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Food addiction

Adrian Meule, Martina de Zwaan, Astrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and constitutes a common risk factor for a range of behaviors associated with poor self-control (e.g., substance use or binge eating). The short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsive behaviors related to attentional (inability to focus attention or concentrate), motor (acting without thinking), and non-planning (lack of future orientation or forethought) impulsivity. Eating-related measures appear to be particularly related to attentional and motor impulsivity and recent findings suggest that interactive effects between these two facets may play a role in eating- and weight-regulation...
October 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Natalie J Loxton, Renée J Tipman
Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Adrian Meule, Astrid Müller, Ashley N Gearhardt, Jens Blechert
The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) measures addiction-like eating of palatable foods based on the seven diagnostic criteria for substance dependence in the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Most recently, a new version of the YFAS has been developed based on the revised eleven diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder in DSM-5. This YFAS 2.0 was translated into German and used among other measures in a study with 455 university students (89% female) and in a study with 138 obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery (78% female)...
October 4, 2016: Appetite
Antonio Ferragud, Adam D Howell, Catherine F Moore, Tina L Ta, Marius C Hoener, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive, binge eating of highly palatable food constitutes a core feature of some forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as of the recently proposed disorder of food addiction. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a highly conserved G-protein-coupled receptor bound by endogenous trace amines. TAAR1 agonists have been shown to reduce multiple behavioral effects of drugs of abuse through their actions on the mesocorticolimbic system. In this study, we hypothesized that TAAR1 may play a role in compulsive, binge-like eating; we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of a TAAR1 agonist, RO5256390, in multiple excessive feeding-related behaviors induced by limiting access to a highly palatable diet in rats...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Johannes Hofmann, Adrian Meule, Julia Reichenberger, Daniel Weghuber, Elisabeth Ardelt-Gattinger, Jens Blechert
Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michio Takemura
Research on kleptomania has lagged behind that of other mental disorders, and very few clinicians specialize in treating such patients. Futhermore, the descriptive outline of kleptomania in the DSM-5 is vague. In 2008, we started a registration system for patients suffering from habitual theft, which has recorded 1430 cases since its inauguration. In this report, we explain the concept of kleptomania and describe our clinical experience in the treatment of patients suffering from this mental disorder. The most frequent complication of kleptomania was found to be eating disorder (especially bulimia)...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
D Peleg-Raibstein, G Sarker, K Litwan, S D Krämer, S M Ametamey, R Schibli, C Wolfrum
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal overnutrition and increased risk of the progeny for the development of obesity as well as psychiatric disorders. Animal studies have shown results regarding maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and a greater risk of the offspring to develop obesity. However, it still remains unknown whether maternal HFD can program the central reward system in such a way that it will imprint long-term changes that will predispose the offspring to addictive-like behaviors that may lead to obesity...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Kathrin Schag, Elisabeth J Leehr, Eva-Maria Skoda, Sandra Becker, Stephan Zipfel, Katrin E Giel
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1...
September 29, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Maria E Secci, Julie A Factor, Charles W Schindler, Leigh V Panlilio
RATIONALE: The choice to seek immediate drug effects instead of more meaningful but delayed rewards is a defining feature of addiction. OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of this behavior, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the prescription opioid oxycodone (50 μg/kg) and delayed delivery of palatable food pellets. RESULTS: Rats preferred food at delays up to 30 s, but they chose oxycodone and food equally at 60-s delay and preferred oxycodone over food at 120-s delay...
September 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler, Mark G Packard
Previous research has indicated a role for the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in acquisition and retrieval of habit memory. However, the neurobiological mechanisms guiding extinction of habit memory have not been extensively investigated. The present study examined whether the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is involved in extinction of habit memory in a food-rewarded response learning version of the plus-maze in adult male Long-Evans rats (experiment 1). In addition, to determine whether the role of this brain region in extinction is selective to habit memory, we also examined whether the DLS is required for extinction of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in a place learning version of the plus-maze (experiment 2)...
September 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Wayne Sutherland, Caroline Horwath, Sven Vanneste
Obesity is among the greatest challenges facing healthcare systems with 20% of the world's population afflicted. Great controversy exists whether obesity can be regarded as an addictive disorder or not. Recently the Yale Food Addiction Scale questionnaire has been developed as a tool to identify individuals with traits of addiction towards food. Using clinical and source localized EEG data we dichotomize obesity. Brain activity in food-addicted and non-food-addicted obese people is compared to alcohol-addicted and non-addicted lean controls...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kalyan N Rao, Alena M Sentir, Eric A Engleman, Richard L Bell, Leslie A Hulvershorn, Alan Breier, R Andrew Chambers
RATIONAL: Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes...
September 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
David N Kearns, Jung S Kim, Brendan J Tunstall, Alan Silberberg
This study investigated the relationship between reinforcer value and choice between cocaine and two non-drug alternative reinforcers in rats. The essential value (EV, a behavioral economic measure based on elasticity of demand) of intravenous cocaine and food (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) was determined in the first phase of each experiment. Food had higher EV than cocaine, whereas the EVs of cocaine and saccharin did not differ. In the second phase of each experiment, rats were allowed to make mutually exclusive choices between cocaine and the non-drug alternative reinforcer...
September 14, 2016: Addiction Biology
Adina R Lemeshow, Ashley N Gearhardt, Jeanine M Genkinger, William R Corbin
BACKGROUND: While food addiction is well accepted in popular culture and mainstream media, its scientific validity as an addictive behavior is still under investigation. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using data from two community-based convenience samples. METHODS: We assessed the internal and test-retest reliability of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, and estimated the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using the Yale Food Addiction Scale as the benchmark...
August 25, 2016: Eating Behaviors
Lisa A Briand, Andre U Deutschmann, Alexandra S Ellis, Anne Q Fosnocht
Addiction is associated with changes in synaptic plasticity mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors at synapses within the nucleus accumbens. Exposure to cocaine can lead to protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and this phosphorylation event leads to the internalization of GluA2-containing AMPARs, which are calcium-impermeable. However, it is not clear whether this internalization is necessary for the expression of addictive phenotypes...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Mark R Williams, Denham S Ward, Douglas Carlson, Joseph Cravero, Franklin Dexter, Jenifer R Lightdale, Keira P Mason, James Miner, John J Vargo, John W Berkenbosch, Randall M Clark, Isabelle Constant, Raymond Dionne, Robert H Dworkin, David Gozal, David Grayzel, Michael G Irwin, Jerrold Lerman, Robert E O'Connor, Pratik Pandharipande, Bob A Rappaport, Richard R Riker, Joseph R Tobin, Dennis C Turk, Rebecca S Twersky, Daniel I Sessler
The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research, established by the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, convened a meeting of sedation experts from a variety of clinical specialties and research backgrounds with the objective of developing recommendations for procedural sedation research. Four core outcome domains were recommended for consideration in sedation clinical trials: (1) safety, (2) efficacy, (3) patient-centered and/or family-centered outcomes, and (4) efficiency...
September 12, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Christopher J Bryan, David S Yeager, Cintia P Hinojosa, Aimee Chabot, Holly Bergen, Mari Kawamura, Fred Steubing
What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kymberle Landrum Sterling, Craig S Fryer, Ian Pagano, Pebbles Fagan
INTRODUCTION: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it would regulate little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) and expressed concern about the concomitant use of combustible tobacco products. To understand LCC use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers, we assessed (1) the prevalence of concomitant use of subtypes of LCCs: LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC- poly use, which includes use of both LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunt and (2) and its association with sociodemographic factors and substance use behaviors using race/ethnicity and gender stratified models...
July 6, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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