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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544066/type-2-diabetes-and-glucose-intolerance-in-a-population-with-intellectual-disabilities-the-stop-diabetes-cross-sectional-screening-study
#1
A J Dunkley, F Tyrer, L J Gray, S Bhaumik, R Spong, Y Chudasama, S-A Cooper, S Ganghadaran, M Davies, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) may be at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, due to lifestyle factors, medications and other diagnosed conditions. Currently, there is lack of evidence on prevalence and prevention in this population. The aim of this study was to conduct a diabetes screening programme to determine prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in people with ID. METHODS: Screening was conducted in a variety of community settings in Leicestershire, UK...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542224/is-spaceflight-induced-immune-dysfunction-linked-to-systemic-changes-in-metabolism
#2
Michael J Pecaut, Xiao Wen Mao, Denise L Bellinger, Karen R Jonscher, Louis S Stodieck, Virginia L Ferguson, Ted A Bateman, Robert P Mohney, Daila S Gridley
The Space Shuttle Atlantis launched on its final mission (STS-135) on July 8, 2011. After just under 13 days, the shuttle landed safely at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the last time. Female C57BL/6J mice flew as part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module-3 (CBTM-3) payload. Ground controls were maintained at the KSC facility. Subsets of these mice were made available to investigators as part of NASA's Bio-specimen Sharing Program (BSP). Our group characterized cell phenotype distributions and phagocytic function in the spleen, catecholamine and corticosterone levels in the adrenal glands, and transcriptomics/metabolomics in the liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541493/identifying-reports-of-randomized-controlled-trials-rcts-via-a-hybrid-machine-learning-and-crowdsourcing-approach
#3
Byron C Wallace, Anna Noel-Storr, Iain J Marshall, Aaron M Cohen, Neil R Smalheiser, James Thomas
Objectives: Identifying all published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is an important aim, but it requires extensive manual effort to separate RCTs from non-RCTs, even using current machine learning (ML) approaches. We aimed to make this process more efficient via a hybrid approach using both crowdsourcing and ML. Methods: We trained a classifier to discriminate between citations that describe RCTs and those that do not. We then adopted a simple strategy of automatically excluding citations deemed very unlikely to be RCTs by the classifier and deferring to crowdworkers otherwise...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541121/investigation-of-the-binding-and-simultaneous-quantifications-of-propanil-and-bromoxynil-herbicide-concentrations-in-human-serum-albumin
#4
Eric Appah, Brianda Elzey, Sayo O Fakayode
This study reported the use of UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and partial-least-square (PLS) multivariate regression for accurate and simultaneous quantifications of two widely used herbicides, propanil, 3',4'-dichloropropionanilide (PPL) and bromoxynil, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (BXL) in human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological conditions. The binding affinity and thermodynamic properties of PPL-HSA and BXL-HSA complexes were also investigated. Partial-least-square (PLS) regression was used to collate the variability in the absorption or emission spectra of PPL-HSA and BXL-HSA complexes with PPL and/or BXL concentrations in HSA samples...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538560/buccal-fat-pad-augmentation-for-facial-rejuvenation
#5
Steven R Cohen, Emily Fireman, Sierra Hewett, Ahmad Saad
The buccal space, with its fat pad, is a valuable, overlooked target in facial rejuvenation procedures. The authors identified a specific group of patients who have normal or prominent malar projection in the presence of atrophy of the buccal fat pad, with or without prominent gonial angles. Eight of 24 prospectively studied patients (Biomedical Research Institute of America) who had fat grafts and face lifts received an average of 2.7 ml of fat transferred into the buccal space. Immediate visual correction of the buccal depression was noted...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537751/using-neutron-reflectometry-to-characterize-antimicrobial-protein-surface-coatings
#6
Peter W Akers, Andrew J Dingley, Simon Swift, Andrew R J Nelson, Julie Martin, Duncan James McGillivray
Understanding the interaction of adsorbed or covalently immobilized proteins with solid substrates at the molecular level guides the successful design of functionalized surfaces used in biomedical applications. In this report, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to characterize the structure of surface-attached antimicrobial protein films, with antimicrobial activity assessed using an adaption of the Japanese Industrial Standard Test JIS Z 2801. NR allowed parameters influencing bioactivity to be measured at nanometer resolution and for conclusions about structural characteristics relating to bioactivity to be drawn...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534867/unique-identifiers-for-small-molecules-enable-rigorous-labeling-of-their-atoms
#7
Hesam Dashti, William M Westler, John L Markley, Hamid R Eghbalnia
Rigorous characterization of small organic molecules in terms of their structural and biological properties is vital to biomedical research. The three-dimensional structure of a molecule, its 'photo ID', is inefficient for searching and matching tasks. Instead, identifiers play a key role in accessing compound data. Unique and reproducible molecule and atom identifiers are required to ensure the correct cross-referencing of properties associated with compounds archived in databases. The best approach to this requirement is the International Chemical Identifier (InChI)...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527520/recent-advances-in-smart-biotechnology-hydrogels-and-nanocarriers-for-tailored-bioactive-molecules-depot
#8
REVIEW
Gesmi Milcovich, Stefania Lettieri, Filipe E Antunes, Bruno Medronho, Ana C Fonseca, Jorge F J Coelho, Paolo Marizza, Francesca Perrone, Rossella Farra, Barbara Dapas, Gabriele Grassi, Mario Grassi, Silvia Giordani
Over the past ten years, the global biopharmaceutical market has remarkably grown, with ten over the top twenty worldwide high performance medical treatment sales being biologics. Thus, biotech R&D (research and development) sector is becoming a key leading branch, with expanding revenues. Biotechnology offers considerable advantages compared to traditional therapeutic approaches, such as reducing side effects, specific treatments, higher patient compliance and therefore more effective treatments leading to lower healthcare costs...
May 9, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521785/expect-with-me-development-and-evaluation-design-for-an-innovative-model-of-group-prenatal-care-to-improve-perinatal-outcomes
#9
Shayna D Cunningham, Jessica B Lewis, Jordan L Thomas, Stephanie A Grilo, Jeannette R Ickovics
BACKGROUND: Despite biomedical advances and intervention efforts, rates of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes in the United States have remained relatively intransigent. Evidence suggests that group prenatal care can reduce these risks, with implications for maternal and child health as well as substantial cost savings. However, widespread dissemination presents challenges, in part because training and health systems have not been designed to deliver care in a group setting. This manuscript describes the design and evaluation of Expect With Me, an innovative model of group prenatal care with a strong integrated information technology (IT) platform designed to be scalable nationally...
May 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518066/scaled-anatomical-model-creation-of-biomedical-tomographic-imaging-data-and-associated-labels-for-subsequent-sub-surface-laser-engraving-ssle-of-glass-crystals
#10
Aislinn M Betts, Matthew T McGoldrick, Christopher R Dethlefs, Justin Piotrowicz, Tony Van Avermaete, Jeff Maki, Steve Gerstler, W M Leevy
Biomedical imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) provide excellent platforms for collecting three-dimensional data sets of patient or specimen anatomy in clinical or preclinical settings. However, the use of a virtual, on-screen display limits the ability of these tomographic images to fully convey the anatomical information embedded within. One solution is to interface a biomedical imaging data set with 3D printing technology to generate a physical replica. Here we detail a complementary method to visualize tomographic imaging data with a hand-held model: Sub Surface Laser Engraving (SSLE) of crystal glass...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516241/innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-relevance-of-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
Diana K Franco Bocanegra, James A R Nicoll, Delphine Boche
The mouse is one of the organisms most widely used as an animal model in biomedical research, due to the particular ease with which it can be handled and reproduced in laboratory. As a member of the mammalian class, mice share with humans many features regarding metabolic pathways, cell morphology and anatomy. However, important biological differences between mice and humans exist and must be taken into consideration when interpreting research results, to properly translate evidence from experimental studies into information that can be useful for human disease prevention and/or treatment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515151/assessing-the-satisfaction-and-burden-within-an-academic-animal-care-and-use-program
#12
John N Norton, Randall P Reynolds, Cliburn Chan, Raphael H Valdivia, Herman F Staats
Although animal research requires adherence to various regulations and standards, the manner in which compliance is maintained and the degree of additional constraints varies between institutions. Regulatory burden, particularly if institutionally imposed, has become a concern for institutions as increased regulatory expectations result in decreased resources available for research efforts. Faculty, research staff, and support staff engaged in animal research were surveyed to determine what Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) processes were considered burdensome, the perceived value of some suggested modifications, and satisfaction with the IACUC Administrative Office and the animal resource unit...
May 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510792/a-systematic-review-of-proinsulin-secreting-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#13
Timothy D Murtha, Beatrice C Lupsa, Sachin Majumdar, Dhanpat Jain, Ronald R Salem
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of islet cell-derived neoplasms with a propensity toward hormone production. Among PNETs, proinsulin-secreting tumors (proinsulinomas) are exceedingly rare. The objective of this study is to collect and summarize the existing literature to provide a comprehensive evaluation of this uncommon disease. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to characterize the clinicopathologic features of proinsulinoma...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510011/dynamic-light-scattering-a-practical-guide-and-applications-in-biomedical-sciences
#14
REVIEW
Jörg Stetefeld, Sean A McKenna, Trushar R Patel
Dynamic light scattering (DLS), also known as photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), is a very powerful tool for studying the diffusion behaviour of macromolecules in solution. The diffusion coefficient, and hence the hydrodynamic radii calculated from it, depends on the size and shape of macromolecules. In this review, we provide evidence of the usefulness of DLS to study the homogeneity of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes of protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid preparations, as well as to study protein-small molecule interactions...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509358/beware-of-the-predatory-science-journal-a-potential-threat-to-the-integrity-of-medical-research
#15
J Johal, R Ward, J Gielecki, J Walocha, K Natsis, R S Tubbs, M Loukas
The issue of predatory journals has become increasingly more prevalent over the past decade, as the open-access model of publishing has gained prominence. Although the open-access model is well-intentioned to increase accessibility of biomedical research, it is vulnerable to exploitation by those looking to corrupt medical academia and circumvent ethics and research standards. Predatory journals will achieve publication by either soliciting unsuspecting researchers who have legitimate research but fall victim to these predators, or researchers looking to quickly publish their research without a thorough review process...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501192/variability-of-fluorescence-spectra-of-coelenteramide-containing-proteins-as-a-basis-for-toxicity-monitoring
#16
Roza R Alieva, Nadezhda S Kudryasheva
Nowadays, physicochemical approach to understanding toxic effects remains underdeveloped. A proper development of such mode would be concerned with simplest bioassay systems. Coelenteramide-Containing Fluorescent Proteins (CLM-CFPs) can serve as proper tools for study primary physicochemical processes in organisms under external exposures. CLM-CFPs are products of bioluminescent reactions of marine coelenterates. As opposed to Green Fluorescent Proteins, the CLM-CFPs are not widely applied in biomedical research, and their potential as colored biomarkers is undervalued now...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501162/solidification-of-floating-organic-droplet-in-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-as-a-green-analytical-tool
#17
REVIEW
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is a special type of microextraction in which a mixture of two solvents (an extracting solvent and a disperser) is injected into the sample. The extraction solvent is then dispersed as fine droplets in the cloudy sample through manual or mechanical agitation. Hence, the sample is centrifuged to break the formed emulsion and the extracting solvent is manually separated. The organic solvents commonly used in DLLME are halogenated hydrocarbons that are highly toxic...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501151/micro-sampling-method-based-on-high-resolution-continuum-source-graphite-furnace-atomic-absorption-spectrometry-for-calcium-determination-in-blood-and-mitochondrial-suspensions
#18
Beatriz Gómez-Nieto, Mª Jesús Gismera, Mª Teresa Sevilla, Jorgina Satrústegui, Jesús R Procopio
A micro-sampling and straightforward method based on high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) was developed to determine extracellular and intracellular Ca in samples of interest in clinical and biomedical analysis. Solid sampling platforms were used to introduce the micro-samples into the graphite furnace atomizer. The secondary absorption line for Ca, located at 239.856nm, was selected to carry out the measurements. Experimental parameters such as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amount of sample introduced for the measurements were optimized...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496523/probing-the-causes-of-thermal-hysteresis-using-tunable-nagg-micelles-with-linear-and-brush-like-thermoresponsive-coronas
#19
L D Blackman, M I Gibson, R K O'Reilly
Self-assembled thermoresponsive polymers in aqueous solution have great potential as smart, switchable materials for use in biomedical applications. In recent years, attention has turned to the reversibility of these polymers' thermal transitions, which has led to debate over what factors influence discrepancies in the transition temperature when heating the system compared to the temperature obtained when cooling the system, known as the thermal hysteresis. Herein, we synthesize micelles with tunable aggregation numbers (Nagg) whose cores contain poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (p(nBA-co-DMA)) and four different thermoresponsive corona blocks, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM), poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (pDEAm), poly(diethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate) (pDEGMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) (pOEGMA)...
January 1, 2017: Polymer Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490557/the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-oxidative-nucleic-acid-modifications-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Emil List Larsen, Vanja Cejvanovic, Laura Kofoed Kjær, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop, Jørgen Rungby, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although glycaemic control reduces microvascular complications, the effect of intensive treatment strategies or individual drugs on macrovascular diseases is still debated. RNA oxidation is associated with increased mortality in patients with T2D. Inspired by animal studies showing effect of a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor (empagliflozin) on oxidative stress and a recent trial evaluating empagliflozin that demonstrated improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2D at high risk of cardiovascular events, we hypothesise that empagliflozin lowers oxidative stress...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
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