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Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Saroj R Tripathi, Paul Ben Ishai, Kodo Kawase
The applications of terahertz (THz) waves have been increasing rapidly in different fields such as information and communication technology, homeland security and biomedical engineering. However, study on the possible health implications due to various biological effects induced by THz waves is relatively scarce. Previously, it has been reported that the human sweat ducts play a significant role in the interaction of the THz wave with human skin due to its coiled structure. This structure imposes on them the electromagnetic character of a helical antenna...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Eric Lin, Thong Cao, Sunitha Nagrath, Michael R King
Metastasis contributes to poor prognosis in many types of cancer and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Tumor cells metastasize to distant sites via the circulatory and lymphatic systems. In this review, we discuss the potential of circulating tumor cells for diagnosis and describe the experimental therapeutics that aim to target these disseminating cancer cells. We discuss the advantages and limitations of such strategies and how they may lead to the development of the next generation of antimetastasis treatments...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Joseph E Kerschner, Jerris R Hedges, Karen Antman, Edward Abraham, Edgar Colón Negrón, J Larry Jameson
Academic medical center (AMC) faculty, administrators, and leaders have the critical tasks of teaching and training the next generation of health care providers and biomedical researchers, as well as generating new knowledge that improves the health of all. In the United States, medical schools and their affiliated hospitals train remarkably high-quality physicians and scientists, and the research conducted at these institutions results in advances in health. To that end, AMCs have become essential engines for driving better health in the United States and the rest of the world; they also have become essential engines driving the economies of their respective communities and regions...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Josef R Bober, Chase L Beisel, Nikhil U Nair
An increasing number of studies have strongly correlated the composition of the human microbiota with many human health conditions and, in several cases, have shown that manipulating the microbiota directly affects health. These insights have generated significant interest in engineering indigenous microbiota community members and nonresident probiotic bacteria as biotic diagnostics and therapeutics that can probe and improve human health. In this review, we discuss recent advances in synthetic biology to engineer commensal and probiotic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides for these purposes, and we provide our perspective on the future potential of these technologies...
March 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
M G Herrera, D S Vazquez, R Sreij, M Drechsler, Y Hertle, T Hellweg, V I Dodero
Alpha-gliadin is a highly immunogenic protein from wheat, which is associated with many human diseases, like celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Because of that, gliadin solution is subject to intense biomedical research. However, the physicochemical nature of the employed gliadin solution at physiological pH is not understood. Herein, we present a supramolecular evaluation of the alpha-gliadin protein in water at pH 3.0 by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle-...
February 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lena Vogt, Liliana Liverani, Judith A Roether, Aldo R Boccaccini
For biomedical applications such as soft tissue engineering, plant proteins are becoming increasingly attractive. Zein, a class of prolamine proteins found in corn, offers excellent properties for application in the human body, but has inferior mechanical properties and lacks aqueous stability. In this study, electrospun scaffolds from neat zein and zein blended with prepolymer and mildly cross-linked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) were fabricated. Less toxic solvents like acetic acid and ethanol were used. The morphological, physiochemical and degradation properties of the as-spun fiber mats were determined...
March 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jane Kaye, Sharon F Terry, Eric Juengst, Sarah Coy, Jennifer R Harris, Don Chalmers, Edward S Dove, Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Clement Adebamowo, Emilomo Ogbe, Louise Bezuidenhout, Michael Morrison, Joel T Minion, Madeleine J Murtagh, Jusaku Minari, Harriet Teare, Rosario Isasi, Kazuto Kato, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Patricia Marshall, Barbara Koenig, Anne Cambon-Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Governments, funding bodies, institutions, and publishers have developed a number of strategies to encourage researchers to facilitate access to datasets. The rationale behind this approach is that this will bring a number of benefits and enable advances in healthcare and medicine by allowing the maximum returns from the investment in research, as well as reducing waste and promoting transparency. As this approach gains momentum, these data-sharing practices have implications for many kinds of research as they become standard practice across the world...
March 7, 2018: Human Genomics
Motshedisi B Sabone, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Ellah Matshediso, Sheila Shaibu, Esther I Ntsayagae, Inge B Corless, Yvette P Cuca, William L Holzemer, Carol Dawson-Rose, Solymar S Soliz Baez, Marta Rivero-Mendz, Allison R Webel, Lucille Sanzero Eller, Paul Reid, Mallory O Johnson, Jeanne Kemppainen, Darcel Reyes, Kathleen Nokes, Dean Wantland, Patrice K Nicholas, Teri Lingren, Carmen J Portillo, Elizabeth Sefcik, Ellen Long-Middleton
BACKGROUND: Managing HIV treatment is a complex multi-dimensional task because of a combination of factors such as stigma and discrimination of some populations who frequently get infected with HIV. In addition, patient-provider encounters have become increasingly multicultural, making effective communication and provision of ethically sound care a challenge. PURPOSE: This article explores ethical issues that health service providers in the United States and Botswana encountered in their interaction with patients in HIV care...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Akanksha Juneja, Bharti Rana, R K Agrawal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder primarily diagnosed through externally observed behavioural symptoms due to the dearth of established clinical tests. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can capture the distortions caused by schizophrenia in the brain activation. Hence, it can be useful for developing a decision model that performs computer-aided diagnosis of schizophrenia. But, fMRI data is huge in dimension. Therefore dimension reduction is indispensable...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
M J Rothmann, P R Jakobsen, C M Jensen, A P Hermann, A C Smith, J Clemensen
This systematic review provides synthesised knowledge and guidance to health professionals on the experiences and perspectives of being diagnosed with osteoporosis from the patient's point of view. Using individuals' experiences and meanings can promote tailored and targeted information and guidance on osteoporosis, bone care and treatment at different stages of the osteoporosis trajectory. INTRODUCTION: To be diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fragility fractures affects individuals differently...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Inchul Shin, Brett R Ambler, Daniel Wherritt, Wendell P Griffith, Amanda C Maldonado, Ryan A Altman, Aimin Liu
Heme-based tryptophan dioxygenases are established immunosuppressive metalloproteins with significant biomedical interest. Here, we synthesized two mechanistic probes to specifically test if the α-amino group of the substrate directly participates in a critical step of the O-atom transfer during catalysis in human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Substitution of the nitrogen atom of the substrate to a carbon (probe 1) or oxygen (probe 2) slowed the catalytic step following the first O-atom transfer such that transferring the second O-atom becomes less likely to occur, though the dioxygenated products were observed with both probes...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qiang Chen, Jiajia Jing, Hongfei Qi, Ifty Ahmed, Haiou Yang, Xianhu Liu, T L Lu, Aldo R Boccaccini
Structural and compositional modification of metallic implant surfaces is being actively investigated in order to achieve improved bone-to-implant bonding. In this study, a strategy to modify bulk metallic surfaces by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of short phosphate glass fibers (sPGF) is presented. Random and aligned orientation of sPGF embedded in a polyacrylic acid (PAA) matrix is achieved by vertical and horizontal EPD, respectively. The influence of EPD parameters on the degree of alignment is investigated to pave the way for the fabrication of highly aligned sPGF structures in large areas...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
William Brown, Rebecca Giguere, Alan Sheinfil, Mobolaji Ibitoye, Ivan Balan, Titcha Ho, Benjamin Brown, Luis Quispe, Wichuda Sukwicha, Javier R Lama, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ross D Cranston
BACKGROUND: We implemented a text message-based Short Message Service computer-assisted self-interviewing (SMS-CASI) system to aid adherence and monitor behavior in MTN-017, a phase 2 safety and acceptability study of rectally-applied reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir gel compared to oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets. We sought to implement SMS-based daily reminders and product use reporting, in four countries and five languages, and centralize data management/automated-backup...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Wei Kou, Xuelei Li, Hongbing Yao, Ping Wei
OBJECTIVES: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often occur concomitantly and are the two most common inflammatory conditions of the airways in children. Large-scale studies investigating the comorbidity of asthma and AR in children are rare. So, we performed a meta-analysis to describe the comorbidity rate of asthma and AR in Chinese children. METHODS: We retrieved related studies from Pubmed, Science, Springer, Elsevier, Embase, BMJ, and four Chinese biomedical databases, including Wanfang Data, VIP, CBM, and CNKI...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Gregory R Naumiec, Lisheng Cai, Shuiyu Lu, Victor W Pike
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important molecular imaging technique for medical diagnosis, biomedical research and drug development. PET tracers for molecular imaging contain β+ -emitting radionuclides, such as carbon-11 ( t 1/2 = 20.4 min) or fluorine-18 ( t 1/2 = 109.8 min). The [18 F]2-fluoro-pyridyl moiety features in a few prominent PET radiotracers, not least because this moiety is usually resistant to unwanted radiodefluorination in vivo. Various methods have been developed for labeling these radiotracers from cyclotron-produced no-carrier-added [18 F]fluoride ion, mainly based on substitution of a leaving group, such as halide (Cl or Br), or preferably a better leaving group, such as nitro or trimethylammonium...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ricardo C Waldemarin, Cléver R G de Farias
A conceptual model abstractly defines a number of concepts and their relationships for the purposes of understanding and communication. Once a conceptual model is available, it can also be used as a starting point for the development of a software system. The development of conceptual models using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) facilitates the representation of modeled concepts and allows software developers to directly reuse these concepts in the design of a software system. The OBO Foundry represents the most relevant collaborative effort towards the development of ontologies in the biomedical domain...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Christopher S Navara, Shital Chaudhari, John R McCarrey
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the possibility of cell replacement therapies using patient-matched cells to treat otherwise intractable diseases and debilitations. To successfully realize this potential, several factors must be optimized including i) selection of the appropriate cell type and numbers to transplant, ii) determination of the means of transplantation and the location into which the transplanted cells should be delivered, and iii) demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the cell replacement protocol to mitigate each targeted disease state...
2018: PloS One
Elena R Toenshoff, Peter D Fields, Yann X Bourgeois, Dieter Ebert
The planktonic freshwater crustacean of the genus Daphnia are a model system for biomedical research and, in particular, invertebrate-parasite interactions. Up until now, no virus has been characterized for this system. Here we report the discovery of an iridovirus as the causative agent of White Fat Cell Disease (WFCD) in Daphnia WFCD is a highly virulent disease of Daphnia that can easily be cultured under laboratory conditions. Although it has been studied from sites across Eurasia for more than 60 years, its causative agent had not been described, nor had an iridovirus been connected to WFCD before now...
February 27, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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