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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533029/determination-of-mineral-oil-aromatic-hydrocarbons-moah-in-edible-oils-and-fats-by-online-liquid-chromatography-gas-chromatography-flame-ionization-detection-lc-gc-fid-evaluation-of-automated-removal-strategies-for-biogenic-olefins
#1
Marco Nestola, Torsten C Schmidt
The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530840/oral-glucocorticoid-sparing-effect-of-benralizumab-in-severe-asthma
#2
Parameswaran Nair, Sally Wenzel, Klaus F Rabe, Arnaud Bourdin, Njira L Lugogo, Piotr Kuna, Peter Barker, Stephanie Sproule, Sandhia Ponnarambil, Mitchell Goldman
Background Many patients with severe asthma rely on oral glucocorticoids to manage their disease. We investigated whether benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-5 receptor that significantly reduces the incidence of asthma exacerbations, was also effective as an oral glucocorticoid-sparing therapy in patients relying on oral glucocorticoids to manage severe asthma associated with eosinophilia. Methods In a 28-week randomized, controlled trial, we assessed the effects of benralizumab (at a dose of 30 mg administered subcutaneously either every 4 weeks or every 8 weeks [with the first three doses administered every 4 weeks]) versus placebo on the reduction in the oral glucocorticoid dose while asthma control was maintained in adult patients with severe asthma...
May 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530524/is-real-world-evidence-used-in-p-t-monographs-and-therapeutic-class-reviews
#3
Jason T Hurwitz, Mary Brown, Jennifer S Graff, Loretta Peters, Daniel C Malone
BACKGROUND: Payers are faced with making coverage and reimbursement decisions based on the best available evidence. Often these decisions apply to patient populations, provider networks, and care settings not typically studied in clinical trials. Treatment effectiveness evidence is increasingly available from electronic health records, registries, and administrative claims. However, little is known about when and what types of real-world evidence (RWE) studies inform pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee decisions...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#4
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516294/does-seeing-an-asian-face-make-speech-sound-more-accented
#5
Yi Zheng, Arthur G Samuel
Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared...
May 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512308/quantum-key-distribution-with-hacking-countermeasures-and-long-term-field-trial
#6
A R Dixon, J F Dynes, M Lucamarini, B Fröhlich, A W Sharpe, A Plews, W Tam, Z L Yuan, Y Tanizawa, H Sato, S Kawamura, M Fujiwara, M Sasaki, A J Shields
Quantum key distribution's (QKD's) central and unique claim is information theoretic security. However there is an increasing understanding that the security of a QKD system relies not only on theoretical security proofs, but also on how closely the physical system matches the theoretical models and prevents attacks due to discrepancies. These side channel or hacking attacks exploit physical devices which do not necessarily behave precisely as the theory expects. As such there is a need for QKD systems to be demonstrated to provide security both in the theoretical and physical implementation...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference-to-avoid-false-memories-in-short-term
#7
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information. Human memory may be prone to internal distortions being caused by semantic relatedness between the memory items to be encoded. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon and its possible outcome known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502809/challenges-of-informed-consent-for-pragmatic-trials
#8
Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine Jmw van Thiel, Mira Gp Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Boris M Pfeiffer, Diederick E Grobbee, Johannes Jm van Delden
The Innovative Medicines Initiative's (IMI) GetReal consortium aims to develop strategies to incorporate real world evidence earlier into the drug life cycle to better inform health care decision-makers on the comparative risks and benefits of new drugs. Pragmatic trials are currently explored as a means to generate such evidence in routine care settings. The traditional informed consent model for randomized clinical trials has been argued to pose substantial hurdles to the practicability of pragmatic trials: it would lead to recruitment difficulties, reduced generalizability of the results and selection bias...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501874/screening-tool-for-early-postnatal-prediction-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-preterm-newborns-step-rop
#9
Caroline A Ricard, Christiane E L Dammann, Olaf Dammann
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. METHODS: Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age...
May 13, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499824/quantifying-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-using-spraying-journal-data
#10
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Christian Ørsted Brandt, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on the combined risk of realistic dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. Recent methods used to estimate realistic exposure levels have a number of drawbacks, and better methods are needed. Using a novel approach, we estimated the combined exposure in the Danish population, resulting from pesticide usage in Danish agriculture. The complete Danish spraying journal data from 2014, and supervised trial residue levels reported by EFSA, were used in combination, generating residue estimates in 25 crops...
May 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499120/characterising-bias-in-regulatory-risk-and-decision-analysis-an-analysis-of-heuristics-applied-in-health-technology-appraisal-chemicals-regulation-and-climate-change-governance
#11
Brian H MacGillivray
In many environmental and public health domains, heuristic methods of risk and decision analysis must be relied upon, either because problem structures are ambiguous, reliable data is lacking, or decisions are urgent. This introduces an additional source of uncertainty beyond model and measurement error - uncertainty stemming from relying on inexact inference rules. Here we identify and analyse heuristics used to prioritise risk objects, to discriminate between signal and noise, to weight evidence, to construct models, to extrapolate beyond datasets, and to make policy...
May 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490974/the-introduction-of-biosimilars-of-low-molecular-weight-heparins-in-europe-a-critical-review-and-reappraisal-endorsed-by-the-italian-society-for-haemostasis-and-thrombosis-siset-and-the-italian-society-for-angiology-and-vascular-medicine-siapav
#12
REVIEW
Davide Imberti, Marco Marietta, Hernan Polo Friz, Claudio Cimminiello
Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) authorized the introduction and marketing of Thorinane® and Inhixa®, biosimilars of the Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin. The authorization path is considerably different from the guidelines published by the EMA in 2009, as well as from the recommendations from the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis published in 2013. Indeed, both of them recommended that LMWHs biosimilars therapeutic equivalence should be demonstrated in at least one adequately designed clinical trial...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486631/comparative-efficacy-of-insecticides-on-bactrocera-tryoni-and-zeugodacus-cucumis-diptera-tephritidae-in-laboratory-and-semifield-trials-in-fruiting-vegetables
#13
L J Senior, B P Missenden, C Wright
In-field management of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Zeugodacus cucumis (French) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruiting vegetable crops has relied almost exclusively on organophosphate cover sprays. Laboratory and semifield trials were performed to compare a number of alternative insecticides for efficacy against these species. A novel semifield method was used whereby the insecticides were applied to crops as cover sprays under field conditions, and treated plants bearing fruit were transferred to large cages and exposed to fruit flies...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484983/ischemic-preconditioning-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
REVIEW
Maranatha Ayodele, Sebastian Koch
Preconditioning is the premise that controlled preemptive exposure to sub-lethal doses of a stressor and can condition an organism or organ to later withstand a lethal dose. This process relies on marshaling endogenous survival resources that have evolved as part of an organism's evolutionary struggle to overcome at times harsh environmental conditions. This preconditioning response occurs through activation of myriad complex mechanisms that run the gamut from alterations in gene expression to the de novo synthesis and post-translational modification of proteins, and it may occur across exposure to a wide variety of stressors (i...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483655/visual-utilization-during-postural-control-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficient-reconstructed-patients-systematic-reviews-meta-analyses
#15
REVIEW
Erik A Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Brian G Pietrosimone, J Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua
OBJECTIVE: To determine if anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACL-D) individuals and individuals with a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL-R) rely more heavily on visual information to maintain postural control. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from their earliest available date to May 24, 2016 using the combination of key words. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included if they reported any instrumented static single leg balance outcome in both a patient and control sample...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483071/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-vilazodone-for-the-acute-treatment-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#16
Nicholas Zareifopoulos, Irene Dylja
PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vilazodone in the acute treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: The literature was searched through all relevant databases in order to identify clinical trials on the use of vilazodone in the treatment of GAD. Once the trials were identified, data was extracted and analyzed using Revman5.3 and open meta-analyst...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482674/management-of-hepatocellular-in-the-united-states
#17
Ali A Mokdad, Caitlin A Hester, Amit G Singal, Adam C Yopp
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer burden globally. In the United States, the incidence of HCC is forecast to continue to rise for the next 15 years. Patients with HCC vary markedly owing to heterogeneous tumor characteristics and concomitant liver dysfunction. In the United States and Europe, HCC is staged and managed according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system. For very early and early stage HCC, or BCLC 0/A, liver transplant is the optimal treatment option. Liver resection and radiofrequency or microwave ablation are alternative treatment options...
April 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479976/representation-of-different-exact-numbers-of-prey-by-a-spider-eating-predator
#18
Fiona R Cross, Robert R Jackson
Our objective was to use expectancy-violation methods for determining whether Portia africana, a salticid spider that specializes in eating other spiders, is proficient at representing exact numbers of prey. In our experiments, we relied on this predator's known capacity to gain access to prey by following pre-planned detours. After Portia first viewed a scene consisting of a particular number of prey items, it could then take a detour during which the scene went out of view. Upon reaching a tower at the end of the detour, Portia could again view a scene, but now the number of prey items might be different...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476664/functional-modular-architecture-underlying-attentional-control-in-aging
#19
Zachary A Monge, Benjamin R Geib, Rachel E Siciliano, Lauren E Packard, Catherine W Tallman, David J Madden
Previous research suggests that age-related differences in attention reflect the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction remain an active area of research. Here, within a sample of community-dwelling adults 19-78 years of age, we used diffusion reaction time (RT) modeling and multivariate functional connectivity to investigate the behavioral components and whole-brain functional networks, respectively, underlying bottom-up and top-down attentional processes during conjunction visual search...
May 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476263/outcomes-of-a-family-based-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-substance-using-juvenile-offenders
#20
Marina Tolou-Shams, Emily Dauria, Selby M Conrad, Kathleen Kemp, Sarah Johnson, Larry K Brown
Approximately 80% of all arrested youth are diverted from detention and supervised in the community through probation, specialty courts and other community-based diversion efforts. Justice-involved youth have greater psychiatric impairment, substance use and sexual risk behaviors than their non-justice-involved peers. Family-based interventions to address mental health, substance use and recidivism have been successful in improving these youth outcomes; but the lack of integration of HIV/STI prevention is notable given the co-occurrence of substance use, delinquency and sexual risk-taking behaviors among justice-involved youth...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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