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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220525/dimethyl-sulfoxide-dmso-as-intravesical-therapy-for-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-a-review
#1
REVIEW
William F Rawls, Lindsey Cox, Eric S Rovner
AIMS: The purpose of this review is to update the current understanding of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and its role in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the PRIMSA checklist to identify published articles involving intravesical DMSO for the treatment of IC. RESULTS: Thirteen cohort studies and three randomized-controlled trials were identified. Response rates relying on subjective measurement scores range from 61 to 95%...
February 21, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218914/persistently-active-neurons-in-human-medial-frontal-and-medial-temporal-lobe-support-working-memory
#2
Jan Kamiński, Shannon Sullivan, Jeffrey M Chung, Ian B Ross, Adam N Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser
Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210563/neoadjuvant-therapy-for-treatment-of-breast-cancer-the-way-forward-or-simply-a-convenient-option-for-patients
#3
COMMENT
Abhishek Chatterjee, John K Erban
The complexity of managing early stage breast cancer is well known. Optimal treatment is increasingly multidisciplinary and in the modern era informed by sophisticated molecular tools to help select and guide therapy. Major phase III trials have determined that the order of systemic therapy relative to surgery does not influence important endpoints such as event free survival and overall survival (OS), but questions remain as to how best to utilize these most essential services. For example, there is still uncertainty regarding the ideal timing, intensity, and duration of proposed therapy...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210216/flavor-dependent-retention-of-remote-food-preference-memory
#4
Aditya Singh, Suraj Kumar, Vikram Pal Singh, Asish Das, J Balaji
Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203296/incorporating-vegf-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-urothelial-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Sujata Narayanan, Sandy Srinivas
Patients with relapsed or refractory urothelial carcinoma (UC) have poor prognosis coupled with few options for systemic treatment. The role of angiogenesis in the evolution of cancers has been established, and studies have shown that it plays a key role in the pathogenesis of UC. Many targeted agents have been used in phase I-II trials for the treatment of UC, with encouraging but modest results. Recently, studies combining angiogenesis inhibitors with other chemotherapeutic agents were able to achieve objective responses higher than most commonly used second-line therapies in UC...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196503/validation-of-the-generic-medical-interview-satisfaction-scale-the-g-miss-questionnaire
#6
Axel Maurice-Szamburski, Pierre Michel, Anderson Loundou, Pascal Auquier
BACKGROUND: Patients have about seven medical consultations a year. Despite the importance of medical interviews in the healthcare process, there is no generic instrument to assess patients' experiences in general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. The main objective was to validate a questionnaire assessing patients' experiences with medical consultations in various practices. METHOD: The G-MISS study was a prospective multi-center trial that enrolled patients from May to July 2016...
February 14, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192644/perioperative-antibiotics-for-prevention-of-acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Emily W Gower, Kristina Lindsley, Samantha E Tulenko, Afshan A Nanji, Ilya Leyngold, Peter J McDonnell
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190628/reporting-bias-inflates-the-reputation-of-medical-treatments-a-comparison-of-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-and-online-product-reviews
#8
Mícheál de Barra
OBJECTIVES: People often hold unduly positive expectations about the outcomes of medicines and other healthcare products. Here the following explanation is tested: people who have a positive outcome tend to tell more people about their disease/treatment than people with poor or average outcomes. Akin to the file drawer problem in science, this systematically and positively distorts the information available to others. METHOD: If people with good treatment outcomes are more inclined to tell others, then they should also be more inclined to write online medical product reviews...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188106/analytical-validation-of-the-next-generation-sequencing-assay-for-a-nationwide-signal-finding-clinical-trial-molecular-analysis-for-therapy-choice-clinical-trial
#9
Chih-Jian Lih, Robin D Harrington, David J Sims, Kneshay N Harper, Courtney H Bouk, Vivekananda Datta, Jonathan Yau, Rajesh R Singh, Mark J Routbort, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Keyur P Patel, Geeta S Mantha, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Karyn Ronski, Zenta Walther, Karin E Finberg, Sandra Canosa, Hayley Robinson, Amelia Raymond, Long P Le, Lisa M McShane, Eric C Polley, Barbara A Conley, James H Doroshow, A John Iafrate, Jeffrey L Sklar, Stanley R Hamilton, P Mickey Williams
The National Cancer Institute-Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial is a national signal-finding precision medicine study that relies on genomic assays to screen and enroll patients with relapsed or refractory cancer after standard treatments. We report the analytical validation processes for the next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay that was tailored for regulatory compliant use in the trial. The Oncomine Cancer Panel assay and the Personal Genome Machine were used in four networked laboratories accredited for the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185082/dabigatran-etexilate-a-review-in-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Hannah A Blair, Gillian M Keating
Dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa(®)) is approved in the EU for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and one or more risk factors. Dabigatran etexilate is a prodrug of dabigatran, a direct inhibitor of thrombin. In patients with NVAF in the phase III RE-LY trial, dabigatran etexilate dosages of 110 and 150 mg twice daily were noninferior to warfarin with regard to the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (primary efficacy endpoint). The higher dosage was associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke or systemic embolism than warfarin, with no significant between-group difference in the risk of major bleeding (primary safety endpoint)...
February 9, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183861/tool-selection-and-the-ventral-dorsal-organization-of-tool-related-knowledge
#11
Michael J Tobia, Christopher R Madan
Tool selection is a cognitive process necessary for tool use, and may rely on distinct knowledge under different conditions. This fMRI experiment was designed to identify neural substrates mediating tool selection under different conditions. Participants performed a picture-matching task that presented a recipient object and an action-goal, and required the selection of the best tool object from among four candidates. Some trials allowed selection of the prototypical tool, whereas others forced selection of either a functionally substitutable or impossible tool...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183284/study-of-user-experience-of-an-objective-test-qbtest-to-aid-adhd-assessment-and-medication-management-a-multi-methods-approach
#12
Charlotte L Hall, Althea Z Valentine, Gemma M Walker, Harriet M Ball, Heather Cogger, David Daley, Madeleine J Groom, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and monitoring of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically relies on subjective reports and observations. Objective continuous performance tests (CPTs) have been incorporated into some services to support clinical decision making. However, the feasibility and acceptability of adding such a test into routine practice is unknown. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of adding an objective computerised test to the routine assessment and monitoring of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182557/automatic-attribute-profiles
#13
Gabriele Cavallaro, Nicola Falco, Mauro Dalla Mura, Jon Atli Benediktsson
Morphological attribute profiles are multilevel decompositions of images obtained with a sequence of transformations performed by connected operators. They have been extensively employed in performing multi-scale and region-based analysis in a large number of applications. One main, still unresolved, issue is the selection of filter parameters able to provide representative and non-redundant threshold decomposition of the image. This paper presents a framework for the automatic selection of filter thresholds based on Granulometric Characteristic Functions (GCFs)...
February 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179405/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-procalcitonin-in-bacterial-meningitis-patients-with-empiric-antibiotic-pretreatment
#14
Wen Li, Xiaolong Sun, Fang Yuan, Qiong Gao, Yue Ma, Yongli Jiang, Xiai Yang, Fang Yang, Lei Ma, Wen Jiang
Accurate diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain and bacterial culture, which often present high false-negative rates because of the antibiotic abuse. Thus a novel and reliable diagnostic biomarker is highly required. Procalcitonin (PCT) is well demonstrated to be specifically produced from peripheral tissues by bacterial infection, which makes it a potential candidate. Here, we performed a prospective clinical study comprising a total of 143 patients to investigate the diagnostic value of CSF PCT, serum PCT and other conventional biomarkers for BM...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178345/pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitor-idelalisib-in-combination-with-btk-inhibitor-ono-gs-4059-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-acquired-resistance-to-pi3k%C3%AE-and-btk-inhibitors
#15
Anella Yahiaoui, Sarah A Meadows, Rick A Sorensen, Zhi-Hua Cui, Kathleen S Keegan, Robert Brockett, Guang Chen, Christophe Quéva, Li Li, Stacey L Tannheimer
Activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma relies on B-cell receptor signaling to drive proliferation and survival. Downstream of the B-cell receptor, the key signaling kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention by agents such as ibrutinib, ONO/GS-4059, and idelalisib. Combination therapy with such targeted agents could provide enhanced efficacy due to complimentary mechanisms of action. In this study, we describe both the additive interaction of and resistance mechanisms to idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 in a model of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#16
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176214/exploring-the-contributions-of-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memory-to-priming-of-pop-out
#17
JeeWon Ahn, Trisha N Patel, Simona Buetti, Alejandro Lleras
Priming of pop-out (PoP) refers to the facilitation of performance that occurs when a target-defining feature is repeated across consecutive trials in a pop-out oddball search task. The underlying mechanism of PoP has been poorly understood and raises important questions about how our visual system is guided by past experiences, even during bottom-up processing. Lee, Mozer, and Vecera (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1059-1071, 2009) demonstrated that PoP remained unaffected by a concurrent non-spatial visual working memory (VWM) load, and they concluded that PoP occurs through feature gain modulation, essentially eliminating the contribution of memory representations in VWM to PoP...
February 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174191/augmentation-of-muscle-blood-flow-by-ultrasound-cavitation-is-mediated-by-atp-and-purinergic-signaling
#18
J Todd Belcik, Brian P Davidson, Aris Xie, Melinda D Wu, Mrinal Yadava, Yue Qi, Sherry Liang, Chae Ryung Chon, Azzdine Y Ammi, Joshua Field, Leanne Harmann, William M Chilian, Joel Linden, Jonathan R Lindner
BACKGROUND: - Augmentation of tissue blood flow by therapeutic ultrasound is thought to rely on convective shear. Microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation markedly amplify these effects. We hypothesized that purinergic signalling is responsible for shear-dependent increases in muscle perfusion during therapeutic cavitation. METHODS: -Unilateral exposure of the proximal hindlimb of mice (with or without ischemia produced by iliac ligation) to therapeutic ultrasound (1...
February 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170341/the-effects-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-on-fetal-and-neonatal-skin-maturation
#19
Deanne August, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
AIMS: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169302/precision-medicine-needs-randomized-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Everardo D Saad, Xavier Paoletti, Tomasz Burzykowski, Marc Buyse
The advent of precision medicine has prompted profound changes in clinical cancer research, and the rising numbers of new therapeutic agents pose challenges in terms of the most appropriate trial designs and effects on the drug-approval process. In the past 5 years, some remarkably efficacious drugs have been approved based on evidence from uncontrolled phase I trials. We challenge the view that the expected benefits from new drugs are generally sufficient to forgo a randomized trial with patients assigned to a control arm (a regimen other than the experimental treatment)...
February 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
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