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Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925931/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-serum-biomarkers-in-patients-with-t2dm-and-advanced-ckd
#1
Mohammed A I Al-Obaide, Ruchi Singh, Palika Datta, Kathy A Rewers-Felkins, Maria V Salguero, Ibtisam Al-Obaidi, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Tetyana L Vasylyeva
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of dietary, gut microbiome, and tissues metabolism. Elevated blood TMAO levels are associated with heart attack, stroke and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of our study was to investigate the gut microbiota associated with trimethylamine (TMA) production, the precursor of TMAO, and the serum levels of TMAO and inflammatory biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CKD. Twenty adults with T2DM and advanced CKD and 20 healthy adults participated in the study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922068/influence-of-flaxseed-lignan-supplementation-to-older-adults-on-biochemical-and-functional-outcome-measures-of-inflammation
#2
Yunyun Di, Jennifer Jones, Kerry Mansell, Susan Whiting, Sharyle Fowler, Lilian Thorpe, Jennifer Billinsky, Navita Viveky, Pui Chi Cheng, Ahmed Almousa, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Jane Alcorn
Evidence from the literature suggests that dietary flaxseed lignans have the ability to modulate inflammation, which is recognized as the underlying basis of multiple chronic human diseases in older adults. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral lignan supplementation on biochemical and functional indicators of inflammation as well as safety and tolerability in older healthy adults. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in older healthy adults (60-80 years) to assess flaxseed lignan-enriched complex (∼38% secoisolariciresinol diglucoside [SDG]; 600 mg SDG dose) oral supplementation effects on biochemical and functional indicators of inflammation and safety and tolerability in older healthy adults after 6 months of once-daily oral administration...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#4
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910802/effects-of-expanded-hemodialysis-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes
#5
Sandip Mitra, Kunaal Kharbanda
The invention of dialysis has been a phenomenal advance in the treatment of kidney failure. The introduction of artificial kidneys in clinical care remains one of the most successful lifesaving interventions in modern medicine. Its glory, however, has been tempered by poor long-term outcomes and a negative qualitative impact on the lives of patients who suffer from an extremely complex, burdensome, and restricted life on dialysis. There remains a huge gap in patient well-being and outcomes between artificial kidney treatments and kidney transplantation...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910791/inflammation-and-protein-energy-wasting-in-the-uremic-milieu
#6
Magdalena Jankowska, Gabriela Cobo, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Inflammation is normally a protective and physiological response to harmful stimuli, but typically becomes an uncontrolled, maladaptive, and persistent process in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Through a deleterious cascade of poorly controlled reactions mediated by biologically active molecules (also called middle molecular weight uremia retention solutes), inflammation associates with a range of complications including cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting (PEW). Persistent inflammation, which is central to the conceptual etiological models of PEW and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome, induces and reignites processes leading to PEW in a number of ways including stimulation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of muscle proteolysis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910790/the-cardiovascular-burden-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Francesca Pivari, Paola Ciceri, Ferruccio Conte
It is well documented that chronic kidney disease patients have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) compared to the general population. Declining renal function itself represents a continuum of CV risk, and in those individuals who survive to reach end-stage renal disease, the risk of suffering a cardiac event is uncomfortably and unacceptably high. Several pathophysiological pathways have been suggested to account for this, including endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, inflammation, left ventricular hypertrophy, troponins, phosphate, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23, and NT-proBNP...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910789/end-stage-renal-disease-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#8
Lu Dai, Edyta Golembiewska, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Despite marked improvements in renal replacement therapy during the last 30 years, the age-adjusted mortality rate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still unacceptably high and comparable to that of many malignancies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. However, traditional risk factors can only partially explain the high premature cardiovascular burden in this population. Nontraditional risk factors, including persistent low-grade inflammation, are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and other causes of CVD and may also contribute to protein-energy wasting and other complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910300/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-treatment-with-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-lps-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-emphysema-and-atherosclerosis-development
#9
P Padmini S J Khedoe, Stan de Kleijn, Annemarie M van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Jaap J Plomp, Hetty C de Boer, Melissa van Pel, Patrick C N Rensen, Jimmy F P Berbée, Pieter S Hiemstra
BACKGROUND: COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD), and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904874/red-cell-distribution-width-predicts-incident-dipstick-albuminuria-in-korean-adults-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Young Youl Hyun, Hyang Kim, Kyu-Beck Lee
BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW) is an emerging marker of inflammation and a predictor of high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as all-cause mortality. A previous cross-sectional study showed that RDW was associated with microalbuminuria, an indicator of target organ damage. However, the longitudinal association of RDW and development of albuminuria is not known. METHODS: We analyzed 83,040 participants without chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline who underwent two health check-ups at a 4-year interval during 2005 to 2014...
September 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904431/role-of-gut-derived-uremic-toxins-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
S Gouroju, P V L N Srinivasa Rao, A R Bitla, K S Vinapamula, S M Manohar, S Vishnubhotla
Several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been identified among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT) are important modifiable contributors in this respect. There are very few Indian studies on GDUT changes in CKD. One hundred and twenty patients older than 18 years diagnosed with CKD were enrolled along with forty healthy subjects. The patients were classified into three groups of forty patients based on stage of CKD. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), para cresyl sulfate (p-CS), indole acetic acid (IAA), and phenol were estimated along with the assessment of oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory state, and bone mineral disturbance...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901845/a-review-of-patents-on-therapeutic-potential-and-delivery-of-hydrogen-sulfide
#12
Richa Verma, Yumna Akhtar, Somnath Singh
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with a characteristic smell of rotten eggs. Once only thought of as a toxic gas, evidence now shows that H2S plays major roles in pathological and physiological activities. These roles are being utilized to treat diseases and disorders ranging from hypertension, inflammation, edema, cardiovascular issues, chronic pain, cancer, and many more. Challenges facing the use of H2S currently involve achieving the optimum therapeutic concentrations, synthesizing chemically and physiologically stable donors, and developing clinically appropriate delivery systems...
September 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900818/the-effects-of-chronic-aerobic-exercise-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
Emily M Miele, Samuel A E Headley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD...
September 12, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899580/the-interplay-between-cytokines-and-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#14
Roland Baumgartner, Maria J Forteza, Daniel F J Ketelhuth
The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the major metabolic route of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the pathway, as well as other enzymes in the pathway, have been shown to be highly regulated by cytokines. Hence, the KP has been implicated in several pathologic conditions, including infectious diseases, psychiatric disorders, malignancies, and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Additionally, recent studies have linked the KP with atherosclerosis, suggesting that Trp metabolism could play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the vascular wall...
September 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899001/a-role-for-autoantibodies-in-atherogenesis
#15
Rosebella A Iseme, Mark McEvoy, Brian Kelly, Linda Agnew, Frederick R Walker, Tonelle Handley, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, Michael Boyle
An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been recognized amongst people with autoimmune disease. It has been unclear whether this is due mainly to the ensuing treatment, particularly steroids, or whether some of this risk is due to the autoimmune process itself with subsequent inflammation. Indeed, a large body of evidence supports a role for chronic inflammation in atherogenesis, and autoantibodies have been identified as mediators in this complex inflammatory environment. Our aim is to carry out a systematic review of existing literature in order to formally establish the strength of the association between autoantibodies and atherosclerosis, amongst individuals without clinical autoimmune disease...
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#16
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892255/does-cardiovascular-risk-vary-according-to-the-criteria-for-a-diagnosis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
Sedef Ramoglu, Tevfik Yoldemir, Kemal Atasayan, Dilek Gogas Yavuz
AIM: The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to healthy individuals. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress are known to have a role in the formation of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate if cardiovascular risk varied according to different PCOS criteria, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is an important marker of major cardiovascular events in the later stages of life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882977/influence-of-diabetes-on-circulating-apoptotic-microparticles-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
Jolanta Zuwala-Jagiello, Monika Pazgan-Simon, Eugenia Murawska-Cialowicz, Krzysztof Simon
BACKGROUND/AIM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently occurs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and is associated with atherosclerosis, in which circulating microparticles (MPs) play an important role. We asked whether the presence of DM affects endothelial-derived (EMPs) and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) levels; and whether MPs levels associate with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with CHC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 136 patients were enrolled in the study, 86 CHC patients (41 with DM with moderate glycemic control), 20 outpatients with DM and 30 controls...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882560/plan-b-cell-in-atherosclerosis
#19
Meritxell Nus, Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Ziad Mallat
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving interactions between vascular, circulating and immune cells. B cells play an important role in chronic inflammation producing antibodies and regulating T and natural killer (NKT) cell activation. The role of B cells in atherosclerosis is complex, with atherogenic and protective roles assigned for distinct B cell subsets. Drugs that deplete B cells or modulate their functions are now used in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases in humans...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882238/unraveling-vascular-inflammation-from-immunology-to-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Heather L Teague, Mark A Ahlman, Abass Alavi, Denisa D Wagner, Andrew H Lichtman, Matthias Nahrendorf, Filip K Swirski, Frank Nestle, Joel M Gelfand, Mariana J Kaplan, Steven Grinspoon, Paul M Ridker, David E Newby, Ahmed Tawakol, Zahi A Fayad, Nehal N Mehta
Inflammation is a critical factor in early atherosclerosis and its progression to myocardial infarction. The search for valid surrogate markers of arterial vascular inflammation led to the increasing use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indeed, vascular inflammation is associated with future risk for myocardial infarction and can be modulated with short-term therapies, such as statins, that mitigate cardiovascular risk. However, to better understand vascular inflammation and its mechanisms, a panel was recently convened of world experts in immunology, human translational research, and positron emission tomographic vascular imaging...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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