Read by QxMD icon Read

Rely trial

Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Zainab Khan, Jordan Milko, Munir Iqbal, Moness Masri, David R P Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the power of unpaired t tests in prospective, randomized controlled trials when these tests failed to detect a statistically significant difference and to determine the frequency of type II errors. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined all prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 2010 and 2012 in 4 major ophthalmology journals (Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Maximilian Bures, Patrick Zardo, Florian Länger, Ruoyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Albumin-glutaraldehyde glue has gained widespread acceptance for treatment of alveolar air leaks (AAL) in thoracic surgery. As liquid run-off during application is detrimental to its sealing efficacy, we developed a modified technique and assessed it in vitro. METHODS: Caudal lobes of freshly excised swine lungs (n = 20) were intubated and ventilated. A standardized focal superficial parenchymal defect (40 × 25 mm) was created on the inflated lung...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Geerte C Den Hollander, Joyce L Browne, Daniel Arhinful, Rieke van der Graaf, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
To address the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research with pregnant women in these settings is increasingly common. Pregnant women in LMIC-context may experience vulnerability related to giving consent to participate in a clinical trial. To recognize possible layers of vulnerability this study aims to identify factors that influence the decision process towards clinical trial participation of pregnant women in an urban middle-income setting. This qualitative research used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion with medical staff and pregnant women eligible for trial participation, at a regional hospital in Accra, Ghana...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Ashlee Lillis, DelWayne Bohnenstiehl, Jason W Peters, David Eggleston
Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties...
2016: PeerJ
Rodrigo S Maeda, Shawn M O'Connor, J Maxwell Donelan, Daniel S Marigold
As we walk, we must accurately place our feet to stabilize our motion and to navigate our environment. We must also achieve this accuracy despite imperfect sensory feedback and unexpected disturbances. Here we tested whether the nervous system uses state estimation to beneficially combine sensory feedback with forward model predictions to compensate for these challenges. Specifically, subjects wore prism lenses during a visually guided walking task, and we used trial-by-trial variation in prism lenses to add uncertainty to visual feedback and induce a reweighting of this input...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hongliang Zhang, Zhenguang Huang, Xiaoqin Zou, Taotao Liu
A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the risk of wound-healing complications in patients who treated with neoadjuvant-adjuvant bevacizumab in various oncological indications. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library through June 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials of bevacizumab and wound-healing complications. Seven RCTs studies involving 5,147 participants were included in the analysis. Compared with routine therapy, bevacizumab increased the incidence of wound-healing complications for various cancers...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Leila Rooshenas, Daisy Elliott, Julia Wade, Marcus Jepson, Sangeetha Paramasivan, Sean Strong, Caroline Wilson, David Beard, Jane M Blazeby, Alison Birtle, Alison Halliday, Chris A Rogers, Rob Stein, Jenny L Donovan
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are essential for evidence-based medicine and increasingly rely on front-line clinicians to recruit eligible patients. Clinicians' difficulties with negotiating equipoise is assumed to undermine recruitment, although these issues have not yet been empirically investigated in the context of observable events. We aimed to investigate how clinicians conveyed equipoise during RCT recruitment appointments across six RCTs, with a view to (i) identifying practices that supported or hindered equipoise communication and (ii) exploring how clinicians' reported intentions compared with their actual practices...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Elizabeth Elliott, Birgit Vollm
It is often difficult to ascertain the true extent and nature of sexually deviant behavior, as much relies on self-report or historic information. The polygraph has been proposed as a useful tool in the treatment and supervision of sex offenders. The current review aims to provide a coherent, objective, and recent synthesis of evaluation studies exploring the utility of the post-conviction polygraph (PCSOT) in the treatment and management of sexual offenders. This was assessed based on offense recidivism rates and disclosure; self-reported utility was also considered...
October 17, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Alexandre Baptista, Inês Teixeira, Sónia Romano, António Vaz Carneiro, Julian Perelman
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies of DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes treatment versus other antidiabetics. METHODS: Three investigators searched the CRD York, Tufts CEA Registry, and MEDLINE databases through 2015. We reviewed all potentially relevant titles and abstracts, and screened full-text articles, according to inclusion criteria. We established a quality score for each study based on a 35-item list...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Peter Jo, Manuel Nietert, Linda Gusky, Julia Kitz, Lena C Conradi, Annegret Müller-Dornieden, Philipp Schüler, Hendrik A Wolff, Josef Rüschoff, Philipp Ströbel, Marian Grade, Torsten Liersch, Tim Beißbarth, Michael B Ghadimi, Ulrich Sax, Jochen Gaedcke
Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alex Maolanon, Helle Kristensen, Luke Leman, Reza Ghadiri, Christian Adam Olsen
Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes has emerged as a target for development of cancer chemotherapy. Four compounds have gained approval for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, and several are currently in clinical trials. However, none of these compounds possesses particularly good isozyme-selectivity, which would be a highly desirable feature in a tool compound. Whether selective inhibition of individual HDAC isozymes will provide improved drug candidates remains to be seen...
October 17, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Zhongheng Zhang, Nathan J Smischney, Haibo Zhang, Sven Van Poucke, Panagiotis Tsirigotis, Jordi Rello, Patrick M Honore, Win Sen Kuan, Juliet June Ray, Jiancang Zhou, You Shang, Yuetian Yu, Christian Jung, Chiara Robba, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Pietro Caironi, David Grimaldi, Stefan Hofer, George Dimopoulos, Marc Leone, Sang-Bum Hong, Mabrouk Bahloul, Laurent Argaud, Won Young Kim, Herbert D Spapen, Jose Rodolfo Rocco
Sepsis is a heterogeneous disease caused by an infection stimulus that triggers several complex local and systemic immuno-inflammatory reactions, which results in multiple organ dysfunction and significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging because there is no gold standard for diagnosis. As a result, the clinical diagnosis of sepsis is ever changing to meet the clinical and research requirements. Moreover, although there are many novel biomarkers and screening tools for predicting the risk of sepsis, the diagnostic performance and effectiveness of these measures are less than satisfactory, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend clinical use of these new techniques...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ryan S Hsi, Thomas Sanford, David S Goldfarb, Marshall L Stoller
PURPOSE: Kidney stone prevention relies on the 24-hour urine collection to diagnose metabolic abnormalities and direct dietary and pharmacologic therapy. While its use is guideline-supported for high risk and interested patients, evidence that the test can accurately predict recurrence or treatment response is limited. We sought to critically reassess the role of the 24-hour urine collection in stone prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to a MEDLINE® search to identify controlled studies of dietary and pharmacologic interventions, evidence supporting the AUA and EAU guidelines for metabolic stone prevention were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
Kieran F Docherty, Ross T Campbell, Pardeep S Jhund, Mark C Petrie, John J V McMurray
AIMS: Guidelines for the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) cite the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support treatment recommendations. The significance of an observed treatment-effect relies on the use of a boundary P-value, most commonly P < 0.05. There is concern about relying on arbitrary threshold P-values to report results as 'statistically significant'. The 'fragility index' (FI) has been proposed as an additional measure of the robustness of trial findings...
October 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
Christophoros Christophorou, Styliani Kleanthous, Dimosthenis Georgiadis, Donato M Cereghetti, Panayiotis Andreou, Cindy Wings, Eleni Christodoulou, George Samaras
Based on the demographic changes and the rapid increase of older population in Europe, major challenges are expected to rise, both in the economy as well as the society, whether the dominant care model for supporting elderly in living independently at home continues to rely on informal and formal caregivers' assistance. To respond to the above challenges, assistive technologies are called to develop Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services for supporting seniors to remain active and independent, for as long as possible, in their chosen home environment...
September 2016: Healthcare Technology Letters
Zachary D Langford, Hanne Schevernels, C Nico Boehler
Motoric inhibition is ingrained in human cognition and implicated in pervasive neurological diseases and disorders. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study investigated proactive motivational adjustments in attention during response inhibition. We compared go-trial data from a stop-signal task, in which infrequently presented stop-signals required response cancellation without extrinsic incentives ("standard-stop"), to data where a monetary reward was posted on some stop-signals ("rewarded-stop"). A novel EEG analysis was used to directly model the covariation between response time and the attention-related N1 component...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas Dejoie, Jill Corre, Helene Caillon, Cyrille Hulin, Aurore Perrot, Denis Caillot, Eileen Boyle, Marie-Lorraine Chretien, Jean Fontan, Karim Belhadj, Sabine Brechignac, Olivier Decaux, Laurent Voillat, Philippe Rodon, Olivier Fitoussi, Carla Araujo, Lotfi Benboubker, Charlotte Fontan, Mourad Tiab, Pascal Godmer, Odile Luycx, Olivier Allangba, Jean-Michel Pignon, Jean-Gabriel Fuzibet, Laurence Legros, Anne-Marie Stoppa, Mamoun Dib, Brigitte Pegourie, Frederique Orsini-Piocelle, Lionel Karlin, Bertrand Arnulf, Murielle Roussel, Laurent Garderet, Mohamad Mohty, Nathalie Meuleman, Chantal Doyen, Pascal Lenain, Margaret Macro, Xavier Leleu, Thierry Facon, Philippe Moreau, Michel Attal, Herve Avet-Loiseau
Guidelines for monitoring multiple myeloma patients expressing light chains only (light chain multiple myeloma; LCMM) rely on measurements of the monoclonal protein in urine. Alternatively serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements have better sensitivity over urine methods, however, demonstration that improved sensitivity provides any clinical benefit is lacking. Here we compared the performance of serum and urine measurements in 113 (72κ, 41λ) newly diagnosed LCMM patients enrolled onto the IFM-2009 trial...
October 11, 2016: Blood
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"