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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642878/the-problem-of-suicide-among-amerindians-in-camopi-trois-sauts-french-guiana-2008-2015
#1
Rémi Pacot, Basma Garmit, Marianne Pradem, Mathieu Nacher, Paul Brousse
BACKGROUND: Suicide within the Amerindian community of Camopi (1741 inhabitants) in French Guiana has been an increasing problem widely reported in the media leading the French Government to mandate a parliamentary mission to investigate the matter. The purpose of the study was to describe this phenomenon and identify factors associated with suicide attempts. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted from the health centers' medical records. All suicide attempts and suicides committed between 2008 and 2015 by Amerindians living in Camopi and Trois Sauts were compiled...
April 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626743/examining-racial-ethnic-differences-in-patterns-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-and-misuse
#2
Benjamin Cook, Timothy Creedon, Ye Wang, Chunling Lu, Nicholas Carson, Piter Jules, Esther Lee, Margarita Alegría
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed during psychiatric treatment. Unfortunately, their misuse has led to recent surges in overdose emergency visits and drug-related deaths. METHODS: Electronic health record data from a large healthcare system were used to describe racial/ethnic, sex, and age differences in BZD use and dependence. Among patients with a BZD prescription, we assessed differences in the likelihood of subsequently receiving a BZD dependence diagnosis, number of BZD prescriptions, receiving only one BZD prescription, and receiving 18 or more BZD prescriptions...
March 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626485/rapid-effects-of-ovarian-hormones-in-dorsal-striatum-and-nucleus-accumbens
#3
REVIEW
Katie E Yoest, Jacqueline A Quigley, Jill B Becker
Estradiol and progesterone rapidly induce changes in dopaminergic signaling within the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of female rats. In ovariectomized females, estradiol rapidly enhances dopamine release and modulates binding of dopamine receptors. Progesterone further potentiates the effect of estradiol on dopamine release. The effects of both estradiol and progesterone are time course dependent, with increases in dopamine release immediately after acute hormone administration followed by later inhibition of dopamine release...
April 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609132/the-self-report-habit-index-assessing-habitual-marijuana-alcohol-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-use
#4
Meghan E Morean, Kelly S DeMartini, Dawn Foster, Julie Patock-Peckham, Kathleen A Garrison, Philip R Corlett, John H Krystal, Suchitra Krishan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. METHODS: We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users...
March 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602939/-personality-traits-of-perpetrators-of-various-types-of-crimes
#5
Adrianna Skoczek, Urszula Gancarczyk, Paweł Prochownik, Bartosz Sobień, Piotr Podolec, Monika Komar
This study was conducted in Nowy Wiśnicz, with prisoners sentenced for: murders, sex crimes, theft and robbery, maintenance, bullying. A Polish adaptation of PAI test, made by the author of the study, was used. The study results and its statistical analysis showed characteristic personality features of particular criminal groups can be used in rehabilitation of disturbed people, addicts, and become the basis for preparing actions reducing frequency of committing crimes.
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597072/increased-prevalence-of-anxiety-disorders-in-third-generation-migrants-in-comparison-to-natives-and-to-first-generation-migrants
#6
Baptiste Pignon, Ali Amad, Antoine Pelissolo, Thomas Fovet, Pierre Thomas, Guillaume Vaiva, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Imane Benradia, Benjamin Rolland, Pierre A Geoffroy
INTRODUCTION: We sought to examine the prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with migration in the first-, second- and third-generation. METHODS: The French Mental Health in the General Population cross-sectional survey interviewed 38,694 individuals using the MINI. The prevalence of lifetime anxiety disorders, and comorbidities was compared between migrants and non-migrants and by generation. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and income and education levels...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595540/sex-specific-differences-in-cannabinoid-induced-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-phosphorylation-in-the-cingulate-cortex-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-of-lister-hooded-rats
#7
Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Valentina Giugliano, Silvia Antinori, Simona Scheggi, Paola Fadda, Walter Fratta, Elio Acquas, Liana Fattore
Sex-dependent differences have been consistently described in cannabinoid addiction research. In particular, we recently reported that female Lister Hooded rats display greater self-administration of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and stronger reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior than males. Cannabinoids modulate the phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, leading to various forms of plasticity-related learning that likely affect operant behavior...
March 27, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568277/the-development-and-validation-of-the-bergen-yale-sex-addiction-scale-with-a-large-national-sample
#8
Cecilie S Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen, Mark D Griffiths, Torbjørn Torsheim, Rajita Sinha
The view that problematic excessive sexual behavior ("sex addiction") is a form of behavioral addiction has gained more credence in recent years, but there is still considerable controversy regarding operationalization of the concept. Furthermore, most previous studies have relied on small clinical samples. The present study presents a new method for assessing sex addiction-the Bergen-Yale Sex Addiction Scale (BYSAS)-based on established addiction components (i.e., salience/craving, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict/problems, and relapse/loss of control)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560944/-an-essential-negative-effect-of-a-family-history-of-substance-use-on-readiness-for-drug-dependence-rehabilitation-treatment-in-inpatients-with-addictions
#9
A O Kibitov, L P Babicheva, N A Chuprova, A V Shchurina, R A Romashkin
AIM: To reveal objective factors predicting the readiness of inpatient drug treatment patients to undergo a rehabilitation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective comparative study, drug-dependent individuals (n=199, 16.6% females, 83.4% men, 91.5% opioid-dependent) were studied. After conducting motivational activities based on cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, the premorbid, anamnestic, clinical, socio-demographic characteristics of patients were studied as possible predictors of readiness for rehabilitation using binary logistic regression...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547799/personality-profiles-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictions
#10
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yehuda Neumark, Yuri Rassovsky
Substance-related and behavioral addictions are extremely prevalent and represent a major public health concern. In the ongoing attempt to understand the addictive personality, contradictory results have arisen from studies that have explored personality traits in different addiction populations. The diversity across addiction types suggests that some of these inconsistencies stem from distinct personalities underlying each addiction. The present study compares the personality profiles of several addictions, representing both substance (drugs and alcohol) and behavioral (gambling and sex) subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523623/coordinated-ramping-of-dorsal-striatal-pathways-preceding-food-approach-and-consumption
#11
T D London, J A Licholai, I Szczot, M A Ali, K H LeBlanc, W C Fobbs, A V Kravitz
The striatum controls food-related actions and consumption and is linked to feeding disorders including obesity and anorexia nervosa. Two populations of neurons project from the striatum: direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs) and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs). The selective contribution of dMSNs and iMSNs to food-related actions and consumption remains unknown. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology and fiber photometry in mice (of both sexes) to record both spiking activity and pathway-specific calcium activity of dorsal striatal neurons during approach to and consumption of food pellets...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510706/disparities-in-tobacco-use-by-adolescents-in-southeast-nigeria-using-global-youth-tobacco-survey-gyts-approach
#12
Ijeoma U Itanyi, Chika N Onwasigwe, Scott McIntosh, Tamara Bruno, Deborah Ossip, Emmanuel A Nwobi, Chima A Onoka, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use during adolescence is a substantial problem and adolescents are at higher risk of addiction and prolonged use. To reduce the burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, monitoring of adolescent tobacco use is imperative. We aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in urban and rural secondary schools in Enugu State, southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 4332 adolescents in 8th to 10th grades in 25 urban and 24 rural secondary schools in Enugu, Nigeria was done using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496142/the-art-of-matching-brain-tissue-from-patients-and-controls-for-postmortem-research
#13
Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
The quality of postmortem research depends strongly on a thorough clinical investigation and documentation of the patient's disorder and therapies. In addition, a systematic and professional neuropathologic investigation of both cases and controls is absolutely crucial. In the experience of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), about 20% of clinical neurologic diagnoses, despite being made in first-rate clinics, have to be revised or require an extra diagnosis after a complete and thorough review by the NBB. The neuropathology examination may reveal for instance that the "controls" already have preclinical neurodegenerative alterations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488587/-prevalence-of-hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-and-treponema-pallidum-in-inmates-in-the-preventive-detention-center-of-arica-chile
#14
Celia Bórquez, Ismelda Lobato, Paola Gazmuri, Romina Hurtado, Valerie Llanqui, Mauricio Vivanco, Teresa Reyes, Hilda Villanueva, Katherine Salgado, M Angélica Martínez, Juan Vega
BACKGROUND: The risk groups for sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) are sex workers, drug addicts, young people in early sexual initiation, and population in prison. AIM: To determine the prevalence of HIV, Treponema pallidum and hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in male inmates at the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) of Arica. METHODS: The study was conducted in 140 inmates, with informed consent. Epidemiological survey and blood sampling was conducted...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485376/psychometric-analysis-of-the-barber-suggestibility-scale-in-a-clinical-population
#15
Xavier Pellicer Asensio, Adela Fusté Escolano, José Ruiz Rodríguez
The aim of the study was to administer the Barber suggestibility scale to a clinical population in Spain and to examine its psychometric properties therein. The reliability and factor structure of the adapted scale was compared with that of the original (American) scale and with data from two other versions (British and Puerto Rican samples). Sex differences in suggestibility were also analyzed. The Barber suggestibility scale was administered (without preliminaries) to a sample of 283 patients (130 women, 153 men) with a range of diagnoses: anxiety disorder (33...
April 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484686/predictors-of-gabapentin-overuse-with-or-without-concomitant-opioids-in-a-commercially-insured-u-s-population
#16
Alyssa M Peckham, Kirk E Evoy, Jordan R Covvey, Leslie Ochs, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests the medical consequences of gabapentin overuse depend on whether gabapentin is abused alone or with opioids to potentiate an opioid "high." The objective of this study was to assess predictors of gabapentin overuse with or without concomitant opioids. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database for 2013 through 2015. Eligibility criteria were gabapentin utilization, with or without opioids, for 120 days or longer throughout a 12-month observation period...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478874/memory-focused-cognitive-therapy-for-cocaine-use-disorder-theory-procedures-and-preliminary-evidence-from-an-external-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
John Marsden, Camille Goetz, Tim Meynen, Luke Mitcheson, Garry Stillwell, Brian Eastwood, John Strang, Nick Grey
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a debilitating condition with no NICE-recommended medication or specific psychosocial interventions. In the United Kingdom (UK), general counselling (treatment-as-usual; TAU) is widely delivered, but has limited effectiveness. We tested the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of a novel, adjunctive psychosocial intervention for CUD, called 'memory-focused cognitive therapy' (MFCT). METHODS: We did a two-arm, external pilot randomised controlled trial at a specialist community National Health Service addictions clinic in London, UK...
February 2, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450245/video-game-addiction-and-psychological-distress-among-expatriate-adolescents-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Nazmus Saquib, Juliann Saquib, AbdulWaris Wahid, Abdulrahman Akmal Ahmed, Hamad Emad Dhuhayr, Mohamed Saddik Zaghloul, Mohammed Ewid, Abdulrahman Al-Mazrou
Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445298/presence-of-pain-on-three-or-more-days-of-the-week-is-associated-with-worse-patient-reported-outcomes-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Nitya Bakshi, Diana Ross, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
While acute episodic pain is the hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD), transition to chronic pain is a major cause of morbidity and impaired quality of life. One of the core diagnostic criteria used by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) to define chronic SCD pain is the presence of pain on a "majority of days" in the past 6 months in one or more locations. The frequency characteristic of "majority of days" is adapted from the criteria of 15 days or more per month, used to define chronic migraine, but there are inadequate data to support this cutoff in SCD...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434815/dopamine-receptor-d4-promoter-hypermethylation-increases-the-risk-of-drug-addiction
#20
Huihui Ji, Xuting Xu, Guili Liu, Huifen Liu, Qinwen Wang, Wenwen Shen, Longhui Li, Xiaohu Xie, Haochang Hu, Lei Xu, Wenhua Zhou, Shiwei Duan
Heroin and methylamphetamine (METH) are two addictive drugs that cause serious problems for society. Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a key receptor in the dopaminergic system, may facilitate the development of drug addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the promoter methylation level of DRD4 gene and drug addiction. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to measure the methylation levels of DRD4 promoter in 60 drug addicts and 52 matched controls. Significantly higher levels of DRD4 CpG1 and CpG4 methylation were detected in METH and heroin drug addicts compared with controls (P<0...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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