253/novel-eye-movement-disorders-in-whipple-s-disease-staircase-horizontal-saccades-gaze-evoked-nystagmus-and-esotropia
#20
Aasef G Shaikh, Fatema F Ghasia
Whipple's disease, a rare systemic infectious disorder, is complicated by the involvement of the central nervous system in about 5% of cases. Oscillations of the eyes and the jaw, called oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, are pathognomonic of the central nervous system involvement but are often absent. Typical manifestations of the central nervous system Whipple's disease are cognitive impairment, parkinsonism mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy with vertical saccade slowing, and up-gaze range limitation. We describe a unique patient with the central nervous system Whipple's disease who had typical features, including parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and up-gaze limitation; but also had diplopia, esotropia with mild horizontal (abduction more than adduction) limitation, and vertigo...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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