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Functional neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245126/geographic-and-social-disparities-in-exposure-to-air-neurotoxicants-at-u-s-public-schools
#1
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Children are especially vulnerable to the health and developmental impacts of environmental hazards and they spend significant portions of their days at school. Yet there are no national-level studies examining school-level environmental inequalities and few have examined disparate exposure to neurological air toxicants, even though chronic exposure to air pollution impacts children's brain functioning. We paired information about the geographic locations and demographics of each public school in the US with air neurotoxicant exposure estimates pertaining to 24 known neurotoxicants included in the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244234/mechanisms-of-caspr2-antibodies-in-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-neuromyotonia
#2
Kristina R Patterson, Josep Dalmau, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies to the cell adhesion molecule Caspr2 in acquired neuromyotonia and autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: Caspr2 positive samples were confirmed using a cell-based assay, and their IgG subtypes were determined by ELISA and cell-based assay. A solid phase binding assay quantified the binding of Caspr2 to contactin-2 in the presence of Caspr2 autoantibodies. Living cultures of primary rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with Caspr2-positive or control sera and the distribution of Caspr2-positive immunofluorescent puncta and total surface Caspr2 were quantified...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244098/clemastine-rescues-myelination-defects-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-hypoxic-brain-injury
#3
Bruce A C Cree, Jianqin Niu, Kimberly K Hoi, Chao Zhao, Scott D Caganap, Roland G Henry, Dang Q Dao, Daniel R Zollinger, Feng Mei, Yun-An A Shen, Robin J M Franklin, Erik M Ullian, Lan Xiao, Jonah R Chan, Stephen P J Fancy
Hypoxia can injure brain white matter tracts, comprised of axons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, leading to cerebral palsy in neonates and delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) in adults. In these conditions, white matter injury can be followed by myelin regeneration, but myelination often fails and is a significant contributor to fixed demyelinated lesions, with ensuing permanent neurological injury. Non-myelinating oligodendrocyte precursor cells are often found in lesions in plentiful numbers, but fail to mature, suggesting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation arrest as a critical contributor to failed myelination in hypoxia...
December 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243532/use-of-transcranial-direct-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#4
Maria Pontillo, Floriana Costanzo, Deny Menghini, Roberto Averna, Ornella Santonastaso, Maria Cristina Tata, Stefano Vicari
Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that affects approximately 1% of the population. Negative symptoms are among the major determinants of the functional impairment and a significant proportion of patients with negative symptoms will continue to experience these symptoms despite antipsychotic medications. There are promising results in the application of brain stimulation, particularly transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for the reduction of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, findings are still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243370/neurological-nutritional-and-alcohol-consumption-factors-underlie-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-alcoholism
#5
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243182/the-facial-nerve-anatomy-and-associated-disorders-for-oral-health-professionals
#6
Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Mounir Ghabriel
The facial nerve, the seventh cranial nerve, is of great clinical significance to oral health professionals. Most published literature either addresses the central connections of the nerve or its peripheral distribution but few integrate both of these components and also highlight the main disorders affecting the nerve that have clinical implications in dentistry. The aim of the current study is to provide a comprehensive description of the facial nerve. Multiple aspects of the facial nerve are discussed and integrated, including its neuroanatomy, functional anatomy, gross anatomy, clinical problems that may involve the nerve, and the use of detailed anatomical knowledge in the diagnosis of the site of facial nerve lesion in clinical neurology...
December 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243061/neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-via-mediating-autophagy-and-inflammation
#7
Lifa Huang, Chengwei Chen, Xin Zhang, Xu Li, Zupeng Chen, Chao Yang, Xiaolong Liang, Guochong Zhu, Zhen Xu
Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, has drawn attention for its effective bioactivities against ischemia-induced injury. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and investigate the underlying mechanism that mediates autophagy and inflammation in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Curcumin was delivered to Sprague Dawley male rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg curcumin by intraperitoneal injection 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242088/voluntarily-induced-vomiting-a-yoga-technique-to-enhance-pulmonary-functions-in-healthy-humans
#8
Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Ramesh Mavathur Nanjundaiah, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath
Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241946/youth-with-psychogenic-non-syncopal-collapse-have-more-somatic-and-psychiatric-symptoms-and-lower-perceptions-of-peer-relationships-than-youth-with-syncope
#9
Geoffrey L Heyer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. METHODS: Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241837/kinases-in-synaptic-development-and-neurological-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Lucas Baltussen, Flavia Rosianu, Sila Ultanir
Neuronal morphogenesis and synapse development is essential for building a functioning nervous system and defects in these processes are associated with neurological disorders. Our understanding of molecular components and signalling events that contribute to neuronal development and pathogenesis is limited. Genes associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases provide entry points for elucidating molecular events that contribute to these conditions. Several protein kinases, enzymes that regulate protein function by phosphorylating their substrates, are genetically linked to neurological disorders...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241812/exploiting-the-therapeutic-potential-of-ready-to-use-drugs-repurposing-antibiotics-against-amyloid-aggregation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Sergio B Socias, Florencia Gonzalez-Lizarraga, Cesar L Avila, Cecilia Vera, Leonardo Acuña, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rosana N Chehin
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and progressive disorders that affect specific regions of the brain, causing gradual disability and suffering that results in a complete inability of patients to perform daily functions. Amyloid aggregation of specific proteins is the most common biological event that is responsible for neuronal death and neurodegeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic agents capable of interfering with the abnormal aggregation are required, but traditional drug discovery has fallen short...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241177/surgical-management-of-recurrent-intracranial-gliomas
#12
Sherise D Ferguson, Eric N Momin, Jeffrey S Weinberg
In cases of recurrent gliomas, the treatment options are limited and not yet standardized. Choices usually include re-operation, systemic chemotherapy, salvage re-irradiation, and supportive care, which can be used either separately or in combination. From a surgical perspective, management of recurrent brain tumor poses a significant challenge, as the desire to attain aggressive lesion resection must be balanced against the need to preserve neurological functions and to maximize the quality of life. Additionally, specific practical difficulties in performing repeat craniotomies and significant risk of perioperative morbidity in such cases necessitate careful selection of the optimal candidates for surgery...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#13
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241170/rationale-for-aggressive-resection-and-general-surgical-principles-for-intracranial-gliomas
#14
Ian E McCutcheon, Mikhail F Chernov
Given the infiltrative nature of gliomas, controversy has long persisted over the value of their aggressive surgical removal. Nevertheless, in recent decades, the balance of opinion in neurosurgical oncology has shifted from a more nihilistic view that led to many patients' receiving stereotactic biopsy or very limited debulking of lesions for tissue diagnosis only, to more extensive tumor resections which relieve mass effect, lower intracranial pressure, reduce accompanying brain edema, and attenuate dependence on steroids...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240971/functional-limitation-of-the-masticatory-system-in-patients-with-bulbar-involvement-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Nina Riera-Punet, Jordi Martinez-Gomis, Eva Willaert, Monica Povedano, Maria Peraire
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with bulbar dysfunction affects the motor neurons responsible for controlling the muscles in the jaw, face, soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and tongue. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the functional limitation of the jaw in patients with ALS and bulbar dysfunction who had upper motor neurons (UMN), lower motor neurons (LMN) or balanced involvement. One hundred and fifty three patients with ALS and 23 controls were included. All participants answered using the eight-item Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS-8)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240838/recognized-focused-practice-does-sub-specialty-designation-offer-value-to-the-neurosurgeon
#16
Maya A Babu, Linda M Liau, Fredric B Meyer
Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240648/reliable-new-measures-capturing-low-frequency-fluctuations-from-resting-state-functional-mri
#17
Jae-Chang Kim, Sunghyon Kyeong
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is one of the most important neuroimaging modalities for investigating alterations in the resting-state networks of the human brain, given that abnormal neural activity during the resting state is associated with neurological disorders. However, neuroimaging results obtained from rsfMRI have rarely been replicated with repeated measurements. Therefore, we aimed to develop new measures to extract highly reliable and reproducible functional neuroimaging metrics from rsfMRI data...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239832/magnetic-resonance-elastography-for-examining-developmental-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Curtis L Johnson, Eva H Telzer
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a quantitative imaging technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue mechanical properties, and has recently emerged as a valuable tool for neuroimaging. The measured mechanical properties reflect the microstructural composition and organization of neural tissue, and have shown significant effects in many neurological conditions and normal, healthy aging, and evidence has emerged supporting novel relationships between mechanical structure and cognitive function. The sensitivity of MRE to brain structure, function, and health make it an ideal technique for studying the developing brain; however, brain MRE studies on children and adolescents have only just begun...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239063/stimulating-neural-plasticity-with-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-huntington-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Marina Papoutsi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Douglas Langbehn, Ralf Reilmann, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Novel methods that stimulate neuroplasticity are increasingly being studied to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. We sought to determine whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback training is feasible in Huntington's disease (HD), and assess any factors that contribute to its effectiveness. In this proof-of-concept study, we used this technique to train 10 patients with HD to volitionally regulate the activity of their supplementary motor area (SMA). We collected detailed behavioral and neuroimaging data before and after training to examine changes of brain function and structure, and cognitive and motor performance...
December 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238959/cognition-in-childhood-dystonia-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Maraike A Coenen, Hendriekje Eggink, Marina A Tijssen, Jacoba M Spikman
AIM: Cognitive impairments have been established as part of the non-motor phenomenology of adult dystonia. In childhood dystonia, the extent of cognitive impairments is less clear. This systematic review aims to present an overview of the existing literature to elucidate the cognitive profile of primary and secondary childhood dystonia. METHOD: Studies focusing on cognition in childhood dystonia were searched in MEDLINE and PsychInfo up to October 2017. We included studies on idiopathic and genetic forms of dystonia as well as dystonia secondary to cerebral palsy and inborn errors of metabolism...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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