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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790240/understanding-mucosal-and-microbial-functionality-of-the-female-reproductive-tract-by-metaproteomics-implications-for-hiv-transmission
#1
Alicia R Berard, Michelle Perner, Sarah Mutch, Christina Farr Zuend, Peter McQueen, Adam D Burgener
The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789682/the-role-of-diet-in-the-aetiopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789621/taxon-specific-aerosolization-of-bacteria-and-viruses-in-an-experimental-ocean-atmosphere-mesocosm
#3
Jennifer M Michaud, Luke R Thompson, Drishti Kaul, Josh L Espinoza, R Alexander Richter, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Christopher Lee, Kevin M Pham, Charlotte M Beall, Francesca Malfatti, Farooq Azam, Rob Knight, Michael D Burkart, Christopher L Dupont, Kimberly A Prather
Ocean-derived, airborne microbes play important roles in Earth's climate system and human health, yet little is known about factors controlling their transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere. Here, we study microbiomes of isolated sea spray aerosol (SSA) collected in a unique ocean-atmosphere facility and demonstrate taxon-specific aerosolization of bacteria and viruses. These trends are conserved within taxonomic orders and classes, and temporal variation in aerosolization is similarly shared by related taxa...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789388/tissue-resident-macrophages-in-the-intestine-are-long-lived-and-defined-by-tim-4-and-cd4-expression
#4
Tovah N Shaw, Stephanie A Houston, Kelly Wemyss, Hayley M Bridgeman, Thomas A Barbera, Tamsin Zangerle-Murray, Patrick Strangward, Amanda J L Ridley, Ping Wang, Samira Tamoutounour, Judith E Allen, Joanne E Konkel, John R Grainger
A defining feature of resident gut macrophages is their high replenishment rate from blood monocytes attributed to tonic commensal stimulation of this site. In contrast, almost all other tissues contain locally maintained macrophage populations, which coexist with monocyte-replenished cells at homeostasis. In this study, we identified three transcriptionally distinct mouse gut macrophage subsets that segregate based on expression of Tim-4 and CD4. Challenging current understanding, Tim-4+ CD4+ gut macrophages were found to be locally maintained, while Tim-4- CD4+ macrophages had a slow turnover from blood monocytes; indeed, Tim-4- CD4- macrophages were the only subset with the high monocyte-replenishment rate currently attributed to gut macrophages...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789016/unraveling-bacterial-fingerprints-of-city-subways-from-microbiome-16s-gene-profiles
#5
Alejandro R Walker, Tyler L Grimes, Somnath Datta, Susmita Datta
BACKGROUND: Microbial communities can be location specific, and the abundance of species within locations can influence our ability to determine whether a sample belongs to one city or another. As part of the 2017 CAMDA MetaSUB Inter-City Challenge, next generation sequencing (NGS) data was generated from swipe samples collected from subway stations in Boston, New York City hereafter New York, and Sacramento. DNA was extracted and Illumina sequenced. Sequencing data was provided for all cities as part of 2017 CAMDA contest challenge dataset...
May 22, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788934/the-lung-microbiome-in-children-with-hiv-bronchiectasis-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#6
Refiloe Masekela, Solize Vosloo, Stephanus N Venter, Wilhelm Z de Beer, Robin J Green
BACKGROUND: Data on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected children is limited. The current study sought to determine the lung microbiome in HIV-associated bronchiectasis and to assess its association with pulmonary exacerbations. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study of 22 children (68% male; mean age 10.8 years) with HIV-associated bronchiectasis and a control group of 5 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-one samples were collected, with 11 during exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788417/poor-feed-efficiency-in-sheep-is-associated-with-several-structural-abnormalities-in-the-community-metabolic-network-of-their-ruminal-microbes
#7
Rocky D Patil, Melinda J Ellison, Sara M Wolff, Courtney Shearer, Anna M Wright, Rebecca R Cockrum, Kathy J Austin, William R Lamberson, Kristi M Cammack, Gavin C Conant
Ruminant animals have a symbiotic relationship with the microorganisms in their rumens. In this relationship, rumen microbes efficiently degrade complex plant-derived compounds into smaller digestible compounds, a process that is very likely associated with host animal feed efficiency. The resulting simpler metabolites can then be absorbed by the host and converted into other compounds by host enzymes. We used a microbial community metabolic network inferred from shotgun metagenomics data to assess how this metabolic system differs between animals that are able to turn ingested feedstuffs into body mass with high efficiency and those that are not...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783199/inhalational-exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-alters-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiome
#8
Ece A Mutlu, Işın Y Comba, Takugo Cho, Phillip A Engen, Cemal Yazıcı, Saul Soberanes, Robert B Hamanaka, Recep Niğdelioğlu, Angelo Y Meliton, Andrew J Ghio, G R Scott Budinger, Gökhan M Mutlu
Recent studies suggest an association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. In addition to direct deposition, PM can be indirectly deposited in oropharynx via mucociliary clearance and upon swallowing of saliva and mucus. Within the GI tract, PM may alter the GI epithelium and gut microbiome. Our goal was to determine the effect of PM on gut microbiota in a murine model of PM exposure via inhalation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed via inhalation to either concentrated ambient particles or filtered air for 8-h per day, 5-days a week, for a total of 3-weeks...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780377/the-gut-microbiota-of-marine-fish
#9
REVIEW
Sian Egerton, Sarah Culloty, Jason Whooley, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#10
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777867/antibiotic-exposure-prior-to-respiratory-viral-infection-is-associated-with-progression-to-lower-respiratory-tract-disease-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#11
Chikara Ogimi, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jonathan L Golob, Alpana Waghmare, Catherine Liu, Wendy M Leisenring, Christopher R Woodard, Sara Marquis, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Steven A Pergam, David N Fredricks, Mohamed L Sorror, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
INTRODUCTION: Recent publications note an association between antibiotic exposure and respiratory viral infections (RVIs). Antibiotics affect microbiota and impair immune response against RVIs in mice, and low microbiome diversity is associated with pulmonary complications including viral lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. In this study, we examined whether antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of disease progression in RVIs post-transplantation...
May 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#12
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777439/fecal-and-mucosa-associated-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770369/nanomaterial-microbe-cross-talk-physicochemical-principles-and-patho-biological-consequences
#14
REVIEW
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767712/limited-influence-of-hospital-wastewater-on-the-microbiome-and-resistome-of-wastewater-in-a-community-sewerage-system
#15
Elena Buelow, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline Majoor, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Heike Schmitt, Willem van Schaik
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been proposed to act as point sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Hospital sewage may contribute to the spread of ARB and ARGs as it contains the feces and urine of hospitalized patients, who are more frequently colonized with multi-drug resistant bacteria than the general population. However, whether hospital sewage noticeably contributes to the quantity and diversity of ARGs in the general sewerage system has not yet been determined...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#16
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761610/pathways-and-mechanisms-linking-dietary-components-to-cardiometabolic-disease-thinking-beyond-calories
#17
REVIEW
K L Stanhope, M I Goran, A Bosy-Westphal, J C King, L A Schmidt, J-M Schwarz, E Stice, A C Sylvetsky, P J Turnbaugh, G A Bray, C D Gardner, P J Havel, V Malik, A E Mason, E Ravussin, M Rosenbaum, J A Welsh, C Allister-Price, D M Sigala, M R C Greenwood, A Astrup, R M Krauss
Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions...
May 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#18
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761046/low-bacterial-community-diversity-in-two-introduced-aphid-pests-revealed-with-16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing
#19
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761040/viromes-of-one-year-old-infants-reveal-the-impact-of-birth-mode-on-microbiome-diversity
#20
Angela McCann, Feargal J Ryan, Stephen R Stockdale, Marion Dalmasso, Tony Blake, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Susan Mills, Paul R Ross, Colin Hill
Establishing a diverse gut microbiota after birth is being increasingly recognised as important for preventing illnesses later in life. It is well established that bacterial diversity rapidly increases post-partum; however, few studies have examined the infant gut virome/phageome during this developmental period. We performed a metagenomic analysis of 20 infant faecal viromes at one year of age to determine whether spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) or caesarean section (CS) influenced viral composition. We find that birth mode results in distinctly different viral communities, with SVD infants having greater viral and bacteriophage diversity...
2018: PeerJ
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