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Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521870/the-use-of-statins-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-and-other-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-cardiovascular-risk-an-expert-panel-statement
#1
REVIEW
Vasilios G Athyros, Theodore K Alexandrides, Helen Bilianou, Evangelos Cholongitas, Michael Doumas, Emmanuel S Ganotakis, John Goudevenos, Moses S Elisaf, Georgios Germanidis, Olga Giouleme, Asterios Karagiannis, Charalambos Karvounis, Niki Katsiki, Vasilios Kotsis, Jannis Kountouras, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Christos Pitsavos, Stergios Polyzos, Loukianos S Rallidis, Dimitrios Richter, Apostolos G Tsapas, Alexandros D Tselepis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Themistoklis G Vasiliadis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos Mantzoros
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. It is closely related to the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in NAFLD/NASH patients...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520942/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#2
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515118/risk-factors-for-heart-failure-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-the-cric-chronic-renal-insufficiency-cohort-study
#3
Jiang He, Michael Shlipak, Amanda Anderson, Jason A Roy, Harold I Feldman, Radhakrishna Reddy Kallem, Radhika Kanthety, John W Kusek, Akinlolu Ojo, Mahboob Rahman, Ana C Ricardo, Elsayed Z Soliman, Myles Wolf, Xiaoming Zhang, Dominic Raj, Lee Hamm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. We studied risk factors for incident heart failure among 3557 participants in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both, and 24-hour urine albumin excretion. During an average of 6.3 years of follow-up, 452 participants developed incident heart failure...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512322/physicochemical-properties-of-dietary-phytochemicals-can-predict-their-passive-absorption-in-the-human-small-intestine
#4
Sophie N B Selby-Pham, Rosalind B Miller, Kate Howell, Frank Dunshea, Louise E Bennett
A diet high in phytochemical-rich plant foods is associated with reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI) is the common component underlying these chronic diseases. Whilst the positive health effects of phytochemicals and their metabolites have been demonstrated to regulate OSI, the timing and absorption for best effect is not well understood. We developed a model to predict the time to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tmax) of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511692/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-and-plasma-micrornas-in-moderate-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomized-trial
#5
Ladan Mansouri, Kristina Lundwall, Ali Moshfegh, Stefan H Jacobson, Joachim Lundahl, Jonas Spaak
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), partly due to endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. Vitamin D treatment in end stage renal disease is suggested to modulate the immune system and lead to improved outcomes. We and others have demonstrated that treatment with vitamin D or activated vitamin D analogues protects the endothelial function in less severe renal disease as well. Since the endothelial protection might be mediated by vitamin D effects on inflammation, we assessed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and micro RNAs (miRs) in patients with moderate CKD, treated with an active vitamin D analogue (paricalcitol)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511572/mtor-drives-cerebral-blood-flow-and-memory-deficits-in-ldlr-mice-modeling-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#6
Jordan B Jahrling, Ai-Ling Lin, Nicholas DeRosa, Stacy A Hussong, Candice E Van Skike, Milena Girotti, Martin Javors, Qingwei Zhao, Leigh Ann Maslin, Reto Asmis, Veronica Galvan
We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511507/evaluation-of-c-reactive-protein-and-fibrinogen-in-patients-with-chronic-and-aggressive-periodontitis-a-clinico-biochemical-study
#7
Swaroop Chandy, Kiran Joseph, Anila Sankaranarayanan, Annie Issac, George Babu, Bobby Wilson, Jumol Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal disease is characterised by chronic infection and inflammation in periodontal tissues leading to destruction of alveolar bone with subsequent tooth loss. Periodontal infections are the result of an interaction between tooth associated microbial biofilms and the host defences. Periodontal pathogens can affect local and systemic immune and inflammatory responses. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen and peripheral blood levels in healthy subjects, chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#8
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508317/trpc-channels-and-brain-inflammation
#9
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Nonresolving low-grade inflammation is supposed to underly the basis of chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer's diseases. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglial cells. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) is important for the activation of microglial cell functions, including proliferation, release of NO, cytokines, and BDNF...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505121/molecular-pathways-involved-in-the-amelioration-of-myocardial-injury-in-diabetic-rats-by-kaempferol
#10
Kapil Suchal, Salma Malik, Sana Irfan Khan, Rajiv Kumar Malhotra, Sameer N Goyal, Jagriti Bhatia, Shreesh Ojha, Dharamvir Singh Arya
There is growing evidence that chronic hyperglycemia leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which exerts its effect via interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). AGE-RAGE activation results in oxidative stress and inflammation. It is well known that this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in diabetic rats...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502983/alkaline-phosphatase-a-novel-treatment-target-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#11
REVIEW
Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel, Per Magnusson
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process is akin to skeletal mineralization, which is carefully regulated and in which isozymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have a crucial role. Four genes encode ALP isozymes in humans. Intestinal, placental and germ cell ALPs are tissue-specific, whereas the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) is present in several tissues, including bone, liver and kidney...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490014/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-uremic-toxins
#12
Jessyca S Brito, Natália A Borges, Marta Esgalhado, D''Angelo C Magliano, Christophe O Soulage, Denise Mafra
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and indole acetic acid are derived from tryptophan fermentation by gut microbiota; they accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis and have recently emerged as potent ligands of AhR. Therefore, AhR can serve as a mediator in inflammation and cardiovascular diseases in these patients...
May 11, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486919/metabolic-imbalance-of-homocysteine-and-hydrogen-sulfide-in-kidney-disease
#13
O Karmin, Yaw L Siow
Homocysteine (Hcy) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important molecules produced during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Hcy metabolism is central to the supply of methyl groups that are essential for biological function. Hcy can be either regenerated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine, a precursor for glutathione synthesis. Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) play a crucial role in metabolizing Hcy to cysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. These two enzymes are also responsible for H2S generation through desulfuration reactions...
May 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483812/coronary-plaque-characterization-in-psoriasis-reveals-high-risk-features-which-improve-following-treatment-in-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Joseph B Lerman, Aditya A Joshi, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Tsion M Aberra, Amit K Dey, Justin A Rodante, Taufiq Salahuddin, Jonathan H Chung, Anshuma Rana, Heather L Teague, Jashin J Wu, Martin P Playford, Benjamin N Lockshin, Marcus Y Chen, Veit Sandfort, David A Bluemke, Nehal N Mehta
Background -Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an accelerated risk of MI, provides an ideal human model to study inflammatory atherogenesis in vivo We hypothesized that the increased cardiovascular risk observed in psoriasis would be partially attributable to an elevated subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) burden composed of non-calcified plaques with high-risk features. However, inadequate efforts have been made to directly measure CAD in this vulnerable population. As such, we sought to compare total (TB) and non-calcified (NCB) coronary plaque burden, and high-risk plaque (HRP) prevalence, between psoriasis patients (n=105), hyperlipidemic patients eligible for statin therapy under NCEP-ATP III guidelines (n=100) who were ~10 years older, and non-psoriasis healthy volunteers (HV) (n=25)...
May 8, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482051/biomarkers-of-chronic-acrolein-inhalation-exposure-in-mice-implications-for-tobacco-product-induced-toxicity
#15
Daniel J Conklin, Marina V Malovichko, Iris Zeller, Trinath P Das, Tatiana V Krivokhizhina, Blake H Lynch, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Abhinav Agarwal, Nalinie Wickramasinghe, Petra Haberzettl, Srinivas D Sithu, Jasmit Shah, Timothy E O'Toole, Shesh N Rai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava
Exposure to tobacco smoke, which contains several harmful and potentially harmful constituents such as acrolein increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although high acrolein levels induce pervasive cardiovascular injury, the effects of low-level exposure remain unknown and sensitive biomarkers of acrolein toxicity have not been identified. Identification of such biomarkers is essential to assess the toxicity of acrolein present at low levels in the ambient air or in new tobacco products such as e-cigarettes...
May 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482008/the-microcirculation-a-key-player-in-obesity-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Oana Sorop, T Dylan Olver, Jens van de Wouw, Ilkka Heinonen, Richard W van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, i.e. results in structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn impacts control of vascular tone, contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation...
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481326/the-dose-response-association-between-nitrogen-dioxide-exposure-and-serum-interleukin-6-concentrations
#17
Jennifer L Perret, Gayan Bowatte, Caroline J Lodge, Luke D Knibbs, Lyle C Gurrin, Rangi Kandane-Rathnayake, David P Johns, Adrian J Lowe, John A Burgess, Bruce R Thompson, Paul S Thomas, Richard Wood-Baker, Stephen Morrison, Graham G Giles, Guy Marks, James Markos, Mimi L K Tang, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
Systemic inflammation is an integral part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and air pollution is associated with cardiorespiratory mortality, yet the interrelationships are not fully defined. We examined associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) exposure (as a marker of traffic-related air pollution) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and investigated effect modification and mediation by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO) and cardiovascular risk. Data from middle-aged participants in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS, n = 1389) were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, using serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as the outcome...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480270/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-aspirin-effects-on-immune-activation-in-chronically-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-on-virologically-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Meagan P O'Brien, Peter W Hunt, Douglas W Kitch, Karin Klingman, James H Stein, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffrey S Berger, Pablo Tebas, Brian Clagett, Daniela Moisi, Netanya S Utay, Fran Aweeka, Judith A Aberg
BACKGROUND: Immune activation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and predicts non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) comorbidities including cardiovascular disease. Activated platelets play a key role in atherothrombosis and inflammation, and platelets are hyperactivated in chronic HIV infection. Aspirin is a potent inhibitor of platelet activation through the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) pathway. We hypothesized that platelet activation contributes to immune activation and that aspirin would reduce immune activation and improve endothelial function in ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476623/syringin-attenuates-insulin-resistance-via-adiponectin-mediated-suppression-of-low-grade-chronic-inflammation-and-er-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#19
Bobae Kim, Min-Seok Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, improvements in glucose control are often linked to side effects such as weight gain and altered lipid metabolism, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop antidiabetic drugs that exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism at the same time. Here we demonstrate that syringin, a naturally occurring glucoside, improves glucose tolerance without increased weight gain in high-fat induced obese mice. Syringin augmented insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), and the liver, showing an insulin-sensitizing activity...
May 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474128/-chronic-hypoxia-and-cardiovascular-risk-clinical-significance-of-different-forms-of-hypoxia
#20
REVIEW
U Koehler, O Hildebrandt, J Krönig, W Grimm, J Otto, W Hildebrandt, R Kinscherf
It is of fundamental importance to differentiate whether chronic hypoxia occurs intermittently or persistently. While chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is found typically in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OAS), chronic persistent hypoxia (CPH) is typically diagnosed in patients with chronic lung disease. Cardiovascular risk is markedly increased in patients with CIH compared to patients with CPH. The frequent change between oxygen desaturation and reoxygenation in patients with CIH is associated with increased hypoxic stress, increased systemic inflammation, and enhanced adrenergic activation followed by endothelial dysfunction and increased arteriosclerosis...
May 4, 2017: Herz
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