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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333321/preconception-and-early-pregnancy-maternal-haemodynamic-changes-in-healthy-women-in-relation-to-pregnancy-viability
#1
F L Foo, A Collins, C M McEniery, P R Bennett, I B Wilkinson, C C Lees
STUDY QUESTION: Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link...
March 16, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333195/genome-wide-genetic-analyses-highlight-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-endometriosis
#2
Outi Uimari, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Dale R Nyholt, Katy Vincent, Stacey A Missmer, Christian Becker, Andrew P Morris, Grant W Montgomery, Krina T Zondervan
STUDY QUESTION: Do genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for endometriosis provide insight into novel biological pathways associated with its pathogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: GWAS analysis uncovered multiple pathways that are statistically enriched for genetic association signals, analysis of Stage A disease highlighted a novel variant in MAP3K4, while top pathways significantly associated with all endometriosis and Stage A disease included several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related pathways...
February 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330162/evaluation-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthetic-potential-of-couroupita-guianensis-aubl-flower-buds-extract-and-their-synergistic-antibacterial-activity
#3
T Venkata Rajesh Kumar, J S R Murthy, Madamsetti Narayana Rao, Y Bhargava
The present investigation demonstrates Couroupita guianensis flower buds extract mediated synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Instant formation of AgNPs was primarily confirmed by the appearance of yellowish brown colour and characteristic silver SPR band in the UV-visible spectrum. Elemental and crystalline natures of the AgNPs were identified from EDX and XRD pattern, respectively. Spherical morphology and the mono-disparity were revealed from TEM and AFM images. The particle size ranged from 5 to 30 nm and average size of 17 nm was consistent in XRD, TEM and AFM measurements...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328885/introducing-therioepistemology-the-study-of-how-knowledge-is-gained-from-animal-research
#4
REVIEW
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
This focus issue of Lab Animal coincides with a tipping point in biomedical research. For the first time, the scale of the reproducibility and translatability crisis is widely understood beyond the small cadre of researchers who have been studying it and the pharmaceutical and biotech companies who have been living it. Here we argue that an emerging literature, including the papers in this focus issue, has begun to congeal around a set of recurring themes, which themselves represent a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift can be characterized at the micro level as a shift from asking "what have we controlled for in this model?" to asking "what have we chosen to ignore in this model, and at what cost?" At the macro level, it is a shift from viewing animals as tools (the furry test tube), to viewing them as patients in an equivalent human medical study...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319050/extracellular-matrix-proteomics-identifies-molecular-signature-of-symptomatic-carotid-plaques
#5
Sarah R Langley, Karin Willeit, Athanasios Didangelos, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Philipp Skroblin, Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Mariette Lengquist, Gregor Rungger, Alexander Kapustin, Ludmilla Kedenko, Chris Molenaar, Ruifang Lu, Temo Barwari, Gonca Suna, Xiaoke Yin, Bernhard Iglseder, Bernhard Paulweber, Peter Willeit, Joseph Shalhoub, Gerard Pasterkamp, Alun H Davies, Claudia Monaco, Ulf Hedin, Catherine M Shanahan, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the "vulnerable plaque," necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS: We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#6
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
March 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318021/corrigendum-adaptive-biomedical-innovation-evolving-our-global-system-to-sustainably-and-safely-bring-new-medicines-to-patients-in-need
#7
G Hirsch, M Trusheim, E Cobbs, M Bala, S Garner, D Hartman, K Isaacs, M Lumpkin, R Lim, K Oye, E Pezalla, P Saltonstall, H Selker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316409/facile-synthesis-of-multifunctional-silver-nanoparticles-using-mangrove-plant-excoecaria-agallocha-l-for-its-antibacterial-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-effects
#8
R Bhuvaneswari, R John Xavier, M Arumugam
The current study describes a simple, rapid and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Excoecaria agallocha (E. agallocha) leaf extract as stabilizer, bioreductant and capping agent. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the color change from yellow to dark brown which produces intense absorbance spectra at 440 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy without any shifting of peaks...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315814/a-closer-look-at-the-in-vitro-electrochemical-characterisation-of-titanium-alloys-for-biomedical-applications-using-in-situ-methods
#9
J-L Wang, R L Liu, T Majumdar, S A Mantri, V A Ravi, R Banerjee, N Birbilis
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in several biomedical applications, particularly as permanent orthopaedic implants. Electrochemical testing provides a means to perform accelerated corrosion testing, however whilst results from polarisation testing for Ti and its alloys to date have been generally useful, they are also rather limited on the basis of several reasons. One reason is that the polarisation curves for Ti and its alloys in simulated body fluids all appear rather similar, and they do not present a classical 'breakdown' or pitting potential, making discrimination between alloys difficult...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304112/evaluation-of-various-approaches-to-the-isolation-of-steroid-hormones-from-urine-samples-prior-to-fass-mekc-analysis
#11
Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, Alina Plenis, Tomasz Bączek
The goal of this study was to assess various analytical approaches for the simultaneous and efficient extraction of steroid hormones (cortisone, cortisol, prednisolone, corticosterone, testosterone, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, progesterone) from urine samples prior to separation based on field-amplified sample stacking-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FASS-MEKC). FASS-MEKC successfully allowed the compounds to be separated within 12 min using a background electrolyte (BGE) comprised of 5 mM sodium tetraborate, 150 mM boric acid, 50 mM SDS and 15% methanol...
March 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304023/peptide-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-versatile-biomaterials-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#12
REVIEW
Jingyi Zong, Steven L Cobb, Neil R Cameron
Colloidal gold solutions have been used for centuries in a wide variety of applications including staining glass and in the colouring of ceramics. More recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been studied extensively due to their interesting size-dependent electronic and optical properties. GNPs can be functionalized easily with biomolecules that contain thiols, amines, or even phosphine moieties. For example, the reaction of thiol-containing peptides with GNPs has been used extensively to prepare novel hybrid materials for biomedical applications...
March 17, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301581/assessing-tn5-and-sleeping-beauty-for-transpositional-transgenesis-by-cytoplasmic-injection-into-bovine-and-ovine-zygotes
#13
R J Bevacqua, R Fernandez-Martin, N G Canel, A Gibbons, D Texeira, F Lange, G Vans Landschoot, V Savy, O Briski, M I Hiriart, E Grueso, Z Ivics, O Taboga, W A Kues, S Ferraris, D F Salamone
Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292916/rab-gtpases-master-regulators-that-establish-the-secretory-and-endocytic-pathways
#14
Suzanne R Pfeffer
Several of the most important discoveries in the field of membrane traffic have come from studies of Rab GTPases by Marino Zerial and Peter Novick and their colleagues. Zerial was the first to discover that Rab GTPases represent identity markers for different membrane-bound compartments, and each Rab organizes a collection of specific effectors into function-specifying membrane microdomains to carry out receptor trafficking. Novick discovered that the order (and thus polarity) of Rab GTPases along the secretory and endocytic pathways are established by their specific, cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which partner with one Rab to regulate the subsequent- and prior-acting Rabs...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287647/influence-of-substrate-modulus-on-gecko-adhesion
#15
Mena R Klittich, Michael C Wilson, Craig Bernard, Rochelle M Rodrigo, Austin J Keith, Peter H Niewiarowski, Ali Dhinojwala
The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system's performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284873/establishing-a-reference-dataset-for-the-authentication-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-cell-lines-using-str-profiling-and-digital-pcr
#16
Deborah L Stabley, Jennifer Holbrook, Ashlee W Harris, Kathryn J Swoboda, Thomas O Crawford, Katia Sol-Church, Matthew E R Butchbach
Fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from individuals with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been and continue to be essential for translational SMA research. Authentication of cell lines helps ensure reproducibility and rigor in biomedical research. This quality control measure identifies mislabeling or cross-contamination of cell lines and prevents misinterpretation of data. Unfortunately, authentication of SMA cell lines used in various studies has not been possible because of a lack of a reference...
February 6, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282257/human-microbiome-and-learning-healthcare-systems-integrating-research-and-precision-medicine-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Kim H Chuong, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Kieran C O'Doherty
Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care...
March 10, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276196/preparation-and-characterization-of-alloys-of-the-ti-15mo-nb-system-for-biomedical-applications
#18
J R S Martins Júnior, A A Matos, R C Oliveira, M A R Buzalaf, I Costa, L A Rocha, C R Grandini
In the development of new metallic biomaterials, the Ti-15Mo alloy has great prominence because of its excellent corrosion resistance and good combination of mechanical properties. In this study, the element niobium was added to the Ti-15Mo alloy, forming the Ti-15Mo-Nb system for the purpose of improving their properties and promoting its application as a biomaterial. These alloys are very promising to use as biomedical implants, because they integrate a new class of titanium alloys without the presence of aluminum and vanadium, which may cause cytotoxic effects...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275345/moral-enhancement-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#19
REVIEW
R Ryan Darby, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272839/combined-analysis-of-nmr-and-ms-spectra-canms
#20
Mei Chong, Anusha Jayaraman, Silvia Marin, Vitaly Selivanov, Pedro R de Atauri Carulla, Daniel A Tennant, Marta Cascante, Ulrich L Günther, Christian Ludwig
Cellular metabolism in mammalian cells represents a challenge for analytical chemistry in the context of current biomedical research. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy together with computational tools have been used to study metabolism in cells. Compartmentalization of metabolism complicates the interpretation of stable isotope patterns in mammalian cells owing to the superimposition of different pathways contributing to the same pool of analytes. This indicates a need for a model-free approach to interpret such data...
March 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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