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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214542/several-hpept1-transported-drugs-are-substrates-of-the-e-coli-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporter-ydgr
#1
Bala K Prabhala, Nanda G Aduri, Mazhar Iqbal, Moazur Rahman, Michael Gajhede, Paul R Hansen, Osman Mirza
Proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are secondary active transporters found in all kingdoms of life. POTs utilize the proton electrochemical gradient for the uptake of nutrient dipeptides and tripeptides. The human POT hPepT1 is known to transport a number of drugs. As part of ongoing studies on substrate specificities of POTs from E. coli, our aim in this study was to investigate whether bacterial POTs could also transport these drugs. For this, we selected the common orally administered drugs sulpiride, bestatin, valacyclovir, ampicillin and oseltamivir, that are all transported by hPepT1...
February 15, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#2
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207943/the-role-of-the-skin-microbiome-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
R Dybboe, J Bandier, L Skov, L Engstrand, J D Johansen
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is a hallmark of atopic dermatitis. The composition of skin microbiome communities and the causality of dysbiosis in eczema have not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To describe the skin microbiome profile in atopic dermatitis and address if there is a causal relationship between dysbiosis and atopic dermatitis. METHODS: The protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016035813). We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ClinicalTrials...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#4
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205371/integrating-gut-microbiota-immaturity-and-disease-discriminatory-taxa-to-diagnose-the-initiation-and-severity-of-shrimp-disease
#5
Jinbo Xiong, Jinyong Zhu, Wenfang Dai, Chunming Dong, Qiongfen Qiu, Chenghua Li
Increasing evidence has emerged a tight link among the gut microbiota, host age and health status. This osculating interplay impedes the definition of gut microbiome features associated with host health from that in developmental stages. Consequently, gut microbiota-based prediction of health status is promising yet not well established. Here we firstly tracked shrimp gut microbiota (N = 118) over an entire cycle of culture; shrimp either stayed healthy, or progressively transitioned into severe disease. The results showed that the gut microbiota were significantly distinct over shrimp developmental stages, and disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197769/confounding-effects-of-microbiome-on-the-susceptibility-of-tnfsf15-to-crohn-s-disease-in-the-ryukyu-islands
#6
Shigeki Nakagome, Hiroshi Chinen, Atsushi Iraha, Akira Hokama, Yasuaki Takeyama, Shotaro Sakisaka, Toshiyuki Matsui, Judith R Kidd, Kenneth K Kidd, Heba S Said, Wataru Suda, Hidetoshi Morita, Masahira Hattori, Tsunehiko Hanihara, Ryosuke Kimura, Hajime Ishida, Jiro Fujita, Fukunori Kinjo, Shuhei Mano, Hiroki Oota
Crohn's disease (CD) involves chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract due to dysregulation of the host immune response to the gut microbiome. Even though the host-microbiome interactions are likely contributors to the development of CD, a few studies have detected genetic variants that change bacterial compositions and increase CD risk. We focus on one of the well-replicated susceptible genes, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), and apply statistical analyses for personal profiles of genotypes and salivary microbiota collected from CD cases and controls in the Ryukyu Islands, southernmost islands of the Japanese archipelago...
February 14, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196961/bacterial-topography-of-the-healthy-human-lower-respiratory-tract
#7
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Christine M Freeman, Lisa McCloskey, Nicole R Falkowski, Gary B Huffnagle, Jeffrey L Curtis
Although culture-independent techniques have refuted lung sterility in health, controversy about contamination during bronchoscope passage through the upper respiratory tract (URT) has impeded research progress. We sought to establish whether bronchoscopic sampling accurately reflects the lung microbiome in health and to distinguish between two proposed routes of authentic microbial immigration, (i) dispersion along contiguous respiratory mucosa and (ii) subclinical microaspiration. During bronchoscopy of eight adult volunteers without lung disease, we performed seven protected specimen brushings (PSB) and bilateral bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) per subject...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#8
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#9
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188207/use-of-endophytic-and-rhizosphere-bacteria-to-improve-phytoremediation-of-arsenic-contaminated-industrial-soils-by-autochthonous-betula-celtiberica
#10
Victoria Mesa, Alejandro Navazas, Ricardo González-Gil, Aida González, Nele Weyens, Béatrice Lauga, Jose Luis R Gallego, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez
The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonadales, specially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187782/sputum-dna-sequencing-in-cystic-fibrosis-non-invasive-access-to-the-lung-microbiome-and-to-pathogen-details
#11
Rounak Feigelman, Christian R Kahlert, Florent Baty, Frank Rassouli, Rebekka L Kleiner, Philipp Kohler, Martin H Brutsche, Christian von Mering
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disorder, characterized by chronic microbial lung infections due to abnormally viscous mucus secretions within airways. The clinical management of CF typically involves regular respiratory-tract cultures in order to identify pathogens and to guide treatment. However, culture-based methods can miss atypical or slow-growing microbes. Furthermore, the isolated microbes are often not classified at the strain level due to limited taxonomic resolution...
February 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186132/bacterial-community-dynamics-are-linked-to-patterns-of-coral-heat-tolerance
#12
Maren Ziegler, Francois O Seneca, Lauren K Yum, Stephen R Palumbi, Christian R Voolstra
Ocean warming threatens corals and the coral reef ecosystem. Nevertheless, corals can be adapted to their thermal environment and inherit heat tolerance across generations. In addition, the diverse microbes that associate with corals have the capacity for more rapid change, potentially aiding the adaptation of long-lived corals. Here, we show that the microbiome of reef corals is different across thermally variable habitats and changes over time when corals are reciprocally transplanted. Exposing these corals to thermal bleaching conditions changes the microbiome for heat-sensitive corals, but not for heat-tolerant corals growing in habitats with natural high heat extremes...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179108/revisiting-metchnikoff-age-related-alterations-in-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-the-mouse
#13
Karen A Scott, Masayuki Ida, Veronica L Peterson, Jack A Prenderville, Gerard M Moloney, Takayuki Izumo, Kiera Murphy, Amy Murphy, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of aging and alterations in the gut microbiome...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179014/mirkat-s-a-community-level-test-of-association-between-the-microbiota-and-survival-times
#14
Anna Plantinga, Xiang Zhan, Ni Zhao, Jun Chen, Robert R Jenq, Michael C Wu
BACKGROUND: Community-level analysis of the human microbiota has culminated in the discovery of relationships between overall shifts in the microbiota and a wide range of diseases and conditions. However, existing work has primarily focused on analysis of relatively simple dichotomous or quantitative outcomes, for example, disease status or biomarker levels. Recently, there is also considerable interest in the relationship between the microbiota and censored survival outcomes, such as in clinical trials...
February 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178947/an-integrative-bayesian-dirichlet-multinomial-regression-model-for-the-analysis-of-taxonomic-abundances-in-microbiome-data
#15
W Duncan Wadsworth, Raffaele Argiento, Michele Guindani, Jessica Galloway-Pena, Samuel A Shelbourne, Marina Vannucci
BACKGROUND: The Human Microbiome has been variously associated with the immune-regulatory mechanisms involved in the prevention or development of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. Integrative approaches which aim at associating the composition of the human microbiome with other available information, such as clinical covariates and environmental predictors, are paramount to develop a more complete understanding of the role of microbiome in disease development...
February 8, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178425/synthetic-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-medium-diminishes-i-burkholderia-cenocepacia-i-antifungal-activity-against-i-aspergillus-fumigatus-i-independently-of-phenylacetic-acid-production
#16
Tasia Joy Lightly, Ryan R Phung, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Phenylacetic acid (PAA), an intermediate of phenylalanine degradation, is emerging as a signal molecule in microbial interactions with the host. In this work, we explore the presence of phenylalanine and PAA catabolism in three microbial pathogens of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome: <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> and <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i>. While <i>in silico</i> analysis of <i>B. cenocepacia</i> J2315 and <i>A...
February 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178051/urinary-microbiome-and-cytokine-levels-in-women-with-interstitial-cystitis
#17
Melinda G Abernethy, Amy Rosenfeld, James R White, Margaret G Mueller, Christina Lewicky-Gaupp, Kimberly Kenton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the urinary microbiome and cytokine levels between women with and without interstitial cystitis and to correlate differences with scores on standardized symptom severity scales and depression and anxiety screening tools. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study compared women presenting to a pelvic floor clinic and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis over a 6-month period with age-matched women in a control group from the same institution...
February 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178033/social-influences-on-prevotella-and-the-gut-microbiome-of-young-monkeys
#18
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Alexandra Proctor, Mark Lyte, Gregory J Phillips, Christopher L Coe
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the bacterial profiles of young monkeys as they were weaned into peer groups with a particular focus on Prevotella, an important taxon in both human and nonhuman primates. The weaning of infants and increased social contact with peers is a developmental stage that is likely to affect the gut microbiome. METHODS: Gut bacteria were assessed in 63 rhesus monkeys living in social groups comprised of 4-7 individuals. Two groups were assessed prospectively on Day 1 and 2 weeks after rehousing away from the mother and group formation...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177125/association-of-oral-microbiome-with-type-2-diabetes-risk
#19
J Long, Q Cai, M Steinwandel, M K Hargreaves, S R Bordenstein, W J Blot, W Zheng, X O Shu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The oral microbiome may help to maintain systemic health, including how it affects blood glucose levels; however, direct evidence linking the oral microbiome with diabetes is lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared the oral microbiome profiles of 98 participants with incident diabetes, 99 obese non-diabetics and 97 normal weight non-diabetics, via deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: We found that the phylum Actinobacteria was present significantly less abundant among patients with diabetes than among the controls (p = 3...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176881/functional-coupling-of-human-microphysiology-systems-intestine-liver-kidney-proximal-tubule-blood-brain-barrier-and-skeletal-muscle
#20
Lawrence Vernetti, Albert Gough, Nicholas Baetz, Sarah Blutt, James R Broughman, Jacquelyn A Brown, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Nesrin Hasan, Julie In, Edward Kelly, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Jonathan Repper, Nina Senutovitch, Janet Stabb, Catherine Yeung, Nick C Zachos, Mark Donowitz, Mary Estes, Jonathan Himmelfarb, George Truskey, John P Wikswo, D Lansing Taylor
Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process. In this study, five human MPS models were evaluated for functional coupling, defined as the determination of organ interactions via an in vivo-like sequential, organ-to-organ transfer of media...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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