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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072417/dopaminergic-dynamics-underlying-sex-specific-cocaine-reward
#1
Erin S Calipari, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Deena M Walker, Michael E Cahill, Efrain Ribeiro, Ciorana Roman-Ortiz, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Ming-Hu Han, Eric J Nestler
Although both males and females become addicted to cocaine, females transition to addiction faster and experience greater difficulties remaining abstinent. We demonstrate an oestrous cycle-dependent mechanism controlling increased cocaine reward in females. During oestrus, ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron activity is enhanced and drives post translational modifications at the dopamine transporter (DAT) to increase the ability of cocaine to inhibit its function, an effect mediated by estradiol. Female mice conditioned to associate cocaine with contextual cues during oestrus have enhanced mesolimbic responses to these cues in the absence of drug...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026981/challenges-to-practicing-hiv-sex-risk-prevention-among-people-in-continuing-care-for-cocaine-addiction
#2
Alexandra S Wimberly, Max R Stern, Sarah B Rosenbach, Tyrone Thomas, James R McKay
BACKGROUND: Intimate partnerships are discouraged during early recovery, despite research that highlights their capacity to be resources for change. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to provide descriptions of intimate partnerships and how such partnerships challenge and/or support minimizing HIV sex-risk among participants in continuing care for cocaine addiction in order to inform substance use programming. METHODS: Forty-two recorded continuing care counseling sessions of 33 people who discussed HIV sex-risk behavior were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006783/altered-long-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-betel-quid-dependence-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#3
Tao Liu, Jianjun Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Qiang Xu, Guangming Lu, Shixiong Huang, Mengjie Pan, Feng Chen
OBJECTIVE: Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Brain structural abnormalities may constitute an abnormal neural network that underlies the risk of drug dependence. We hypothesized that individuals with Betel Quid Dependence (BQD) have functional connectivity alterations that can be described by long- and short-range functional connectivity density(FCD) maps. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from subjects of the Han ethnic group in Hainan, China...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001910/substance-use-health-and-functioning-characteristics-of-medical-marijuana-program-participants-compared-to-the-general-adult-population-in-ontario-canada
#4
Benedikt Fischer, Anca R Ialomiteanu, Samantha Aeby, Katherine Rudzinski, Paul Kurdyak, Jürgen Rehm
Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991417/the-economic-burden-of-chronic-psychotic-disorders-in-ontario
#5
Claire de Oliveira, Joyce Cheng, Juergen Rehm, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Chronic psychotic disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. These disorders are considered one of the most costly mental disorders due young age at onset and the need for intensive health care over the life course. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to estimate the direct health care costs of chronic psychotic disorders in Ontario in 2012 from the perspective of the third-party payer (i...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988425/internet-addiction-disorder-personality-characteristics-and-risk-of-pathological-overuse-in-adolescents
#6
Donato Munno, Flora Cappellin, Marta Saroldi, Elisa Bechon, Fanny Guglielmucci, Roberto Passera, Giuseppina Zullo
AIM: Few studies have investigated Internet Addiction (IA) in adolescents in relation to personality characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality differences exist between adolescents with problematic/pathological Internet use and those with normal Internet use. Our hypothesis was that certain psychopathological personality traits may predispose to the development of maladaptive Internet use. METHODS: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) were administered to a sample of 224 high school students...
November 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981195/sex-differences-in-subcellular-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-response-to-acute-and-chronic-stress
#7
Sanoara Mazid, Baila S Hall, Shannon C Odell, Khalifa Stafford, Andreina D Dyer, Tracey A Van Kempen, Jane Selegean, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS) or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS), the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940252/the-relationship-between-the-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-novelty-seeking-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-opioid-dependence
#8
Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Che-Hung Yen, Chun-Yen Chen, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chang-Chih Huang, Yi-Wei Yeh, Kuo-Hsing Ma, San-Yuan Huang
Novelty seeking (NS) is a core personality trait that primes the susceptibility to drug addiction. Striatal dopamine activity contributes to cognitive flexibility, an important cognitive strategy to inhibit impulsivity and compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Evidence supports the association between dopamine and NS. Opioid-dependent patients show higher levels of NS, and repeated opioid exposure can cause cognitive deficits including poor cognitive flexibility and impaired impulse control. However, in opioid-dependent patients, the link between NS, striatal dopamine activity, and cognitive flexibility is still unclear...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925268/therapists-assessments-in-treating-sex-addiction-and-their-relationship-to-clients-gender-relationship-status-and-exclusivity-status
#9
Geoffrey T Reddick, Katie M Heiden-Rootes, Andrew S Brimhall
A total of 208 therapists and therapists-in-training were surveyed to better understand if clinical assessments and recommendations regarding "sex addiction" changed based upon a client's gender, relationship status, or exclusivity status. Using clinical vignettes, this study examined the clinical assessment and recommendations of licensed mental health providers (n = 92) and mental health providers in-training (n = 116). Results indicated that professional ratings differed based on relationship exclusivity and gender; specifically, female nonmonogamous behavior was rated more negatively than male nonmonogamous behavior, while male monogamous behavior was rated more negatively than female monogamous behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#10
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909413/sex-effects-on-smoking-cue-perception-in-non-smokers-smokers-and-ex-smokers-a-pilot-study
#11
Davide Zanchi, Arthur Brody, Stefan Borgwardt, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. METHODS: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898683/mortality-in-hiv-infected-alcohol-and-drug-users-in-st-petersburg-russia
#12
Nadia S Fairbairn, Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily Quinn, Carly Bridden, Christine Chaisson, Elena Blokhina, Dmitry Lioznov, Evgeny Krupitsky, Anita Raj, Jeffrey H Samet
In Russia, up to half of premature deaths are attributed to hazardous drinking. The respective roles of alcohol and drug use in premature death among people with HIV in Russia have not been described. Criminalization and stigmatization of substance use in Russia may also contribute to mortality. We explored whether alcohol, drug use and risk environment factors are associated with short-term mortality in HIV-infected Russians who use substances. Secondary analyses were conducted using prospective data collected at baseline, 6 and 12-months from HIV-infected people who use substances recruited between 2007-2010 from addiction and HIV care settings in a single urban setting of St...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896481/high-perineal-and-overall-frequency-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-people-who-inject-drugs-compared-to-non-injectors
#13
Disa Dahlman, Farnaz Jalalvand, Marianne Alanko Blomé, Anders Håkansson, Håkan Janson, Susanne Quick, Anna C Nilsson
To investigate the prevalence, distribution, and colonization burden of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and MRSA in different body sites among people who inject drugs (PWID) and compare it to a control group consisting of non-injectors. In this cross-sectional survey, 49 active PWID from the needle exchange program (NEP) in Malmö, Sweden, and 60 non-injecting controls from an emergency psychiatric inpatient ward at Malmö Addiction Centre were tested for S. aureus (including MRSA) by culture, PCR, and MALDI-TOF...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872524/human-papilloma-virus-in-oral-cavity-cancer-and-relation-to-change-in-quality-of-life-following-treatment-a-pilot-study-from-northern-india
#14
Abhishek Kumar Singh, Jitendra Kumar Kushwaha, Akshay Anand, Abhinav Arun Sonkar, Nuzhat Husain, Kirti Srivastava, Sudhir Singh
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancer (HNC) has generated significant amount of research interest in recent times with focus shifted to oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OCSCC) after oropharyngeal cancer. Due to high incidence of OCSCC and anecdotal reports on association of HPV infection from northern region of India, this study was conceived to investigate HPV infection and establish its association with lifestyle habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption, oro-genital sex, number of sexual contacts, and change in quality of life posttreatment...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870459/sex-differences-in-nicotine-preference
#15
REVIEW
Sakire Pogun, Gorkem Yararbas, Tanseli Nesil, Lutfiye Kanit
Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870394/sex-differences-gender-and-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Jill B Becker, Michele L McClellan, Beth Glover Reed
This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857051/elevation-of-the-acth-cortisol-ratio-in-female-opioid-dependent-patients-a-biomarker-of-aging-and-correlate-of-metabolic-and-immune-activation
#17
Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse
BACKGROUND: Whilst the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis is a major stress axis, and is necessarily perturbed in opioid dependency, and stress is a major contributor to aging mechanisms, the HPA axis has not been studied in opioid dependency in an age-dependent manner. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis - Differences in age dependent levels of HPA components. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of general medical and opioid dependent patients (ODP, GMP)...
September 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855664/challenges-in-detecting-and-diagnosing-substance-use-in-women-in-the-acute-psychiatric-department-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#18
Torill Vassli Sallaup, Arne Einar Vaaler, Valentina Cabral Iversen, Ismail Cuneyt Guzey
BACKGROUND: This study examines sex differences in substance use and substance use disorder in the acute psychiatric department, and possible interactions between sex and clinical and social factors associated with this phenomenon. METHODS: Data concerning substance use were collected in a naturalistic cohort study (n = 384, 51.6% male, 48.4% female) in an acute psychiatric department. Recent intake of substances at admission, diagnosis of substance use disorder and demographic and socioeconomic information were recorded...
November 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837404/the-biology-of-addiction
#19
Brent MacNicol
In this narrative review, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance abuse and addiction are discussed with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that promote ongoing use and relapse. Addiction is estimated to affect 10-15% or more of the adult population, including physicians. Genetic predisposition, psychological and environmental risk factors, the timing of exposure to the substance, the type of substance used, and the frequency of use influence the individual's susceptibility to addiction. Abused substances act on the brain's reward system, a neural circuit that produces pleasurable feelings in response to stimuli that promote survival, thereby modifying future behavior to seek out similar stimuli...
November 11, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833864/a-clinical-study-of-oral-mucosal-lesions-in-patients-visiting-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-central-india
#20
Rashmi Goyal, Shalini Jadia, Leena Jain, Chhavi Agarawal
The aim of this study was to find the frequency of various oral mucosal lesions in relation to age, sex, site and associated addiction habits. This retrospective study was done in tertiary care centre including 1280 patients of oral mucosal lesions. Clinical findings and detailed history of their addiction habits with frequency and duration was noted from the existing data. Cytological and histopathological diagnosis of various lesions was recorded to conclude diagnosis. The most common lesion in this study was found to be aphthous ulcers (44...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
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