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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301369/-should-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-be-prescribed-benzodiazepines-no
#1
Robert L DuPont
Patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) should not use benzodiazepines to treat anxiety, insomnia, or anything else, for the same reasons that they should not drink any alcohol or use other drugs, regardless of their primary drug used. Once the addiction "switch" is thrown on, it never again goes off. This question has additional relevance today because in 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration put black box warnings on all benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics about the serious risks associated with their concomitant use...
March 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298165/high-throughput-patch-clamp-screening-in-human-%C3%AE-6-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#2
Lucas C Armstrong, Glenn E Kirsch, Nikolai B Fedorov, Caiyun Wu, Yuri A Kuryshev, Abby L Sewell, Zhiqi Liu, Arianne L Motter, Carmine S Leggett, Michael S Orr
Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296947/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-tcs1102-does-not-affect-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking
#3
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Gavan P McNally, Kelly J Clemens
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for appetitive motivation towards multiple drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Both OX1 and OX2 receptors individually have been shown to influence nicotine self-administration and reinstatement. Due to the increasing clinical use of dual orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of disorders such as insomnia, we examined whether a dual orexin receptor antagonist may also be effective in reducing nicotine seeking. We tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294965/differences-in-dietary-preferences-personality-and-mental-health-in-australian-adults-with-and-without-food-addiction
#4
Tracy Burrows, Leanne Hides, Robyn Brown, Christopher V Dayas, Frances Kay-Lambkin
Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291693/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-ligand-targeting-the-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-for-drug-delivery-to-lung-cancer
#5
Guo Li, Philip S Low
A well-established approach to developing new imaging agents and treatments for cancer begins with the recognition of receptors that are overexpressed in cancer cells. Ideally, these same receptors would also be absent, or minimally expressed, in healthy tissue. The mu (μ) and delta (δ) opioid receptors (MOR and DOR respectively) match these criteria, with expression in cancer cells that is higher than primary lung epithelial cells. Naltrexone is a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of alcohol dependence or prevention of relapse from opioid addiction...
June 28, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281329/addiction-an-underestimated-problem-in-psoriasis-healthcare
#6
A Zink, M Herrmann, T Fischer, F Lauffer, N Garzorz-Stark, A Böhner, C D Spinner, T Biedermann, K Eyerich
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of enormous socio-economic impact. Despite approval of numerous highly efficient and costly therapies, a minor proportion of severely affected patients actually receives sufficient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether addictions are associated with psoriasis and to develop evidence-based recommendations for dermatologists in their daily clinical practice in order to improve medical assessment of psoriasis and patients' quality of life...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271453/effects-of-a-food-specific-inhibition-training-in-individuals-with-binge-eating-disorder-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Eva Speer, Kathrin Schag, Elisabeth Johanna Leehr, Stephan Zipfel
PURPOSE: Impulsivity might contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) show an impulsive eating pattern characterized by regular binge eating episodes. Novel behavioral interventions increasing inhibitory control could improve eating behavior in BED. We piloted a novel food-specific inhibition training in individuals with BED. METHODS: N = 22 BED patients according to SCID-I were randomly assigned to three sessions of a training or control condition...
March 7, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265716/don-t-stress-about-crf-assessing-the-translational-failures-of-crf1antagonists
#8
REVIEW
Samantha R Spierling, Eric P Zorrilla
BACKGROUND: Dr. Athina Markou sought treatments for a common neural substrate shared by depression and drug dependence. Antagonists of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, a target of interest to her, have not reached the clinic despite strong preclinical rationale and sustained translational efforts. METHODS: We explore potential causes for the failure of CRF1 antagonists and review recent findings concerning CRF-CRF1 systems in psychopathology. RESULTS: Potential causes for negative outcomes include (1) poor safety and efficacy of initial drug candidates due to bad pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties, (2) specificity problems with preclinical screens, (3) the acute nature of screens vs...
March 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262144/online-social-networking-addiction-among-college-students-in-singapore-comorbidity-with-behavioral-addiction-and-affective-disorder
#9
Catherine So-Kum Tang, Yvaine Yee Woen Koh
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262131/what-is-in-a-name-is-food-addiction-a-misnomer
#10
REVIEW
Shae-Leigh Vella, Nagesh Pai
Recently interest in the phenomenon of food addiction has increased substantially since the inclusion of gambling disorder in the DSM-5. However the phenomenon of food addiction remains controversial and the designation continues to lack clear consideration. Few researchers have offered an explicit theoretical definition of the phenomenon which is fundamental; as it not only pertains to the aetiology it also directs research and management of the phenomenon. Therefore this review explores 'what is in a name'? Specifically possible aetiologies of food addiction, eating addiction and food addiction as an eating disorder are reviewed and the potential DSM-5 classification espoused...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261067/palatable-hyper-caloric-foods-impact-on-neuronal-plasticity
#11
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Morin, Luis F Rodríguez-Durán, Kioko Guzmán-Ramos, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Guillaume Ferreira, Sofia Diaz-Cintra, Gustavo Pacheco-López
Neural plasticity is an intrinsic and essential characteristic of the nervous system that allows animals "self-tuning" to adapt to their environment over their lifetime. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system is a form of neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory formation, as well as long-lasting, environmentally-induced maladaptive behaviors, such as drug addiction and overeating of palatable hyper-caloric (PHc) food. In western societies, the abundance of PHc foods has caused a dramatic increase in the incidence of overweight/obesity and related disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242592/perceptions-of-menthol-cigarettes-among-twitter-users-content-and-sentiment-analysis
#12
Shyanika W Rose, Catherine L Jo, Steven Binns, Melissa Buenger, Sherry Emery, Kurt M Ribisl
BACKGROUND: Menthol cigarettes are used disproportionately by African American, female, and adolescent smokers. Twitter is also used disproportionately by minority and younger populations, providing a unique window into conversations reflecting social norms, behavioral intentions, and sentiment toward menthol cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to identify the content and frequency of conversations about menthol cigarettes, including themes, populations, user smoking status, other tobacco or substances, tweet characteristics, and sentiment...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240173/personalized-medicine-of-alcohol-addiction-pharmacogenomics-and-beyond
#13
Vangelis George Manolopoulos, Georgia Ragia
Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the most severe form of problem drinking. A variety of treatment methods for alcoholism are currently available that combine medications, behavioral treatment and peer support. The drugs that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of alcohol dependence are disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that different factors, both psychosocial and economic, as well as genetic variation, are significant contributors to interindividual variation both of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment...
February 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236739/food-addiction-in-children-associations-with-obesity-parental-food-addiction-and-feeding-practices
#14
T Burrows, J Skinner, M A Joyner, J Palmieri, K Vaughan, A N Gearhardt
Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ)...
February 16, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214679/estradiol-is-a-critical-regulator-of-food-reward-behavior
#15
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Rozita H Anderberg, Kajsa Olandersson, Karolina P Skibicka
Food intake is reduced by estrogenic hormones, levels of which vary throughout life and fluctuate throughout the ovarian cycle in females. However, estrogens have also been shown to increase reward derived from drugs of abuse, where motivational properties of drugs and progression to addiction are potentiated by estrogens. Whether reward derived from food, and specifically motivational properties of food, are altered by estrogens remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of the estrous cycle on food reward behavior and show estrous cycle dictated variability in food motivation, measured by progressive ratio operant conditioning, in female rats...
January 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212499/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-dsm-5-yale-food-addiction-scale-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#16
Paul Brunault, Robert Courtois, Ashley N Gearhardt, Philippe Gaillard, Kevin Journiac, Sarah Cathelain, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
OBJECTIVE: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the only questionnaire that assesses food addiction (FA) based on substance dependence criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Following recent updating of addiction criteria, a new DSM-5 version (YFAS 2.0) has been developed. Our study tested the psychometric properties of the French YFAS 2.0 in a nonclinical population. METHOD: We assessed 330 nonclinical participants for FA (French YFAS 2...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#17
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192219/a-qualitative-study-of-overweight-and-obese-australians-views-of-food-addiction
#18
A J Cullen, A Barnett, P A Komesaroff, W Brown, K S O'Brien, W Hall, A Carter
The concept of food addiction is increasingly used in the academic literature and popular media to explain some forms of overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on how this term is understood by and impacts overweight and obese individuals. This qualitative study investigated the views of overweight and obese individuals on food addiction, and its likely impact upon stigma, treatment-seeking, and support for public policies to reduce overeating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 overweight and obese individuals (Mage = 38, MBMI = 33, 74% female) and analysed thematically...
February 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188737/genetic-variation-in-the-behavioral-effects-of-buprenorphine-in-female-mice-derived-from-a-murine-model-of-the-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism
#19
Caroline A Browne, Rebecca L Erickson, Julie A Blendy, Irwin Lucki
Pharmacogenetic studies have identified the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (A118G) in the human mu opioid receptor (MOR) gene (OPRM1) as a critical genetic variant capable of altering the efficacy of opioid therapeutics. To date few studies have explored the potential impact of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism on the pharmacological effects of buprenorphine (BPN), a potent MOR partial agonist and kappa opioid receptor antagonist, which is approved by the FDA for the treatment of opioid addiction and chronic pain...
February 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#20
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
December 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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