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Ala Simonchyk, Isabelle Darcy
The current study investigated the potential facilitative or inhibiting effects of orthography on the lexical encoding of palatalized consonants in L2 Russian. We hypothesized that learners with stable knowledge of orthographic and metalinguistic representations of palatalized consonants would display more accurate lexical encoding of the plain/palatalized contrast. The participants of the study were 40 American learners of Russian. Ten Russian native speakers served as a control group. The materials of the study comprised 20 real words, familiar to the participants, with target coronal consonants alternating in word-final and intervocalic positions...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Katarzyna Świder, Jacek Matys
After a stroke, patients frequently show compromised swallowing, mastication, and speech, as well as unfavorable motion and deviation of the tongue and mandible. The dentist can improve the oral rehabilitation of a patient with deteriorated facial and oral muscles after a stroke by incorporating orofacial myofunctional therapy. This report describes a method for tongue exercises and correction of mandible deviation in an edentulous patient after a stroke by using a pearl on a wire in the anteriomedian palatal part of the maxillary denture...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Alejandro Peña López, Antonio J Conde, Roberto Estevez, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate porcine palatal mucosa dissolution by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without an auxiliary dissolving agent containing glycocholic acid and a mixture of surfactants (Keratobacter [KB]; Saint Joseph DID, Valencia, Spain). METHODS: One hundred forty samples were obtained from porcine palatal mucosa and weighed using a high-precision balance. The samples were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 35) based on the test solution used: distilled water (the negative control), CanalPro NaOCl 6% (Coltene Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), KB, and a 9:1 vol/vol mixture of NaOCl with KB (NaOCl + KB)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Franz X Bauer, Veronika Heinrich, Florian D Grill, Felix Wölfle, Dennis M Hedderich, Andrea Rau, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Lucas M Ritschl, Denys J Loeffelbein
Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Manas Bajpai, Nilesh Pardhe, Manish Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira, Christian Barros Ferreira, João Adolfo Costa Hanemann, Livia Maris Ribeiro Paranaiba, Patricia Peres Iucif Pereira, Carla Isabelly Rodrigues-Fernandes, Celeste Sánchez-Romero, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Felipe Paiva Fonseca
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder driven by Esptein-Barr virus (EBV) that most commonly affects the lungs, although extra pulmonary sites like the central nervous system, skin, liver and kidney can also be involved. It is microscopically characterized by an angiocentric and angiodestructive growth pattern, predominantly composed by small T-cells, although a smaller population of atypical large B-cells is considered the true neoplastic component. Oral cavity involvement of LYG has rarely been described and the diagnosis of this neoplasm is very difficult...
March 14, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
H Andersson, L Sonnesen
AIMS: This was to compare sleepiness, occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and healthy children (control group). METHODS: 15 children with ADHD (10 boys, 5 girls, mean age 10.98 years) and 36 healthy age matched children (21 boys, 15 girls, mean age 10.60 years) were included. Intra-oral three-dimensional scans of the teeth and palate were performed to evaluate the occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions...
March 14, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Laura M Scorr, Michael R Silver, John Hanfelt, Elaine Sperin, Alan Freeman, H A Jinnah, Stewart A Factor
Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) causes involuntary movements of masticatory and lingual muscles impairing eating, speaking, and swallowing. Treatment options are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNTA) in OMD. A dose-finding study (phase 1) followed by a single session, prospective, single-blind trial (phase 2) was carried out. OMD subjects were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Muscles injected were tailored to individual symptoms using EMG guidance, but the aboBoNTA dose for each muscle was pre-specified based on phase 1 results...
March 14, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
E J Stevenson, A W Watson, J M Brunstrom, B M Corfe, M A Green, A M Johnstone, E A Williams
'Ageing well' has been highlighted as an important research area by the World Health Organization. In the UK, healthy ageing has been identified as a priority research area by multiple Research Councils and is a key NHS priority. Sarcopaenia, the decline of muscle mass/strength and a key component of healthy ageing, can have a major impact on quality of life and is associated with premature mortality. Increasing protein intake at all stages of the life course may help to reduce the rate of muscle decline and the onset of associated health conditions...
March 2018: Nutrition Bulletin
Muhammad Rizwan Nazeer, Farhan Raza Khan, Robia Ghafoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the root canal morphology of maxillary premolars. METHODS: his retrospective study was conducted from November 2016 to January 2017 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and reviewed Cone Beam Computed Tomography images of maxillary first and second premolars done from November 2014 to October 2016. Frequency distribution of Vertucci's classification was determined. Chi square test was applied to determine any association between Vertucci's type and gender...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
A Fjaeldstad, A Niklassen, H Fernandes
The sense of taste holds a key integrate role in assessing the flavour of food before swallowing is initiated. If the expectations for taste are not met, palatability and pleasure of the food can decrease. In patients suffering from taste disorders, this may impair appetite and nutritional state. Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening...
March 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Ana Paula Corrêa de Queiroz Herkrath, Fernando José Herkrath, Maria Augusta Bessa Rebelo, Mario Vianna Vettore
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the structural and intermediary determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adults with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients enrolled at the referral center for craniofacial anomalies in Manaus, Brazil. Adults aged 18 years or more with nonsyndromic CL/P were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Both HRQoL and OHRQoL were assessed using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Charlotta Gustafsson, Arja Heliövaara, Junnu Leikola, Jorma Rautio
OBJECTIVE: Speech-correcting surgeries (pharyngoplasty) are performed to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). This study aimed to analyze the need for speech-correcting surgery in children with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and to determine differences among cleft extent, gender, and primary technique used. In addition, we assessed the timing and number of secondary procedures performed and the incidence of operated fistulas. DESIGN: Retrospective medical chart review study from hospital archives and electronic records...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Sergey Y Turin, Cathy J Tang, Arun K Gosain
The anatomy of the greater palatine foramen has variation with regard to location, but there have been no reports on the absence of a complete foramen. We present 2 cases of pediatric patients with cleft palates possessing a greater palatine "notch" as opposed to a bony foramen. Awareness of this anomaly is advantageous in preventing injury to the greater palatine vessels during palatoplasty.
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Montserrat Diaz, Mar Llorente, Victor Asensi
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), distinguished English professor, is the father of modern demography and the most famous harelip carrier of history. Much is known of his orofacial cleft but nothing regarding its mysterious surgical correction. An 1833 portrait of Malthus by John Linnell, finished when he considered himself "handsome enough," for sitting does not show any upper lip scar. When this surgery took place? Although technically feasible in the 19th century, surgery of cleft lip and palate was complicated...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Mark L Urken, Ansley M Roche, Kimberly J Kiplagat, Eliza H Dewey, Cathy Lazarus, Ilya Likhterov, Daniel Buchbinder, Devin J Okay
BACKGROUND: Palatomaxillary defects were historically restored with a prosthetic obturator; however, advances in local and free tissue transfer has provided a viable alternative for appropriately selected patients with palatomaxillary defects. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent palatomaxillary reconstruction by the lead author between 1998 and 2016 was conducted. Patients who were restored with a palatal obturator were excluded. RESULTS: One hundred forty patients were reconstructed with a total of 159 local, regional, and free flaps with a 96...
March 14, 2018: Head & Neck
Øystein A Haaland, Rolv T Lie, Julia Romanowska, Miriam Gjerdevik, Håkon K Gjessing, Astanand Jugessur
Background: It is widely accepted that cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) results from the complex interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors. However, a robust investigation of these gene-environment (GxE) interactions at a genome-wide level is still lacking for isolated CL/P. Materials and Methods: We used our R-package Haplin to perform a genome-wide search for GxE effects in isolated CL/P. From a previously published GWAS, genotypes and information on maternal periconceptional cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and vitamin use were available on 1908 isolated CL/P triads of predominantly European or Asian ancestry...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Eating disorders and some forms of obesity are characterized by addictive-like, compulsive eating behavior which contains numerous similarities with compulsive drug use. Food intake is in part mediated by reward and reinforcement processes that can become dysregulated in these disorders. Additionally, impairments in inhibitory control regulation of reward-related responding can cause or further exacerbate binge and compulsive eating. Dysfunctions in two neurotransmitter systems in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, dopamine and glutamate, are thought to contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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