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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453460/development-and-initial-characterization-of-a-novel-ghrelin-receptor-crispr-cas9-knockout-wistar-rat-model
#1
L J Zallar, B J Tunstall, C T Richie, Y J Zhang, Z B You, E L Gardner, M Heilig, J Pickel, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, B K Harvey, L Leggio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone implicated in numerous behaviors including feeding, reward, stress, and addictive behaviors, acts by binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Here, we present the development, verification, and initial characterization of a novel GHSR knockout (KO) Wistar rat model created with CRISPR genome editing. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed a GHSR KO in a Wistar background. Loss of GHSR mRNA expression was histologically verified using RNAscope in wild-type (WT; n = 2) and KO (n = 2) rats...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452044/food-addiction-is-associated-with-higher-neuroticism-lower-conscientiousness-higher-impulsivity-but-lower-extraversion-in-obese-patient-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery
#2
Paul Brunault, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Robert Courtois, Céline Bourbao-Tournois, Irène Delbachian, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
BACKGROUND: The "food addiction" phenotype identifies a subpopulation of individuals experiencing substance-dependence symptoms toward specific foods. In the current debate on whether the "food addiction" phenotype should be considered as an addictive disorder, assessment of the personality traits associated with this phenotype would provide arguments for or against the "food addiction" phenotype and its inclusion in the "substance-related and addictive disorder" category...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434542/norepinephrine-in-the-medial-pre-frontal-cortex-supports-accumbens-shell-responses-to-a-novel-palatable-food-in-food-restricted-mice-only
#3
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417489/problematic-eating-behaviors-predict-outcomes-after-bariatric-surgery
#4
Lisa R Miller-Matero, Kelly Bryce, Caroline K Saulino, Kate E Dykhuis, Jeffrey Genaw, Arthur M Carlin
BACKGROUND: There are no clear psychosocial predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative problematic eating behaviors predict weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery. METHODS: Clinical records were utilized to examine outcomes of 101 patients who completed a pre-surgical psychosocial evaluation and underwent gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy. Information analyzed included binge eating history and scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yale Food Addiction Scale, and Emotional Eating Scale...
February 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415851/knowledge-about-nutrition-eating-habits-and-weight-reduction-intervention-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients
#5
Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson, Sarit Herzman-Harari, Einat Peles
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weight was studied. Patients were screened for knowledge about nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Those with a low knowledge score or a BMI ≥26 (n=89) were randomly divided into either intervention (two lectures on healthy nutrition followed by weight monitoring over 6weeks), or controls (weighed at baseline, post-lectures and at study closure)...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414579/molecular-and-elemental-effects-underlying-the-biochemical-action-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-appetite-control
#6
Artur D Surowka, Agata Ziomber, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migliori, Kaja Kasper, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Recent studies highlight that obesity may alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a safe alternative for treating food addiction via modulating cortical excitability without any high-risk surgical procedure to be utilized. As for anodal-type tDCS (atDCS), we observe increased excitability and spontaneous firing of the cortical neurons, whilst for the cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS) a significant decrease is induced...
January 31, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408238/measuring-appetitive-conditioned-responses-in-humans
#7
Margaret C Wardle, Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Shelly B Flagel
Clinical and preclinical findings suggest that individuals with abnormal responses to reward cues (stimuli associated with reward) may be at risk for maladaptive behaviors including obesity, addiction and depression. Our objective was to develop a new paradigm for producing appetitive conditioning using primary (food) rewards in humans, and investigate the equivalency of several outcomes previously used to measure appetitive responses to conditioned cues. We used an individualized food reward, and multimodal subjective, psychophysiological and behavioral measures of appetitive responses to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicted delivery of that food...
February 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405517/activation-of-amylin-receptors-attenuates-alcohol-mediated-behaviours-in-rodents
#8
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol...
February 6, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383940/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-hungarian-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale-for-children
#9
Éva Erzsébet Magyar, Dalma Tényi, Ashley Gearhardt, Sára Jeges, Gallusz Abaligeti, Ákos Levente Tóth, József Janszky, Dénes Molnár, Tamás Tényi, Györgyi Csábi
Background Childhood obesity proves to be an important public health issue, since it serves as a potential risk factor for multiple diseases. Food addiction could also serve as an important etiological factor. As childhood obesity plays a serious issue also in Hungary, we aimed to adapt and validate the Hungarian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (H-YFAS-C). Methods A total of 191 children were assessed with the H-YFAS-C and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The following psychometric properties were analyzed: internal consistency, construct validity, convergent, and discriminant validity...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368800/food-addiction-and-associations-with-mental-health-symptoms-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
T Burrows, F Kay-Lambkin, K Pursey, J Skinner, C Dayas
BACKGROUND: The present study systematically reviewed the literature aiming to determine the relationships between food addiction, as measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and mental health symptoms. METHODS: Nine databases were searched using keywords. Studies were included if they reported: (i) YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and (ii) a mental health outcome, as well as the association between (i) and (ii). In total, 51 studies were included. RESULTS: Through meta-analysis, the mean prevalence of food addiction diagnosis was 16...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355335/the-neuroscience-of-cognitive-motivational-styles-sign-and-goal-trackers-as-animal-models
#11
Martin Sarter, Kyra B Phillips
Cognitive-motivational styles describe predominant patterns of processing or biases that broadly influence human cognition and performance. Here we focus on the impact of cognitive-motivational styles on the response to cues predicting the availability of food or addictive drugs. An individual may preferably conduct an analysis of the motivational significance of reward cues, with the result that such cues per se are perceived as rewarding and worth approaching and working for. Alternatively, a propensity for a "cold" analysis of the behavioral utility of a reward cue may yield search behavior for food or drugs but not involve cue approach...
January 22, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352024/neuropharmacology-of-compulsive-eating
#12
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Julia I Panciera, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341400/are-trans-diagnostic-models-of-eating-disorders-fit-for-purpose-a-consideration-of-the-evidence-for-food-addiction
#13
REVIEW
Janet Treasure, Monica Leslie, Rayane Chami, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Explanatory models for eating disorders have changed over time to account for changing clinical presentations. The transdiagnostic model evolved from the maintenance model, which provided the framework for cognitive behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa. However, for many individuals (especially those at the extreme ends of the weight spectrum), this account does not fully fit. New evidence generated from research framed within the food addiction hypothesis is synthesized here into a model that can explain recurrent binge eating behaviour...
January 17, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337226/glp-1-signaling-and-alcohol-mediated-behaviors-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol addiction, affecting approximately four percent of the population, contributes significantly to the global burden of diseases and is a substantial cost to the society. The neurochemical mechanisms regulating alcohol mediated behaviors is complex and in more recent years a new physiological role of the gut-brain peptides, traditionally known to regulate appetite and food intake, have been suggested. Indeed, regulators of alcohol-mediated behaviors. One of these gut-brain peptides is the annorexigenic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Preclinical studies show that GLP-1 receptor activation, either by GLP-1 or analogues, attenuate the ability of alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system as well as decrease alcohol consumption and operant self-administration...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333880/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-dose-and-dropout-rate
#15
Richard C Crist, James Li, Glenn A Doyle, Alex Gilbert, Bryan M Dechairo, Wade H Berrettini
BACKGROUND: Currently, no pharmacogenetic tests for selecting an opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effects of variants in 11 genes on dropout rate and dose in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315341). METHODS: Variants in six pharmacokinetic genes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) and five pharmacodynamic genes (HTR2A, OPRM1, ADRA2A, COMT, SLC6A4) were genotyped in samples from a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence (n = 764; 68...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309862/escalation-of-liver-malfunctioning-a-step-toward-herbal-awareness
#17
REVIEW
Bushra Sultana, Sadaf Yaqoob, Zohaib Zafar, Haq Nawaz Bhatti
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: About 2 to 5 % of the world's population is suffering from liver toxicity including Pakistan with the second highest rate of hepatitis prevalence. Liver is a vital body organ which not only performs metabolic activities but also aids in detoxification, storage and digestion of food. Now a day's malnutrition, alcohol consumption and drug addiction are major causes of liver diseases throughout the world. In fact, there is no possible outcome to compensate liver malfunction for long term, and transplantation of liver is the only option left after the irretrievable injury of hepatic function...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308584/do-abuse-deterrent-opioid-formulations-work
#18
Richard C Dart, Janetta L Iwanicki, Nabarun Dasgupta, Theodore J Cicero, Sidney H Schnoll
OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review to answer the question, "Does the introduction of an opioid analgesic with abuse deterrent properties result in reduced overall abuse of the drug in the community?" DESIGN: We included opioid analgesics with abuse deterrent properties (hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone) with results restricted to the metasearch term "delayed onset," English language, use in humans, and publication years 2009-2016. All articles that contained data evaluating misuse, abuse, overdose, addiction, and death were included...
November 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301614/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-2-and-3-as-targets-for-treating-nicotine-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Alan J Cross, Robert Anthenelli, Xia Li
Tobacco smoking, driven by the addictive properties of nicotine, continues to be a worldwide health problem. Based on the well-established role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in drug addiction, novel medication development strategies seek to halt nicotine consumption and prevent relapse to tobacco smoking by modulating glutamate transmission. The presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) are key autoreceptors on glutamatergic terminals that maintain glutamate homeostasis...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291424/enhanced-incentive-motivation-in-obesity-prone-rats-is-mediated-by-nac-core-cp-ampars
#20
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Studies in humans suggest that stronger incentive motivational responses to Pavlovian food cues may drive over-consumption leading to and maintaining obesity, particularly in susceptible individuals. However, whether this enhanced incentive motivation emerges as a consequence of obesity or rather precedes obesity is unknown. Moreover, while human imaging studies have provided important information about differences in striatal responsiveness between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, the neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral differences are unknown...
December 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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