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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239689/an-enhanced-mixture-method-for-constructing-gatekeeping-procedures-in-clinical-trials
#1
George Kordzakhia, Thomas Brechenmacher, Eiji Ishida, Alex Dmitrienko, Winston Wenxiang Zheng, David Fuyuan Li
It is increasingly common to encounter complex multiplicity problems with several multiplicity components in confirmatory Phase III clinical trials. These components are often based on several endpoints (primary and secondary endpoints) and several dose-control comparisons. When constructing a multiplicity adjustment in these settings, it is important to control the Type I error rate over all multiplicity components. An important class of multiple testing procedures, known as gatekeeping procedures, was derived using the mixture method that enables clinical trial sponsors to set up efficient multiplicity adjustments that account for clinically relevant logical relationships among the hypotheses of interest...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239024/concordance-between-administrative-data-and-clinical-review-for-mortality-in-the-randomized-on-off-bypass-follow-up-study-rooby-fs
#2
Jacquelyn A Quin, Brack Hattler, Annie Laurie W Shroyer, Darlene Kemp, G Hossein Almassi, Faisal G Bakaeen, Brendan M Carr, Muath Bishawi, Joseph F Collins, Frederick L Grover, Todd H Wagner
BACKGROUND: The optimal methodology to identify cardiac versus non-cardiac cause of death following cardiac surgery has not been determined. METHODS: The Randomized On/Off Bypass Trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of 2203 patients (February 2002-May 2008) comparing 1-year cardiac outcomes between off-pump and on-pump bypass surgery. In 2013, the Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program funded a follow-up study to assess 5-year outcomes including mortality...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238806/vertical-jump-height-estimation-algorithm-based-on-vertical-acceleration-profile-characteristics-via-foot-worn-inertial-sensing
#3
Jianren Wang, Junkai Xu, Peter B Shull
Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237316/do-demographic-factors-moderate-how-well-criminal-thinking-predicts-recidivism
#4
Johanna B Folk, Jeffrey B Stuewig, Brandy L Blasko, Michael Caudy, Andres G Martinez, Stephanie Maass, Faye S Taxman, June P Tangney
Is the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism the same for criminal justice-involved individuals from varying demographic backgrounds? Relying on two independent samples of offenders and two measures of criminal thinking, the current studies examined whether four demographic factors-gender, race, age, and education-moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism. Study 1 consisted of 226 drug-involved probationers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Study 2 consisted of 346 jail inmates from a longitudinal study...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233524/the-real-deal-willingness-to-pay-and-satiety-expectations-are-greater-for-real-foods-versus-their-images
#5
Carissa A Romero, Michael T Compton, Yueran Yang, Jacqueline C Snow
Laboratory studies of human dietary choice have relied on computerized two-dimensional (2D) images as stimuli, whereas in everyday life, consumers make decisions in the context of real foods that have actual caloric content and afford grasping and consumption. Surprisingly, few studies have compared whether real foods are valued more than 2D images of foods, and in the studies that have, differences in the stimuli and testing conditions could have resulted in inflated bids for the real foods. Moreover, although the caloric content of food images has been shown to influence valuation, no studies to date have investigated whether 'real food exposure effects' on valuation reflect greater sensitivity to the caloric content of real foods versus images...
November 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227757/the-second-agent-effect-interpersonal-predictive-coding-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#6
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Szczepocka, Valeria Manera
Interpersonal predictive coding (IPC) enables one to use the information conveyed by the communicative action of one agent to predict the response of another agent. IPC relies both on explicit reflective processes (processing of communicative intentions) and automatic reflexive processes (motor resonance). Predictive coding deficits may underlie positive symptoms in people with schizophrenia (SCZ), yet IPC has not been analyzed in SCZ. Thirty-nine SCZ and 22 controls (HC) completed a simultaneous masking detection task, during which they observed either communicative (Com) or individual (Ind) actions of agent A and had to report the presence of the agent B, who was shown in half of the trials...
December 11, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#7
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220702/the-effect-of-subjective-awareness-measures-on-performance-in-artificial-grammar-learning-task
#8
Ivan I Ivanchei, Nadezhda V Moroshkina
Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none...
December 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212782/trials-of-transvaginal-mesh-devices-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-systematic-database-review-of-the-us-fda-approval-process
#9
Carl J Heneghan, Ben Goldacre, Igho Onakpoya, Jeffrey K Aronson, Tom Jefferson, Annette Pluddemann, Kamal R Mahtani
INTRODUCTION: Transvaginal mesh devices are approved in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through the 510(k) system. However, there is uncertainty about the benefit to harm balance of mesh approved for pelvic organ prolapse. We, therefore, assessed the evidence at the time of approval for transvaginal mesh products and the impact of safety studies the FDA mandated in 2012 because of emerging harms. METHODS: We used FDA databases to determine the evidence for approval of transvaginal mesh...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211441/mechanistic-study-of-electrolyte-additives-to-stabilize-high-voltage-cathode-electrolyte-interface-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#10
Han Gao, Filippo Maglia, Peter Lamp, Khalil Amine, Zonghai Chen
Current developments of electrolyte additives to stabilize electrode-electrolyte interface in Lithium-ion batteries highly rely on a trial-and-error search, which involves repetitive testing and intensive amount of resources. The lack of understandings on the fundamental protection mechanisms of the additives significantly increases the difficulty for the transformational development of new additives. In this study, we investigated two types of individual protection routes to build a robust cathode-electrolyte interphase at high potentials: (i) a direct reduction in the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte solvent; and (ii) formation of a "corrosion inhibitor film" that prevents severely attack and passivation from protons that generated from the solvent oxidation, even the decomposition of solvent cannot not mitigated...
December 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209829/adaptation-to-proprioceptive-targets-following-visuomotor-adaptation
#11
Jenna C Flannigan, Ruth J Posthuma, Jesse N Lombardo, Chelsea Murray, Erin K Cressman
In the following study, we asked if reaches to proprioceptive targets are updated following reach training with a gradually introduced visuomotor perturbation. Subjects trained to reach with distorted hand-cursor feedback, such that they saw a cursor that was rotated or translated relative to their actual hand movement. Following reach training trials with the cursor, subjects reached to Visual (V), Proprioceptive (P) and Visual + Proprioceptive (VP) targets with no visual feedback of their hand. Comparison of reach endpoints revealed that reaches to VP targets followed similar trends as reaches to P targets, regardless of the training distortion introduced...
December 5, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209573/trial-watch-immunogenic-cell-death-induction-by-anticancer-chemotherapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Sanket More, Nicole Rufo, Odeta Mece, Maria Livia Sassano, Patrizia Agostinis, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
The expression "immunogenic cell death" (ICD) refers to a functionally unique form of cell death that facilitates (instead of suppressing) a T cell-dependent immune response specific for dead cell-derived antigens. ICD critically relies on the activation of adaptive responses in dying cells, culminating with the exposure or secretion of immunostimulatory molecules commonly referred to as "damage-associated molecular patterns". Only a few agents can elicit bona fide ICD, including some clinically established chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, bleomycin, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and oxaliplatin...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208938/oncolytic-virotherapy-as-an-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-multiple-myeloma
#13
REVIEW
Daniel E Meyers, Satbir Thakur, Chandini M Thirukkumaran, Don G Morris
Multiple Myeloma (MM), a clonal malignancy of antibody-producing plasma cells, is the second most common hematologic malignancy and results in significant patient morbidity and mortality. The high degree of immune dysregulation in MM, including T cell imbalances and up-regulation of immunosuppressive checkpoint proteins and myeloid derived suppressor cells, allows this malignancy to escape from host immune control. Despite advances in the therapeutic landscape of MM over the last decade, including the introduction of immunomodulatory drugs, the prognosis for this disease is poor, with less than 50% of patients surviving 5 years...
December 5, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208819/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-cataract-surgery-an-evidence-based-approach
#14
REVIEW
Aravind Haripriya
Various protocols are being followed for endophthalmitis prophylaxis in cataract surgery, and this subject continues to be a matter of debate. We summarize the most recent evidence-based studies on this topic with additional stress on intracameral (IC) antibiotic prophylaxis. Here, we discuss several large, international clinical studies which discuss the efficacy, adoption, safety, cost, and newer trends in antibiotic prophylaxis. Majority of these studies report a significant reduction in endophthalmitis rates with IC antibiotic prophylaxis...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206697/perioperative-pulmonary-thromboembolism-current-concepts-and-treatment-options
#15
David M Ruohoniemi, Akhilesh K Sista, Charles F Doany, Paul M Heerdt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anesthesiologists are familiar with pulmonary emboli prophylaxis paradigms and many have witnessed acute intraoperative embolization. Clinicians must balance conservative anticoagulation and aggressive intervention in perioperative submassive pulmonary emboli, yet the bulk of the literature excludes surgery as a relative contraindication. This review will summarize the current treatment options for acute pulmonary emboli, drawing attention to special considerations in perioperative submassive pulmonary emboli, and discuss right ventricular monitoring to improve assessment of intervention efficacy...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205393/eaaci-guidelines-on-allergen-immunotherapy-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#16
G B Pajno, M Fernandez-Rivas, S Arasi, G Roberts, C A Akdis, M Alvaro-Lozano, K Beyer, C Bindslev-Jensen, W Burks, M Ebisawa, P Eigenmann, E Knol, K C Nadeau, L K Poulsen, R van Ree, A F Santos, G du Toit, S Dhami, U Nurmatov, Y Boloh, M Makela, L O'Mahony, N Papadopoulos, C Sackesen, I Agache, E Angier, S Halken, M Jutel, S Lau, O Pfaar, D Ryan, G Sturm, E-M Varga, R G van Wijk, A Sheikh, A Muraro
Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impairment of quality of life, and healthcare expenditure. There is therefore interest in novel strategies for its treatment, particularly food allergen immunotherapy (FA-AIT) through the oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes. This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT...
September 27, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203116/diagnosis-and-management-of-metastatic-neoplasms-with-unknown-primary
#17
REVIEW
Tilmann Bochtler, Harald Löffler, Alwin Krämer
In cancer of unknown primary (CUP), metastases are clinically and histologically confirmed, but the primary tumor site remains elusive after extensive work-up. CUPs make up for 2-3% of all epithelial malignancies. The two prevailing histologies are adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas, whereas squamous cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas and rare histologies account for the remaining 10%. The diagnostic work-up in CUP relies strongly on a detailed immunohistological (IHC) analysis in order to characterize the tumor type, nowadays aided by molecular techniques...
November 26, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201910/body-schema-illusions-a-study-of-the-link-between-the-rubber-hand-and-kinesthetic-mirror-illusions-through-individual-differences
#18
Morgane Metral, Corentin Gonthier, Marion Luyat, Michel Guerraz
Background: The well-known rubber hand paradigm induces an illusion by having participants feel the touch applied to a fake hand. In parallel, the kinesthetic mirror illusion elicits illusions of movement by moving the reflection of a participant's arm. Experimental manipulation of sensory inputs leads to emergence of these multisensory illusions. There are strong conceptual similarities between these two illusions, suggesting that they rely on the same neurophysiological mechanisms, but this relationship has never been investigated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201452/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-thymus-the-oncologist-point-of-view
#19
REVIEW
Nicolas Girard
Thymic malignancies represent a heterogeneous group of rare thoracic cancers, which are classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) histopathologic classification that distinguishes thymomas from thymic carcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors; neuroendocrine thymic tumors (NETTs) exhibit the same histological spectrum as in other anatomical locations, although with different frequencies. NETTs represent around 2% of all neuroendocrine tumors, and about 5% of all thymic malignancies. Overall, the management of patients with NETTs tumors requires continuous multidisciplinary expertise at any step of the disease progression...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200981/semantic-specificity-in-one-year-olds-word-comprehension
#20
Elika Bergelson, Richard Aslin
The present study investigated infants' knowledge about familiar nouns. Infants (n = 46, 12-20-month-olds) saw two-image displays of familiar objects, or one familiar and one novel object. Infants heard either a matching word (e.g. "foot' when seeing foot and juice), a related word (e.g. "sock" when seeing foot and juice) or a nonce word (e.g. "fep" when seeing a novel object and dog). Across the whole sample, infants reliably fixated the referent on matching and nonce trials. On the critical related trials we found increasingly less looking to the incorrect (but related) image with age...
2017: Language Learning and Development
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