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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632848/effect-of-gabapentin-memantine-on-the-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome-in-the-zebrafish-model-implications-for-the-therapy-of-ocular-motor-diseases
#1
Stefan Yu Bögli, Maresa Afthinos, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Purpose: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626443/eye-movements-reveal-optimal-strategies-for-analogical-reasoning
#2
Michael S Vendetti, Ariel Starr, Elizabeth L Johnson, Kiana Modavi, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623066/association-of-posterior-semicircular-canal-hypofunction-on-video-head-impulse-testing-with-other-vestibulo-cochlear-deficits
#3
Alexander A Tarnutzer, Christopher J Bockisch, Elena Buffone, Konrad P Weber
OBJECTIVES: The video-head-impulse test (vHIT) provides a functional assessment of all six semicircular canals (SCC). Occasionally isolated loss of the posterior canal(s) (ILPC) is diagnosed, though this finding is poorly characterized. Here we assessed how accurate that diagnosis is by measuring the co-occurrence of abnormalities on caloric irrigation, vestibular-evoked myogenic-potentials and audiometry. METHODS: We identified 52 patients with ILPC (unilateral=40, bilateral=12)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619435/video-head-impulse-test-can-detect-brainstem-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Ivan Pavlović, Berislav Ruška, Tin Pavičić, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Luka Crnošija, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of video head impulse test (vHIT) in the detection of brainstem lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Sixty-eight participants were enrolled and divided into two groups: 39 healthy subjects (HC) (78 ears, 20 females, mean age 25,3±6,3) and 29 MS patients (58 ears, 14 females, mean age 33,7±7,7). Both groups underwent vHIT, and in MS group MRI was analyzed for the presence of brainstem lesions...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619425/using-endogenous-saccades-to-characterize-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Marisa Ferreira, Paulo A Pereira, Marta Parreira, Inês Sousa, José Figueiredo, João J Cerqueira, Antonio F Macedo
PURPOSE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617929/age-effects-on-saccadic-adaptation-evidence-from-different-paradigms-reveals-specific-vulnerabilities
#6
Jing Huang, Karl R Gegenfurtner, Alexander C Schütz, Jutta Billino
Saccadic eye movements provide an opportunity to study closely interwoven perceptual, motor, and cognitive changes during aging. Here, we investigated age effects on different mechanisms of saccadic plasticity. We compared age effects in two different adaptation paradigms that tap into low- and high-level adaptation processes. A total of 27 senior adults and 25 young adults participated in our experiments. In our first experiment, we elicited adaptation by a double-step paradigm, which is designed to trigger primarily low-level, gradual motor adaptation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#7
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence shows that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615338/activity-of-primate-v1-neurons-during-the-gap-saccade-task
#8
Kayeon Kim, Choongkil Lee
When a saccadic eye movement is made toward a visual stimulus, the variability in accompanying V1 activity is related to saccade latency in both human (Bompas et al., 2015) and non-human (Lee et al., 2010) primates. In order to understand the nature of this relationship, we examined the functional link between V1 activity and the initiation of visually guided saccades during the gap saccade task, in which a brief temporal gap is interposed between the turning off of a fixation stimulus and the appearance of a saccadic target...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614726/visual-sensitivity-for-luminance-and-chromatic-stimuli-during-the-execution-of-smooth-pursuit-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#9
Doris I Braun, Alexander C Schütz, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216)...
June 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614367/pre-saccadic-perception-separate-time-courses-for-enhancement-and-spatial-pooling-at-the-saccade-target
#10
Antimo Buonocore, Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
We interact with complex scenes using eye movements to select targets of interest. Studies have shown that the future target of a saccadic eye movement is processed differently by the visual system. A number of effects have been reported, including a benefit for perceptual performance at the target ("enhancement"), reduced influences of backward masking ("un-masking"), reduced crowding ("un-crowding") and spatial compression towards the saccade target. We investigated the time course of these effects by measuring orientation discrimination for targets that were spatially crowded or temporally masked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612953/eye-movements-sensori-motor-adaptation-and-cerebellar-dependent-learning-in-autism-towards-potential-biomarkers-and-sub-phenotypes
#11
Edward G Freedman, John J Foxe
Because of the wide range of symptoms expressed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their idiosyncratic severity it is unlikely that a single remedial approach will be universally effective. Resolution of this dilemma requires identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum, based on symptom set and severity, on an underlying neuro-structural difference, and on specific behavioral dysfunction. This will provide critical insight into the disorder and may lead to better diagnoses, and more targeted remediation in these subphenotypes of people with ASD...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612679/influence-of-social-presence-on-eye-movements-in-visual-search-tasks
#12
Na Liu, Ruifeng Yu
This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience...
June 14, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609416/effect-of-stimulus-type-and-motion-on-smooth-pursuit-in-adults-and-children
#13
Valldeflors Vinuela-Navarro, Jonathan T Erichsen, Cathy Williams, J Margaret Woodhouse
PURPOSE: This study presents a two-degree customized animated stimulus developed to evaluate smooth pursuit in children and investigates the effect of its predetermined characteristics (stimulus type and size) in an adult population. Then, the animated stimulus is used to evaluate the impact of different pursuit motion paradigms in children. METHODS: To study the effect of animating a stimulus, eye movement recordings were obtained from 20 young adults while the customized animated stimulus and a standard dot stimulus were presented moving horizontally at a constant velocity...
June 10, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601696/anticipatory-processing-in-social-anxiety-investigation-using-attentional-control-theory
#14
Rachel A Sluis, Mark J Boschen, David L Neumann, Karen Murphy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize anticipatory processing as a prominent maintaining factor occurring before social-evaluative events. While anticipatory processing is a maladaptive process, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie ineffective control of attention are still unclear. The present study tested predictions derived from attentional control theory in a sample of undergraduate students high and low on social anxiety symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599002/social-orienting-and-joint-attention-in-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Martina Franchini, Bronwyn Glaser, Hilary Wood de Wilde, Edouard Gentaz, Stephan Eliez, Marie Schaer
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) orient less to socially salient stimuli, such as dynamic social images, than typically developing children. In turn, this lack of social orienting is thought to impair affected individuals' socio communicative development. Here, we aim to explore the relationship between time spent on dynamic social images and ASD behaviors, such as joint attention and communication, in preschoolers on the autism spectrum. In this study, social orienting is measured using eye-tracking during a task consisting of side-by-side presentations of dynamic social images and dynamic geometric images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592684/trajectory-curvature-in-saccade-sequences-spatiotopic-influences-vs-residual-motor-activity
#16
Geoffrey Mégardon, Casimir Johannes Hendrikus Ludwig, Petroc Sumner
When decisions drive saccadic eye movements, traces of the decision process can be inferred from the movement trajectories. For example, saccades can curve away from distractor stimuli, which was thought to reflect cortical inhibition biasing activity in the Superior Colliculus. Recent neurophysiological work does not support this theory, and two recent models have replaced top-down inhibition with lateral interactions in the Superior Colliculus or neural fatigue in the brainstem Saccadic Burst Generator. All current models operate in retinotopic coordinates and are based on single saccade paradigms...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#17
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578478/smooth-pursuits-decrease-balance-control-during-locomotion-in-young-and-older-healthy-females
#18
Neil M Thomas, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras, Tim Donovan, Andrea Macaluso, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Dynamic balance control-characterised as movement of the trunk and lower limbs-was assessed during fixation of a fixed target, smooth pursuits and saccadic eye movements in ten young (22.9 ± 1.5 years) and ten older (72.1 ± 8.2 years) healthy females walking overground. Participants were presented with visual stimuli to initiate eye movements, and posture and gaze were assessed with motion analysis and eye tracking equipment. The results showed an increase in medial/lateral (ML) trunk movement (C7: p = 0...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#19
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578042/visual-attention-to-food-cues-is-differentially-modulated-by-gustatory-hedonic-and-post-ingestive-attributes
#20
David Garcia-Burgos, Junpeng Lao, Simone Munsch, Roberto Caldara
Although attentional biases towards food cues may play a critical role in food choices and eating behaviours, it remains largely unexplored which specific food attribute governs visual attentional deployment. The allocation of visual attention might be modulated by anticipatory postingestive consequences, from taste sensations derived from eating itself, or both. Therefore, in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the attentional mechanisms involved in the processing of food-related cues, we recorded the eye movements to five categories of well-standardised pictures: neutral non-food, high-calorie, good taste, distaste and dangerous food...
July 2017: Food Research International
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