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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679069/pharmacological-treatment-of-adult-bipolar-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Ross J Baldessarini, Leonardo Tondo, Gustavo H Vázquez
We summarize evidence supporting contemporary pharmacological treatment of phases of BD, including: mania, depression, and long-term recurrences, emphasizing findings from randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Effective treatment of acute or dysphoric mania is provided by modern antipsychotics, some anticonvulsants (divalproex and carbamazepine), and lithium salts. Treatment of BD-depression remains unsatisfactory but includes some modern antipsychotics (particularly lurasidone, olanzapine + fluoxetine, and quetiapine) and the anticonvulsant lamotrigine; value and safety of antidepressants remain controversial...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676439/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy
#2
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Angela Tosca, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and trials registers using a combination of subject headings and text words (last search 31 March 2017)...
April 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672599/living-on-a-trophic-subsidy-algal-quality-drives-an-upper-shore-herbivore-s-consumption-preference-and-absorption-but-not-growth-rates
#3
Diego Quintanilla-Ahumada, Pedro A Quijón, Jorge M Navarro, José Pulgar, Cristian Duarte
The transfer of seaweeds from subtidal bottoms to nearby intertidal rocky shores is a common but often overlooked phenomenon. Freshly detached seaweeds often represent critical trophic subsidies for herbivores living in upper-shore rocky intertidal areas, such as the marine snail Diloma nigerrima. This species relies on three species of seaweeds for food and displays feeding strategies to deal with a resource that is scarce and at times unpredictable. This study focused on the nutritional quality of freshly detached algae (Durvillaea antarctica, Lessonia spicata and Lessonia trabeculata) and measured Diloma nigerrima's algal consumption rates in trials with and without choice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671876/immunotherapy-and-the-role-of-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Brett W Carter, Priya R Bhosale, Wei T Yang
Significant advances in the genetic and molecular characterization of cancer have led to the development of effective immunotherapies. These therapeutics help the host immune system recognize cancer as foreign, promote the immune system, and relieve the inhibition that allows growth and spread of tumors. Experience with various immunotherapies, particularly the immunomodulatory monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, has demonstrated that unique patterns of response may be encountered that cannot be adequately captured by traditional response criteria, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), which have been used primarily with cytotoxic chemotherapies...
April 19, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671831/the-potential-of-integrating-provitamin-a-biofortified-maize-in-smallholder-farming-systems-to-reduce-malnourishment-in-south-africa
#5
REVIEW
Mthokozisi K Zuma, Unathi Kolanisi, Albert T Modi
Biofortification interventions have the potential to combat malnutrition. This review explored the use of provitamin A-biofortified maize (PVABM) as a vitamin A deficiency (VAD) reduction agricultural-based strategy. Maize has been identified as one of the key staple crops for biofortification to reduce hidden hunger in Africa. Most nutrition interventions have not been successful in reducing hunger because rural communities, who mainly rely on agriculture, have been indirectly excluded. The biofortification intervention proposed here aims to be an inclusive strategy, based on smallholder farming systems...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670132/tau-antibody-structure-reveals-a-molecular-switch-defining-a-pathological-conformation-of-the-tau-protein
#6
Jessica E Chukwu, Jan T Pedersen, Lars Ø Pedersen, Christiane Volbracht, Einar M Sigurdsson, Xiang-Peng Kong
Tau antibodies have shown therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease and several are in clinical trials. As a microtubule-associated protein, tau relies on dynamic phosphorylation for its normal functions. In tauopathies, it becomes hyperphosphorylated and aggregates into toxic assemblies, which collectively lead to neurodegeneration. Of the phospho-epitopes, the region around Ser396 has received particular attention because of its prominence and stability in tauopathies. Here we report the first structure of a monoclonal tau antibody in complex with the pathologically important phospho-Ser396 residue...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667126/treatment-of-submassive-and-massive-pulmonary-embolism-a-clinical-practice-survey-from-the-second-annual-meeting-of-the-pulmonary-embolism-response-team-consortium
#7
Thomas M Todoran, Jay Giri, Geoffrey D Barnes, Rachel P Rosovsky, Yuchiao Chang, Michael R Jaff, Kenneth Rosenfield, Christopher Kabrhel
There is a paucity of robust clinical trial data to guide the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) thus the clinical guidelines rely heavily on expert opinion. Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERT) have been developed to streamline the care of patients with acute PE. We conducted a survey among 100 experts in the field of PE during the second annual meeting of the PERT Consortium. Respondents were queried with respect to their demographic information, clinical practice questions and clinical vignettes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666262/spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneity-of-neural-responses-in-human-posteromedial-cortex
#8
Amy L Daitch, Josef Parvizi
Neuroimaging evidence supports a role of the default mode network (DMN) in spontaneous thought and goal-driven internally oriented processes, such as recalling an autobiographical event, and has demonstrated its deactivation during focused, externally oriented attention. Recent work suggests that the DMN is not a homogeneous network but rather is composed of at least several subnetworks, which are engaged in distinct functions; however, it is still unclear if these different functions rely on the same neuronal populations...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663281/empirical-comparison-of-publication-bias-tests-in-meta-analysis
#9
Lifeng Lin, Haitao Chu, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Chuan Hong, Zhiyong Qu, Stephen R Cole, Yong Chen
BACKGROUND: Decision makers rely on meta-analytic estimates to trade off benefits and harms. Publication bias impairs the validity and generalizability of such estimates. The performance of various statistical tests for publication bias has been largely compared using simulation studies and has not been systematically evaluated in empirical data. METHODS: This study compares seven commonly used publication bias tests (i.e., Begg's rank test, trim-and-fill, Egger's, Tang's, Macaskill's, Deeks', and Peters' regression tests) based on 28,655 meta-analyses available in the Cochrane Library...
April 16, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659663/real-world-evidence-for-regulatory-decisions-concomitant-administration-of-zoster-vaccine-live-and-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine
#10
Katia Bruxvoort, Lina S Sy, Yi Luo, Hung Fu Tseng
The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656586/prospective-assessment-of-the-predictive-value-of-the-brca1-gene-status-in-sarcoma-patients-treated-with-trabectedin-an-updated-analysis-of-the-eortc-62091-trial
#11
EDITORIAL
Antoine Italiano, Nathan Touati, Saskia Litière, Françoise Collin, Philippe Pourquier, Alessandro Gronchi
We describe the predictive value of BRCA1 gene status on trabectedin efficacy and found no correlation despite the mechanisms of action of this drug that rely on DNA repair systems.
April 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652771/treat-the-patient-not-the-rule-book%C3%A2-the-art-of-psychopharmacology
#12
Carl Salzman
Experienced clinicians are aware that the results from clinical drug trials do not always translate to office practice. This essay suggests that clinicians use their own diagnostic and interviewing skills when treating with medications rather than simply relying on published data or suggested treatment algorithms.
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649249/optimizing-adherence-in-hiv-prevention-product-trials-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-simple-tools-for-screening-and-adherence-counseling
#13
Elizabeth E Tolley, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Seth Zissette, Joseph L Fava, Katherine Gill, Cheryl E Louw, Philip Kotze, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kathleen MacQueen
BACKGROUND: Low adherence in recent HIV prevention clinical trials highlights the need to better understand, measure, and support product use within clinical trials. Conventional self-reported adherence instruments within HIV prevention trials, often relying on single-item questions, have proven ineffective. While objective adherence measures are desirable, none currently exist that apply to both active and placebo arms. Scales are composed of multiple items in the form of questions or statements that, when combined, measure a more complex construct that may not be directly observable...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645403/quality-of-author-guidelines-in-nursing-journals
#14
Marilyn H Oermann, Leslie H Nicoll, Peggy L Chinn, Jamie L Conklin, Midori McCarty, Sathya Amarasekara
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to (a) describe the information provided in author guidelines in nursing journals, (b) assess the completeness of this information, and (c) identify the extent and types of reporting guidelines used in nursing journals. DESIGN: Content analysis of author guidelines for 245 nursing journals included in the Directory of Nursing Journals maintained at the International Academy of Nursing Editors website. METHODS: Using Research Electronic Data Capture, data on 19 criteria for completeness were extracted from published author guidelines...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628515/state-of-the-antiretroviral-therapy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-science-and-technology-knowledge-gap
#15
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Anna Maria Geretti, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624087/what-does-meaningful-look-like-a-qualitative-study-of-patient-engagement-at-the-pan-canadian-oncology-drug-review-perspectives-of-reviewers-and-payers
#16
Linda Rozmovits, Helen Mai, Alexandra Chambers, Kelvin Chan
Objectives While there is wide support for patient engagement in health technology assessment, determining what constitutes meaningful (as opposed to tokenistic) engagement is complex. This paper explores reviewer and payer perceptions of what constitutes meaningful patient engagement in the Pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review process. Methods Qualitative interview study comprising 24 semi-structured telephone interviews. A qualitative descriptive approach, employing the technique of constant comparison, was used to produce a thematic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623180/pembrolizumab-and-its-role-in-relapsed-refractory-classical-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-evidence-to-date-and-clinical-utility
#17
REVIEW
Polina Shindiapina, Lapo Alinari
Immune evasion is a critical mechanism of malignant cell survival, and relies in part on molecular signaling through the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis that contributes to T cell exhaustion. Immune modulatory therapy with monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 designed to enhance antitumor immune response have shown promise in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL), a unique B cell malignancy characterized by an extensive but ineffective immune cell infiltrate surrounding a small number of tumor cells, has shown significant response to anti-PD-1 directed therapy...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619797/acute-neuromuscular-responses-to-short-and-long-roundhouse-kick-striking-paces-in-professional-muay-thai-fighters
#18
Giuseppe Cimadoro, Ryan Mahaffey, Nicolas Babault
BACKGROUND: Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616857/pilot-trial-of-k562-gm-csf-whole-cell-vaccination-in-mds-patients
#19
Tara M Robinson, Gabrielle T Prince, Chris Thoburn, Erica Warlick, Anna Ferguson, Yvette L Kasamon, Ivan M Borrello, Allan Hess, B Douglas Smith
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell malignancies. Currently, approved drugs are given with non-curative intent as the only known cure is allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, which relies on the donor's immune system driving an allogeneic effect. Previous efforts to harness the endogenous immune system have been less successful. We present the results of a pilot study of K562/GM-CSF (GVAX) whole-cell vaccination in MDS patients. The primary objective of safety was met as there were no serious adverse events...
April 4, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615812/structure-function-analysis-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antibodies-to-fungal-melanin-for-melanoma-radioimmunotherapy
#20
J D Nosanchuk, A Jeyakumar, A Ray, E Revskaya, Z Jiang, R A Bryan, K J H Allen, R Jiao, M E Malo, B L Gómez, A Morgenstern, F Bruchertseifer, D Rickles, G B Thornton, A Bowen, A Casadevall, E Dadachova
Metastatic melanoma remains difficult to treat despite recent approvals of several new drugs. Recently we reported encouraging results of Phase I clinical trial of radiolabeled with188 Re murine monoclonal IgM 6D2 to melanin in patients with Stage III/IV melanoma. Subsequently we generated a novel murine IgG 8C3 to melanin. IgGs are more amenable to humanization and cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice) manufacturing than IgMs. We performed comparative structural analysis of melanin-binding IgM 6D2 and IgG 8C3...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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