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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923097/task-difficulty-modulates-brain-behavior-correlations-in-language-production-and-cognitive-control-behavioral-and-fmri-evidence-from-a-phonological-go-no-go-picture-naming-paradigm
#1
Haoyun Zhang, Anna Eppes, Anne Beatty-Martínez, Christian Navarro-Torres, Michele T Diaz
Language production and cognitive control are complex processes that involve distinct yet interacting brain networks. However, the extent to which these processes interact and their neural bases have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we investigated the neural and behavioral bases of language production and cognitive control via a phonological go/no-go picture-naming task. Naming difficulty and cognitive control demands (i.e., conflict monitoring and response inhibition) were manipulated by varying the proportion of naming trials (go trials) and inhibition trials (no-go trials) across task runs...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920996/smiles-in-face-matching-idiosyncratic-information-revealed-through-a-smile-improves-unfamiliar-face-matching-performance
#2
Mila Mileva, A Mike Burton
Unfamiliar face matching is a surprisingly difficult task, yet we often rely on people's matching decisions in applied settings (e.g., border control). Most attempts to improve accuracy (including training and image manipulation) have had very limited success. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that using smiling rather than neutral pairs of images brings about significant improvements in face matching accuracy. This is true for both match and mismatch trials, implying that the information provided through a smile helps us detect images of the same identity as well as distinguishing between images of different identities...
June 19, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916048/long-trace-eyeblink-conditioning-is-largely-preserved-in-essential-tremor
#3
Kasja Solbach, Simba-Joshua Oostdam, Martin Kronenbuerger, Dagmar Timmann, Marcus Gerwig
The cerebellum and the prefrontal cortex are assumed to play a role in the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET). Trace eyeblink conditioning with a long interstimulus interval relies on an intact function of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and, although marginally, of the cerebellum. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long trace eyeblink conditioning is impaired in patients with ET. In 18 patients with ET and 18 controls, a long trace conditioning paradigm was applied. Following 100 paired conditioned response-unconditioned response trials, 30 conditioned response alone trials were given as extinction trials...
June 18, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913678/female-chronic-pelvic-pain-is-highly-prevalent-in-denmark-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-with-randomly-selected-participants
#4
S Loving, T Thomsen, P Jaszczak, J Nordling
Background and purpose Female chronic pelvic pain is a significant clinical problem that burdens the health care services and work productivity, and leads to disability and reduced quality of life among the women affected. A recent systematic review reported worldwide prevalence rates for female chronic pelvic pain ranging from 2.1% to 24%. Our aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and factors associated with chronic pelvic pain among women living in Denmark, and to compare these findings with a pain-free reference group...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902275/the-invasiveness-of-hypochaeris-glabra-asteraceae-responses-in-morphological-and-reproductive-traits-for-exotic-populations
#5
Irene Martín-Forés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Isabel Castro, José M de Miguel, Alejandro Del Pozo, Miguel A Casado
Scientists have been interested in many topics driven by biological invasions, such as shifts in the area of distribution of plant species and rapid evolution. Invasiveness of exotic plant species depends on variations on morphological and reproductive traits potentially associated with reproductive fitness and dispersal ability, which are expected to undergo changes during the invasion process. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits, resulting in a bet-hedging dispersal strategy -wind-dispersed fruits versus animal-dispersed fruits-...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900824/an-implementation-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-prevention-and-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-urology
#6
Vladimir Mouraviev, Michael McDonald
INTRODUCTION: The changing face of current infection phenotypes from planktonic to biofilm type has been developed implicating bacterial biofilms in recurrent infection. To date, no specific medical treatment exists to specifically target biofilms in the human host. Similarly, the identification of a biofilm has relied upon the analysis of tissue samples with electron microscopy or DNA identification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Standard culture and sensitivity test is not able to detect a presence of biofilms...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900477/the-use-of-biosimilars-in-the-middle-east-review-article
#7
REVIEW
Nazar AbdulLateef Jassim, Yasameen Abbas Humadi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biosimilars are of growing importance worldwide, and many leading countries are introducing them in their health care systems and are using them in many fields of medicine owing to their low price tags in comparison with the brands and to their similarities in terms of function and side effects. So we cannot look past them and continue to rely on the innovator drugs since many had proven their efficacies in number of researches and Trials, not to mention the burden that many diseases pose on the budgets of the third world countries making using a lower priced alternatives a much appealing choice for the decision makers...
June 13, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897866/primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-with-a-mediterranean-diet-supplemented-with-extra-virgin-olive-oil-or-nuts
#8
Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Maria-Isabel Covas, Dolores Corella, Fernando Arós, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Miquel Fiol, José Lapetra, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventos, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Josep Basora, Miguel A Muñoz, José V Sorlí, J Alfredo Martínez, Montserrat Fitó, Alfredo Gea, Miguel A Hernán, Miguel A Martínez-González
Background Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. Methods In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat)...
June 13, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896481/can-we-grow-valves-inside-the-heart-perspective-on-material-based-in-situ-heart-valve-tissue-engineering
#9
Carlijn V C Bouten, Anthal I P M Smits, Frank P T Baaijens
In situ heart valve tissue engineering using cell-free synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds is under development as a clinically attractive approach to create living valves right inside the heart of a patient. In this approach, a valve-shaped porous scaffold "implant" is rapidly populated by endogenous cells that initiate neo-tissue formation in pace with scaffold degradation. While this may constitute a cost-effective procedure, compatible with regulatory and clinical standards worldwide, the new technology heavily relies on the development of advanced biomaterials, the processing thereof into (minimally invasive deliverable) scaffolds, and the interaction of such materials with endogenous cells and neo-tissue under hemodynamic conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895517/detecting-recovery-problems-just-in-time-application-of-automated-linguistic-analysis-and-supervised-machine-learning-to-an-online-substance-abuse-forum
#10
Rachel Kornfield, Prathusha K Sarma, Dhavan V Shah, Fiona McTavish, Gina Landucci, Klaren Pe-Romashko, David H Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Online discussion forums allow those in addiction recovery to seek help through text-based messages, including when facing triggers to drink or use drugs. Trained staff (or "moderators") may participate within these forums to offer guidance and support when participants are struggling but must expend considerable effort to continually review new content. Demands on moderators limit the scalability of evidence-based digital health interventions. OBJECTIVE: Automated identification of recovery problems could allow moderators to engage in more timely and efficient ways with participants who are struggling...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890956/sputum-signatures-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-underlying-respiratory-diseases-spared-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-diagnostic-trial
#11
Wei Xiao, De-Ying Gong, Bing Mao, Xin-Miao Du, Lin-Li Cai, Min-Yu Wang, Juan-Juan Fu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been increasingly reported in patients with underlying respiratory diseases (URD). Early diagnosis of IPA is crucial for mortality reduction and improved prognosis, yet remains difficult. Existing diagnostic tools for IPA largely rely on the detection of biomarkers based on serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), both of which have their limitations. The use of sputum sample is non-invasive, and Aspergillus detection is feasible; however, the usefulness of sputum biomarkers for the diagnosis of IPA, especially in patients with URD, has not been systematically studied...
June 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889191/utilization-of-ultrasound-guided-tissue-directed-cellular-implantation-for-the-establishment-of-biologically-relevant-metastatic-tumor-xenografts
#12
Tina T Thomas, Sahiti Chukkapalli, Raelene A Van Noord, Melanie Krook, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Jonathan R Dillman, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Valerie P Opipari, Erika A Newman
Preclinical testing of anticancer therapies relies on relevant xenograft models that mimic the innate tendencies of cancer. Advantages of standard subcutaneous flank models include procedural ease and the ability to monitor tumor progression and response without invasive imaging. Such models are often inconsistent in translational clinical trials and have limited biologically relevant characteristics with low proclivity to produce metastasis, as there is a lack of a native microenvironment. In comparison, orthotopic xenograft models at native tumor sites have been shown to mimic the tumor microenvironment and replicate important disease characteristics such as distant metastatic spread...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889157/do-patients-actually-do-what-we-ask-patient-fidelity-and-persistence-to-the-targets-and-self-management-for-the-control-of-blood-pressure-in-stroke-and-at-risk-groups-blood-pressure-self-management-intervention
#13
Claire L Schwartz, Ashkon Seyed-Safi, Sayeed Haque, Emma P Bray, Shelia Greenfield, F D Richard Hobbs, Paul Little, Jonathan Mant, Bryan Williams, Richard J Mcmanus
OBJECTIVE: Self-management of hypertension can reduce and control blood pressure (BP) compared with clinic monitoring. However, self-management relies on patients following an algorithm, which may be variably adhered to. This study reports fidelity of high-risk patients to the self-management algorithm set by the TASMIN-SR trial. METHODS: Patients with hypertension, above target clinic BP and one or more of stroke, diabetes, coronary heart disease or chronic kidney disease, were invited to self-monitor following an individualized self-titration algorithm...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881744/analytical-methods-for-a-learning-health-system-1-framing-the-research-question
#14
Michael Stoto, Michael Oakes, Elizabeth Stuart, Lucy Savitz, Elisa L Priest, Jelena Zurovac
Learning health systems use routinely collected electronic health data (EHD) to advance knowledge and support continuous learning. Even without randomization, observational studies can play a central role as the nation's health care system embraces comparative effectiveness research and patient-centered outcomes research. However, neither the breadth, timeliness, volume of the available information, nor sophisticated analytics, allow analysts to confidently infer causal relationships from observational data...
December 7, 2017: EGEMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880562/family-networks-and-infant-health-promotion-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-from-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-in-rural-malawi
#15
Molly Scott, Bansi Malde, Carina King, Tambosi Phiri, Hilda Chapota, Esther Kainja, Florida Banda, Marcos Vera-Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Parents may rely on information provided by extended family members when making decisions concerning the health of their children. We evaluate whether extended family members affected the success of an information intervention promoting infant health. METHODS: This is a secondary, sequential mixed-methods study based on a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led home-education intervention conducted in Mchinji District, Malawi. We used linear multivariate regression to test whether the intervention impact on child height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) was influenced by extended family members...
June 7, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878058/plasma-metabolites-and-lipids-predict-insulin-sensitivity-improvement-in-obese-nondiabetic-individuals-after-a-2-phase-dietary-intervention
#16
Antonin Meyer, Emilie Montastier, Jörg Hager, Wim Hm Saris, Arne Astrup, Nathalie Viguerie, Armand Valsesia
Background: Weight loss in obese individuals aims to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by improving glycemic control. Yet, significant intersubject variability is observed and the outcomes remain poorly predictable. Objective: The aim of the study was to predict whether an individual will show improvements in insulin sensitivity above or below the median population change at 6 mo after a low-calorie-diet (LCD) intervention. Design: With the use of plasma lipidomics and metabolomics for 433 subjects from the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) Study, we attempted to predict good or poor Matsuda index improvements 6 mo after an 8-wk LCD intervention (800 kcal/d)...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877853/unsupervised-stochastic-strategies-for-robust-detection-of-muscle-activation-onsets-in-surface-electromyogram
#17
S Easter Selvan, Didier Allexandre, Umberto Amato, Guang H Yue
Surface electromyographic (sEMG) data impart valuable information concerning muscle function and neuromuscular diseases especially under human movement conditions. However, they are subject to trial-wise and subject-wise variations, which would pose challenges for investigators engaged in precisely estimating the onset of muscle activation. To this end, we posited two unsupervised statistical approaches- scree-plot elbow detection (SPE) heavily relying on the threshold choice and the more robust profile likelihood maximization (PLM) that obviates parameter tuning-for accurately detecting muscle activation onsets (MAOs)...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871509/the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-expedited-approval-programs-evidentiary-standards-regulatory-trade-offs-and-potential-improvements
#18
Joshua D Wallach, Joseph S Ross, Huseyin Naci
The US Food and Drug Administration has several regulatory programs and pathways to expedite the development and approval of therapeutic agents aimed at treating serious or life-debilitating conditions. A common feature of these programs is the regulatory flexibility, which allows for a customized approval approach that enables market authorization on the basis of less rigorous evidence, in exchange for requiring postmarket evidence generation. An increasing share of therapeutic agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration in recent years are associated with expedited programs...
June 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870461/monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis
#19
Yael Renert-Yuval, Emma Guttman-Yassky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the treatment revolution atopic dermatitis, the most common inflammatory skin disease, has been going through in recent years, thanks to breakthroughs in disease understanding, delineating the immune fingerprint of atopic dermatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: The treatment for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis patients has been largely unchanged for decades and relied on broad-acting immunosuppressants. A huge unmet need existed for effective, well tolerated and narrow-targeted therapeutics...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867413/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-occipital-place-area-biases-gaze-during-scene-viewing
#20
George L Malcolm, Edward H Silson, Jennifer R Henry, Chris I Baker
We can understand viewed scenes and extract task-relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This process is generally supported by three cortical regions that show selectivity for scene images: parahippocampal place area (PPA), medial place area (MPA) and occipital place area (OPA). Prior studies have focused on the visual information each region is responsive to, usually within the context of recognition or navigation. Here, we move beyond these tasks to investigate gaze allocation during scene viewing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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