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Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease

Geun Hee Seol, Ka Young Kim
Patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and neurological diseases have been shown to benefit from treatments such as aromatherapy in addition to medication. Most chronic diseases are caused by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as well as harmful factors. Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), a terpenoid oxide isolated from Eucalyptus species, is a promising compound for treating such conditions as it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various diseases, including respiratory disease, pancreatitis, colon damage, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bryan J Mathis, Taixing Cui
There has been a continued interest in translational research focused on both natural products and manipulation of functional groups on these compounds to create novel derivatives with higher desired activities. Oleanolic acid, a component of traditional Chinese medicine used in hepatitis therapy, was modified by chemical processes to form 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO). This modification increased anti-inflammatory activity significantly and additional functional groups on the CDDO backbone have shown promise in treating conditions ranging from kidney disease to obesity to diabetes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shankar Suman, Yogeshwer Shukla
Diallyl sulfide (C6H10S, DAS) is one of the novel natural organosulfur compounds, which is mostly obtained from the genus Allium plants. Numerous studies have revealed several unique properties of DAS in terms of its health-promoting effects. DAS has proved to be anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory like unique functions as demonstrated by the multiple investigations. Diallyl sulfide can also impede oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as suggested by the literature. Studies also explored that DAS could thwart the development of chronic diseases like cancer, neuronal, cardiovascular disease through modulating mechanistic pathways involved in pathogenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Nihal Ocak, Melahat Dirican, Alparslan Ersoy, Emre Sarandol
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) including kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Secondary lipid metabolism disorders, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation enhance the risk of CVD development in these patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in KTR and to compare these parameters with those of the patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), hemodialysis (HD) patients, and healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Ummugulsum Can, Muammer Buyukinan, Asuman Guzelant, Ayse Ugur, Adnan Karaibrahimoglu, Sukrıye Yabancıun
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic and multifactorial syndrome characterized by a low-grade chronic inflammation, and a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In our study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG), platelet factor-4 (PF-4), fetuin-A, serum amyloid P (SAP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in an adolescent population with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yanina Timasheva, Timur Nasibullin, Elvira Imaeva, Gulchagra Mirsaeva, Olga Mustafina
OBJECTIVE: Systemic inflammation and impaired function of endothelium play a significant role in the development of blood pressure elevation. The population of Tatars residing in the Volga-Ural region of Russia is characterized by a unique combination of European and Asian genetic ancestry, and is an interesting object for genetic study. Our aim was to analyze an association between essential hypertension and the polymorphic markers of genes encoding for molecules involved in blood pressure control and the regulation of endothelial function and inflammation in the group of 530 Tatars from the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Farag E Salama, Qasem A Anass, Abdelnaem A Abdelrahman, Elsayed B Saeed
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness are useful markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and significantly correlate with various metabolic risk factors. Chemerin is one of the adipokines that may represent a link between obesity and inflammation and may be a potential candidate playing a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Therefore, we studied the relationship of chemerin levels with atherosclerosis as measured by CIMT in diabetic CKD patients, either predialysis or on hemodialysis (HD)...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Natália A Borges, Amanda F Barros, Lia S Nakao, Carla J Dolenga, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
OBJECTIVE: Protein-bound uremic toxins from gut microbiota tend to accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and are poorly removed by current dialysis techniques. These toxins induce inflammation and are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to report the relationship between uremic toxins and inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in CKD patients. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one nondialysis patients were included (43% men, 63...
November 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Andrea Matucci, Francesca Nencini, Sara Pratesi, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents have been a treatment option for many chronic immune-mediated diseases as well as oncological conditions. The issue of infusion reactions is of particular importance and at least in some cases related to the immunogenicity of these drugs with the production of antidrug antibodies. Infectious diseases are a well described side-effect of certain biological agents, even if, at least regarding the biological agents used for the treatment of allergic diseases and immune-mediated diseases, the risk has been reduced...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Irina D Strazhesko, Olga N Tkacheva, Dariga U Akasheva, Ekaterina N Dudinskaya, Ekaterina V Plokhova, Valentina S Pykhtina, Anna S Kruglikova, Natalia V Kokshagina, Natalia V Sharashkina, Mikhail V Agaltsov, Daria A Kashtanova, Vladimir A Vygodin, Irina N Ozerova, Dmitry A Skvortsov, Daria Vasilkova, Sergey A Boytsov
Background: Telomerase activity (TA) is considered as the biomarker for cardiovascular aging and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recent studies suggest a link between statins and telomere biology that may be explained by anti-inflammatory actions of statins and their positive effect on TA. Until now, this effect has not been investigated in prospective randomized studies. We hypothesized that 12 months of atorvastatin therapy increased TA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled study 100 hypercholesterolemic patients, aged 35-75 years, free of known CVDs and diabetes mellitus type 2 received 20 mg of atorvastatin daily or placebo for 12 months...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shai S Shen-Orr, David Furman, Brian A Kidd, Francois Hadad, Patricia Lovelace, Ying-Wen Huang, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Sally Mackey, Fatemeh A Gomari Grisar, Yishai Pickman, Holden T Maecker, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Cornelia L Dekker, Joseph C Wu, Atul J Butte, Mark M Davis
Chronic inflammation, a decline in immune responsiveness, and reduced cardiovascular function are all associated with aging, but the relationships among these phenomena remain unclear. Here, we longitudinally profiled a total of 84 signaling conditions in 91 young and older adults and observed an age-related reduction in cytokine responsiveness within four immune cell lineages, most prominently T cells. The phenotype can be partially explained by elevated baseline levels of phosphorylated STAT (pSTAT) proteins and a different response capacity of naive versus memory T cell subsets to interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon α (IFN-α), and, to a lesser extent, IL-21 and IFN-γ...
October 12, 2016: Cell Systems
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Amalia De Curtis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
Low-grade inflammation is associated with increased risk of chronic degenerative disease but its relationship with mortality is less explored. We aimed at evaluating, at a large epidemiological level, the possible association of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score, with overall mortality risk. We conducted a population-based prospective investigation on 20,337 adult subjects free from major haematological disease and acute inflammatory status, randomly recruited from the general population of the Moli-sani study...
October 14, 2016: Haematologica
JoAnn Trial, Lawrence A Potempa, Mark L Entman
The participation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in host defense against microorganisms has been well described. More controversial has been its role in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Our recent publications explain the reasons for some of the confusion concerning CRP as a risk factor for disease and whether it is pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. We found that two isoforms of CRP, pentameric (pCRP) and monomeric (mCRP), on microparticles (MPs), were not measureable by standard clinical assays...
2016: Inflammation and Cell Signaling
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