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Preventative health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735459/diabetes-and-the-hospitalized-patient-a-cluster-analytic-framework-for-characterizing-the-role-of-sex-race-and-comorbidity-from-2006-to-2011
#1
Nisha Nataraj, Julie Simmons Ivy, Fay Cobb Payton, Joseph Norman
In the US, one in four adults has two or more chronic conditions; this population accounts for two thirds of healthcare spending. Comorbidity, the presence of multiple simultaneous health conditions in an individual, is increasing in prevalence and has been shown to impact patient outcomes negatively. Comorbidities associated with diabetes are correlated with increased incidence of preventable hospitalizations, longer lengths of stay (LOS), and higher costs. This study focuses on sex and race disparities in outcomes for hospitalized adult patients with and without diabetes...
July 22, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735447/cost-benefit-analysis-of-two-child-abuse-and-neglect-primary-prevention-programs-for-us-states
#2
Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Robert Thomas, Joanne Klevens
We assessed the US state-level budget and societal impact of implementing two child abuse and neglect (CAN) primary prevention programs. CAN cost estimates and data from two prevention programs (Child-Parent Centers and Nurse-Family Partnership) were combined with current population, cost, and CAN incidence data by US state. A cost-benefit mathematical model for each program by US state compared program costs with the future monetary value of benefits from reduced CAN. The models used a lifetime time horizon from government payer and societal perspectives...
July 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735362/the-role-of-sulforaphane-in-cancer-chemoprevention-and-health-benefits-a-mini-review
#3
Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Narges Baluch, Tina S Homayouni, Zhenya Morgatskaya, Sushil Kumar, Parandis Kazemi, Herman Yeger
Cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from aberrant signaling pathways driving uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells. The development and progression of cancer from a premalignant lesion towards a metastatic tumor requires accumulation of mutations in many regulatory genes of the cell. Different chemopreventative approaches have been sought to interfere with initiation and control malignant progression. Here we present research on dietary compounds with evidence of cancer prevention activity that highlights the potential beneficial effect of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735231/exploring-the-association-between-heat-and-mortality-in-switzerland-between-1995-and-2013
#4
Martina S Ragettli, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Martin Röösli
Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735166/fidelity-in-school-based-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-programs-a-systematic-review
#5
Jenny Lynas, Russell Hawkins
The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the quality of the school-based child sexual abuse prevention education research in terms of implementation fidelity. A comprehensive literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, Education Resource Information Centre (ERIC) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Articles included peer-reviewed, primary research studies related to the delivery of child sexual abuse prevention education programs within school settings published since 1996...
July 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735153/self-monitoring-systems-for-personalised-health-care-and-lifestyle-surveillance
#6
EDITORIAL
Giuseppe Coppini, Sara Colantonio
The quality of life and individual well-being are universally recognised as key factors in disease prevention. In particular, lifestyle interventions are effective tools for reducing the risk and incidence of major illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, patient role is progressively shifting from being a passive recipient of care towards being a co-producer of her/his health. In this frame, novel devices and systems able to help individuals in self-evaluation are expected to play a crucial role...
July 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735052/spa-typing-and-identification-of-pvl-genes-of-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-a-libyan-hospital-in-tripoli
#7
Mohamed O Ahmed, Keith E Baptiste, Mohamed A Daw, Asma K Elramalli, Yousef M Abouzeeda, Andreas Petersen
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from clinical sources in Tripoli, Libya. METHODS: A total of 95 MRSA strains collected at the Tripoli medical Centre were investigated by spa typing and identification of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) genes. RESULTS: A total of 26 spa types were characterized and distributed among nine clonal complexes; CC5 (n=32), CC80 (n=18), CC8 (n=17) and CC22 (n=12) were the most prevalent clonal complexes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734859/provider-health-and-wellness
#8
REVIEW
Anil Nanda, Anita Wasan, James Sussman
Provider health and wellness is a significant issue and can impact patient care, including patient satisfaction, quality of care, medical errors, malpractice risk, as well as provider and office staff turnover and early retirement. Health and wellness encompasses various areas including burnout, depression, divorce, and suicide and affects providers of all specialties and at all levels of training. Providers deal with many everyday stresses, including electronic health records, office politics, insurance and billing issues, dissatisfied patients, and their own personal and family issues...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734823/evaluation-of-early-administration-of-simvastatin-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation-modus-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Valerie J Page, Annalisa Casarin, E Wesley Ely, Xiao Bei Zhao, Cliona McDowell, Lynn Murphy, Daniel F McAuley
BACKGROUND: Delirium in critically ill patients is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Neuroinflammation might be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of delirium, and since simvastatin has anti-inflammatory properties it might reduce delirium. We aimed to establish whether early treatment with simvastatin would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or coma. METHODS: We undertook this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU) in Watford General Hospital (Watford, UK)...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#10
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734517/tuberculosis-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Tania A Thomas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734516/pediatric-human-immunodeficiency-virus-continuum-of-care-a-concise-review-of-evidence-based-practice
#12
REVIEW
Megan E Gray, Phillip Nieburg, Rebecca Dillingham
Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a population that requires a unique approach to HIV care. Prevention, testing, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention and engagement in care are critical steps. Each step requires providers to address age-specific barriers, so that successful and prolonged viral suppression can occur. Adherence to ART, disclosure of HIV-positive status, and stigma are examples of struggles faced by youth, their families, and health care providers...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734507/child-health-and-survival-in-a-changing-world
#13
REVIEW
Donna M Denno, Shadae L Paul
Ninety-nine percent of the 5.9 million annual child deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Undernutrition underlies 45% of deaths. Determinants include access to care, maternal education, and absolute and relative poverty. Socio-political-economic factors and policies tremendously influence health and their determinants. Most deaths can be prevented with interventions that are currently available and recommended for widespread implementation. Millennium Development Goal 4 was not achieved. Sustainable Development Goal 3...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734502/-validation-of-a-prevention-and-detection-procedure-for-physical-and-economic-abuse-of-the-elderly
#14
Marije Goikoetxea Iturregui, Alvaro Moro Inchartieta, Natxo Martínez Rueda
INTRODUCTION: The study carried out for the «Physical and economic abuse sign detection procedure for the elderly in the Basque Country» Pilotage and Validation is described. There barely exist appropriate and validated tools to assist the issue, and the existing ones are hardly adequate for people with cognitive deterioration; therefore, the issue's both visibility in our society and professional intervention are strained. The proposed procedure is a composed by screening tool that determines a likelihood of abuse and an evaluation of signs for determining the abuse practice...
July 19, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734152/trajectories-of-alcohol-use-in-the-uk-military-and-associations-with-mental-health
#15
L Goodwin, S Norton, N T Fear, M Jones, L Hull, S Wessely, R J Rona
INTRODUCTION: There are higher levels of alcohol misuse in the military compared to the general population. Yet there is a dearth of research in military populations on the longitudinal patterns of alcohol use. This study aims to identify group trajectories of alcohol consumption in the UK military and to identify associations with childhood adversity, deployment history and mental disorder. METHODS: Data on weekly alcohol consumption across an eight year period and three phases of a UK military cohort study (n=667) were examined using growth mixture modelling...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734111/adult-interest-in-using-a-hypothetical-modified-risk-tobacco-product-findings-from-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-study-2013-2014
#16
Jennifer L Pearson, Amanda L Johnson, Sarah E Johnson, Cassandra A Stanton, Andrea C Villanti, Raymond S Niaura, Allison M Glasser, Baoguang Wang, David B Abrams, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provides a pathway for manufacturers to market a modified risk tobacco product (MRTP). This study examines sociodemographic and tobacco use correlates of interest in a hypothetical MRTP in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. DESIGN: Cross sectional Wave 1 data from the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. SETTING: Household Audio-Computer Assisted Self-Interviews of U...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734090/sleep-duration-and-progression-to-diabetes-in-people-with-prediabetes-defined-by-hba1c-concentration
#17
Chan-Won Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Eunju Sung, Seungho Ryu
AIMS: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and the risk of progression to diabetes among people with prediabetes, defined by HbA1c values. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in 17 983 adults who underwent health check-up examinations, including assessments of sleep duration and quality. Diabetes was defined as either HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%), or the use of antidiabetic medication. Time-dependent proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and the risk of progression to diabetes...
July 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733944/the-gastric-and-intestinal-microbiome-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#18
REVIEW
Artem Minalyan, Lilit Gabrielyan, David Scott, Jonathan Jacobs, Joseph R Pisegna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of Helicobacter pylori and other organisms colonizing the stomach and the intestines has shed some light on the importance of microbiome in maintaining overall health and developing pathological conditions when alterations in biodiversity are present. The gastric acidity plays a crucial role in filtering out bacteria and preventing development of enteric infections. In this article, we discuss the physiology of gastric acid secretion and bacterial contribution to the composition of gastric and intestinal barriers and review the current literature on the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the microbial biodiversity of the gastrointestinal tract...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733914/molecular-and-functional-analysis-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-support-of-biologics-development
#19
REVIEW
Xin Wang, Zhiqiang An, Wenxin Luo, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment or prevention of many important diseases such as cancers, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. Multi-domain mAbs are far more complex than small molecule drugs with intrinsic heterogeneities. The critical quality attributes of a given mAb, including structure, post-translational modifications, and functions at biomolecular and cellular levels, need to be defined and profiled in details during the developmental phases of a biologics...
July 21, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733787/gatekeepers-perceptions-of-the-quality-and-availability-of-services-for-breast-and-cervical-cancer-patients-in-the-english-speaking-windward-islands-an-exploratory-investigation
#20
Kamilah B Thomas-Purcell, Will L Tarver, Christine Richards, Marva Primus-Joseph
PURPOSE: Although extensive screening services for breast and cervical cancers are available in the Caribbean, these cancers continue to be the leading causes of cancer death among women in this region. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality and availability of breast and cervical cancer treatment care and support services from the perspective of the gatekeepers who provide care for the patients in the Windward Islands of Dominica, Grenada, St Lucia, and St. Vincent. METHODS: A qualitative research design using semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used to gather data from gatekeepers who provided oncology prevention and care services to patients for at least one year...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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