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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211592/a-methodology-for-assessing-deployment-trauma-and-its-consequences-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans-the-tracts-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Jennifer R Fonda, Catherine Brawn Fortier
Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206771/magnetic-particle-imaging-a-novel-in-vivo-imaging-platform-for-cancer-detection
#2
Elaine Y Yu, Mindy Bishop, Bo Zheng, R Matthew Ferguson, Amit P Khandhar, Scott J Kemp, Kannan M Krishnan, Patrick W Goodwill, Steven M Conolly
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Biomedical imaging plays a crucial role in all phases of cancer management. Physicians often need to choose the ideal diagnostic imaging modality for each clinical presentation based on complex trade-offs between spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast, access, cost, and safety. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging tracer imaging modality that detects superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle tracer with high image contrast (zero tissue background signal), high sensitivity (200 nM Fe) with linear quantitation and zero signal depth attenuation...
February 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205416/ecological-implications-of-hypoxia-triggered-shifts-in-secondary-metabolism
#3
Kelley A Gallagher, Greg Wanger, Jane Henderson, Mark Llorente, Chambers C Hughes, Paul R Jensen
Members of the actinomycete genus Streptomyces are non-motile, filamentous bacteria that are well known for the production of biomedically relevant secondary metabolites. While considered obligate aerobes, little is known about how these bacteria respond to periods of reduced oxygen availability in their natural habitats, which include soils and ocean sediments. Here we provide evidence that the marine streptomycete strain CNQ-525 can reduce MnO2 via a diffusible mechanism. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on secondary metabolite production and observed a shift away from the antibiotic napyradiomycin towards 8-amino-flaviolin, an intermediate in the napyradiomycin biosynthetic pathway...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205372/zein-based-composites-in-biomedical-applications
#4
Merve Demir, Laura Ramos-Rivera, Raquel Silva, Showan N Nazhat, Aldo R Boccaccini
Considerable research efforts have been devoted to zein based biomaterials for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications over the past decade. The attention given to zein based polymers is primarily attributed to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, due to the relatively low mechanical properties of these polymers, numerous inorganic compounds (e.g, hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, bioactive glasses, natural clays) have been considered in combination with zein to create composite materials in an attempt to enhance zein mechanical properties...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198119/in%C3%A2-vivo-gold-complex-catalysis-within-live-mice
#5
Kazuki Tsubokura, Kenward K H Vong, Ambara R Pradipta, Akihiro Ogura, Sayaka Urano, Tsuyoshi Tahara, Satoshi Nozaki, Hirotaka Onoe, Yoichi Nakao, Regina Sibgatullina, Almira Kurbangalieva, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Katsunori Tanaka
Metal complex catalysis within biological systems is largely limited to cell and bacterial systems. In this work, a glycoalbumin-Au(III) complex was designed and developed that enables organ-specific, localized propargyl ester amidation with nearby proteins within live mice. The targeted reactivity can be imaged through the use of Cy7.5- and TAMRA-linked propargyl ester based fluorescent probes. This targeting system could enable the exploitation of other metal catalysis strategies for biomedical and clinical applications...
February 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196481/nuctools-analysis-of-chromatin-feature-occupancy-profiles-from-high-throughput-sequencing-data
#6
Yevhen Vainshtein, Karsten Rippe, Vladimir B Teif
BACKGROUND: Biomedical applications of high-throughput sequencing methods generate a vast amount of data in which numerous chromatin features are mapped along the genome. The results are frequently analysed by creating binary data sets that link the presence/absence of a given feature to specific genomic loci. However, the nucleosome occupancy or chromatin accessibility landscape is essentially continuous. It is currently a challenge in the field to cope with continuous distributions of deep sequencing chromatin readouts and to integrate the different types of discrete chromatin features to reveal linkages between them...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195704/highly-potent-cell-permeable-and-impermeable-nanoluc-luciferase-inhibitors
#7
Joel R Walker, Mary P Hall, Chad A Zimprich, Matt B Robers, Sarah J Duellman, Thomas Machleidt, Jacquelynn Rodriguez, Wenhui Zhou
Novel engineered NanoLuc® (Nluc) luciferase being smaller, brighter, and superior to traditional firefly (Fluc) or Renilla (Rluc) provides a great opportunity for the development of numerous biological, biomedical, clinical, and food and environmental safety applications. This new platform created an urgent need for Nluc inhibitors that could allow selective bioluminescent suppression and multiplexing compatibility with existing luminescence or fluorescence assays. Starting from thienopyrrole carboxylate 1, a hit from a 42k PubChem compound library with low μM IC50 against Nluc, we derivatized four different structural fragments to discover a family of potent, single digit nM, cell permeable inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192672/smart-nanostructures-for-cargo-delivery-uncaging-and-activating-by-light
#8
Mahdi Karimi, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Soodeh Baghaee-Ravari, Mahdi Ghazizadeh, Hamed Mirshekari, Michael R Hamblin
Nanotechnology has begun to play a remarkable role in various fields of science and technology. In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have opened new horizons, especially for biosensing, targeted delivery of therapeutics, etc. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs), smart nanocarriers that can respond to specific stimuli in their local environment represent a growing field. Nanoplatforms that can be activated by an external application of light, can be used for a wide variety of photo-activated therapies, (especially light-triggered DDSs) relying on photo-isomerization, photo-crosslinking/uncrosslinking, photo-reduction, etc...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191883/loap-is-a-broadly-conserved-antiterminator-protein-that-regulates-antibiotic-gene-clusters-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#9
Jonathan R Goodson, Steven Klupt, Chengxi Zhang, Paul Straight, Wade C Winkler
A valuable resource available in the search for new natural products is the diverse microbial life that spans the planet. A large subset of these microorganisms synthesize complex specialized metabolites exhibiting biomedically important activities. A limiting step to the characterization of these compounds is an elucidation of the genetic regulatory mechanisms that oversee their production. Although proteins that control transcription initiation of specialized metabolite gene clusters have been identified, those affecting transcription elongation have not been broadly investigated...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190471/plant-lectins-conbr-and-cfl-modulate-expression-toll-like-receptors-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-reduce-the-bacterial-burden-in-macrophages-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#10
Jec Batista, M T Ralph, R V Vaz, Pfc Souza, A B Silva, Dco Nascimento, L T Souza, M V Ramos, P Mastroeni, J V Lima-Filho
BACKGROUND: Plant lectins have long been used in biomedical research as immunomodulators against tumor cells and microbial infections. PURPOSE: To test the ability of plant lectins ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis) and CFL (Cratylia argentea) to activate antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of murine peritoneal macrophages (pMØ) infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm). METHODS: We incubated pMØ with non-toxic amounts of ConBr and CFL either before (preventive schedule) or after (curative schedule) exposure to STm...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187186/structural-coalescence-underlies-the-aggregation-propensity-of-a-%C3%AE-barrel-protein-motif
#11
Carla R Angelani, Julio J Caramelo, Lucrecia M Curto, José M Delfino
A clear understanding of the structural foundations underlying protein aggregation is an elusive goal of central biomedical importance. A step toward this aim is exemplified by the β-barrel motif represented by the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) and two abridged all-β sheet forms (Δ98Δ and Δ78Δ). At odds with the established notion that a perturbation of the native fold should necessarily favor a buildup of intermediate forms with an enhanced tendency to aggregate, the intrinsic stability (ΔG°H2O) of these proteins does not bear a straightforward correlation with their trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced aggregation propensity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186908/pseudo-asynchronous-level-crossing-adc-for-ecg-signal-acquisition
#12
T Marisa, T Niederhauser, A Haeberlin, R A Wildhaber, R Vogel, J Goette, M Jacomet
A new pseudo asynchronous level crossing analogue-to-digital converter (adc) architecture targeted for low-power, implantable, long-term biomedical sensing applications is presented. In contrast to most of the existing asynchronous level crossing adc designs, the proposed design has no digital-to-analogue converter (dac) and no continuous time comparators. Instead, the proposed architecture uses an analogue memory cell and dynamic comparators. The architecture retains the signal activity dependent sampling operation by generating events only when the input signal is changing...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185568/identification-of-expression-patterns-in-the-progression-of-disease-stages-by-integration-of-transcriptomic-data
#13
Sara Aibar, Maria Abaigar, Francisco Jose Campos-Laborie, Jose Manuel Sánchez-Santos, Jesus M Hernandez-Rivas, Javier De Las Rivas
BACKGROUND: In the study of complex diseases using genome-wide expression data from clinical samples, a difficult case is the identification and mapping of the gene signatures associated to the stages that occur in the progression of a disease. The stages usually correspond to different subtypes or classes of the disease, and the difficulty to identify them often comes from patient heterogeneity and sample variability that can hide the biomedical relevant changes that characterize each stage, making standard differential analysis inadequate or inefficient...
November 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185547/a-novel-scan-statistics-approach-for-clustering-identification-and-comparison-in-binary-genomic-data
#14
Danilo Pellin, Clelia Di Serio
BACKGROUND: In biomedical research a relevant issue is to identify time intervals or portions of a n-dimensional support where a particular event of interest is more likely to occur than expected. Algorithms that require to specify a-priori number/dimension/length of clusters assumed for the data suffer from a high degree of arbitrariness whenever no precise information are available, and this may strongly affect final estimation on parameters. Within this framework, spatial scan-statistics have been proposed in the literature, representing a valid non-parametric alternative...
September 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185460/-daratumumab-hope-for-myeloma-patients-a-challenge-for-clinical-laboratories
#15
T Jelínek, M Kořístka, Z Čermáková, R Hájek
Monoclonal antibodies represent a standard part in the treatment of oncologic patients, but their efficacy in multiple myeloma used to be unsatisfactory. Daratumumab monotherapy was approved by the American FDA in 2015, after unprecedented results were obtained in a heavily pre-treated group of patients. In 2016 daratumumab was approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, or bortezomib and dexamethasone, for the treatment of myeloma patients who have received at least one prior therapy.The toxicity of the drug is low, and is dominated by infusion-related reactions in more or less half of patients...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184390/gold-nanoparticle-interactions-with-endothelial-cells-cultured-under-physiological-conditions
#16
C Freese, L Anspach, R C Deller, S-J Richards, M I Gibson, C J Kirkpatrick, R E Unger
PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have an extended circulation time after intravenous injection in vivo and exhibit favorable properties for biosensing, diagnostic imaging, and cancer treatment. No impact of PEGylated AuNPs on the barrier forming properties of endothelial cells (ECs) has been reported, but recent studies demonstrated that unexpected effects on erythrocytes are observed. Almost all studies to date have been with static-cultured ECs. Herein, ECs maintained under physiological cyclic stretch and flow conditions and used to generate a blood-brain barrier model were exposed to 20 nm PEGylated AuNPs...
February 10, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183633/a-cytotoxicity-study-of-silicon-oxycarbide-nanowires-as-cell-scaffold-for-biomedical-applications
#17
P Lagonegro, F Rossi, C Galli, A Smerieri, R Alinovi, S Pinelli, T Rimoldi, G Attolini, G Macaluso, C Macaluso, S E Saddow, G Salviati
GOAL: Nanowires are promising biomaterials in multiple clinical applications. The goal of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of carbon-doped silica nanowires (SiOxCy NWs) on a fibroblastic cell line in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SiOxCy NWs were grown on Si substrates by CVD process. Murine L929 fibroblasts were cultured in complete DMEM and indirect and direct cytotoxicity tests were performed in agreement with ISO 19003-5, by quantitating cell viability at MTT and chemiluminescent assay...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183275/diversity-and-regulatory-impact-of-copy-number-variation-in-the-primate-macaca-fascicularis
#18
Andreas R Gschwind, Anjali Singh, Ulrich Certa, Alexandre Reymond, Tobias Heckel
BACKGROUND: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a significant source of genetic diversity and commonly found in mammalian genomes. We have generated a genome-wide CNV map for Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). This crab-eating macaque is the closest animal model to humans that is used in biomedical research. RESULTS: We show that Cynomolgus monkey CNVs are in general much smaller in size than gene loci and are specific to the population of origin. Genome-wide expression data from five vitally important organs demonstrates that CNVs in close proximity to transcription start sites associate strongly with expression changes...
February 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182397/comeback-of-the-rat-in-biomedical-research
#19
Judith R Homberg, Markus Wöhr, Natalia Alenina
Rats were the first mammalian species domesticated for scientific purposes, and they soon became the most widely used animal model in biomedical sciences, including cardiovascular research and behavioral neuroscience. Yet, after the development of technologies to manipulate genes, researchers largely shifted to the use of mice. However, as we lay out with examples from drug addiction, social behavior, and cardiovascular research, rats have experimental advantages over mice. With the introduction of zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) methodologies, and, specifically, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated system, gene targeting is no longer limited to mice...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165492/enhanced-development-of-skeletal-myotubes-from-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Nicholas J Genovese, Timothy L Domeier, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, R Michael Roberts
The pig is recognized as a valuable model in biomedical research in addition to its agricultural importance. Here we describe a means for generating skeletal muscle efficiently from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSC) in vitro thereby providing a versatile platform for applications ranging from regenerative biology to the ex vivo cultivation of meat. The GSK3B inhibitor, CHIR99021 was employed to suppress apoptosis, elicit WNT signaling events and drive naïve-type piPSC along the mesoderm lineage, and, in combination with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine, to activate an early skeletal muscle transcription program...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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