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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110499/dynamic-predictions-using-flexible-joint-models-of-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#1
Jessica Barretta, Li Sub
Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data are particularly relevant to many clinical studies where longitudinal biomarkers could be highly associated with a time-to-event outcome. A cutting-edge research direction in this area is dynamic predictions of patient prognosis (e.g., survival probabilities) given all available biomarker information, recently boosted by the stratified/personalized medicine initiative. As these dynamic predictions are individualized, flexible models are desirable in order to appropriately characterize each individual longitudinal trajectory...
January 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110405/cyanotoxins-producing-organisms-occurrence-toxicity-mechanism-of-action-and-human-health-toxicological-risk-evaluation
#2
REVIEW
Franca M Buratti, Maura Manganelli, Susanna Vichi, Mara Stefanelli, Simona Scardala, Emanuela Testai, Enzo Funari
Cyanobacteria were present on the earth 3.5 billion years ago; since then they have colonized almost all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They produce a high number of bioactive molecules, among which some are cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial growth at high densities, forming blooms, is increasing in extension and frequency, following anthropogenic activities and climate changes, giving rise to some concern for human health and animal life exposed to cyanotoxins. Numerous cases of lethal poisonings have been associated with cyanotoxins ingestion in wild animal and livestock...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110319/perioperative-remote-acute-lung-injury-recent-update
#3
Jin Zhaosheng, Suen Ka Chun, Ma Daqing
Perioperative acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome characterised by hypoxia and chest radiograph changes. It is a serious post-operative complication, associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In addition to mechanical ventilation, remote organ insult could also trigger systemic responses which induce ALI. Currently, there are limited treatment options available beyond conservative respiratory support. However, increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI and the biochemical pathways involved will aid the development of novel treatments and help to improve patient outcome as well as to reduce cost to the health service...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110159/manganese-intake-is-inversely-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-in-japan-baseline-data-from-the-kyushu-okinawa-maternal-and-child-health-study
#4
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
BACKGROUND: One epidemiological study in Canada has addressed the association between zinc intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy while another epidemiological study in Korea has examined the association between iron intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The present cross-sectional study in Japan examined the association between intake of zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. METHODS: Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110132/thromboelastographic-characterization-of-the-activated-clotting-system-in-children-with-sickle-cell-trait-or-sickle-cell-disease
#5
Shveta Gupta, Roxana Carmona, Jemily Malvar, Guy Young
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological evidence suggests sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The increased in-vivo markers of thrombin generation support the notion that such patients are in a chronic hypercoagulable state. In an attempt to better understand the underlying mechanism, global hemostatic assays including thrombin generation assay (TGA) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been utilized by several groups, but thus far, have shown inconsistent results either due to small sample size or technical differences...
September 21, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110053/development-and-optimization-of-an-in-vitro-cultivation-protocol-allows-for-isolation-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-from-patients-with-hard-tick-borne-relapsing-fever
#6
Joris Koetsveld, Nadezhda M Kolyasnikova, Alex Wagemakers, Marina G Toporkova, Denis S Sarksyan, Anneke Oei, Alexander E Platonov, Joppe W Hovius
OBJECTIVES: Borrelia miyamotoi has been shown to infect humans in Eurasia and North America causing hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF). In vitro cultivation of B. miyamotoi was described recently; however, clinical isolation of relapsing fever Borrelia is cumbersome. Our aim was to develop a straightforward protocol enabling B. miyamotoi isolation directly from blood of patients. METHODS: MKP-F media, with or without anticoagulants, or blood from healthy human volunteers, was spiked with B...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109907/circadian-gene-variants-and-breast-cancer
#7
Edyta Reszka, Monika Przybek, Olav Muurlink, Beata Peplonska
The endogenous and self-sustained circadian rhythm generated and maintained in suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues can coordinate various molecular, biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms resulting in the adaptation to environmental cues, e.g. light. Multifactorial breast cancer etiology also involves circadian gene alterations, especially among individuals exposed to light at night. Indeed, shift work that causes circadian disruption has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109853/variants-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-and-beta-genes-modify-the-severity-of-sporadic-breast-cancer
#8
Luciana Montes Rezende, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Carmen Sílvia Passos Lima, Carmen Sílvia Bertuzzo
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive factors pose a risk for sporadic breast cancer(BC) development owing to the lifetime exposure to estrogen, a hormone responsible for cell proliferation in the breast. Because variants of the estrogen receptor(ER) alpha and beta genes have been associated with BC risk in numerous populations, the objective of the study was to determine whether the risk and severity of sporadic BC was associated with the rs2228480(ESR1) and rs4986938(ESR2) variants in a Brazilian population...
January 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109847/high-frequency-of-sccmec-type-v-and-agr-type-i-among-heterogeneous-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus-hvisa-in-north-india
#9
Avinash Singh, Kashi Nath Prasad, Mohibur Rahman, Ravi Prakash Rai, Satyendra Kumar Singh, Janmejai Kumar Srivastava
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the genetic features of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-sensitive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (VS-MRSA) isolates. METHODS: The presence of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), accessory gene regulator (agr) types, and vanA and vanB genes in hVISA and VS-MRSA isolates was evaluated by PCR. Genetic relatedness was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109819/adapting-to-the-global-shortage-of-cholera-vaccines-targeted-single-dose-cholera-vaccine-in-response-to-an-outbreak-in-south-sudan
#10
REVIEW
Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Christine Jamet, Yona Kenyi, Richard Laku Lino, Joseph F Wamala, Allan M Mpairwe, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman, Jean-Clement Cabrol
Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns. Additionally, various epidemiological, political, and logistical challenges, which are poorly documented in the literature, often lead to delays in reactive campaigns, ultimately reducing the effect of vaccination. In June 2015, a cholera outbreak occurred in Juba, South Sudan, and because of the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, authorities were unable to secure sufficient doses to vaccinate the entire at-risk population-approximately 1 million people...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109801/solid-phase-microextraction-sand-flies-oviposition-pheromones-plaster-of-paris-and-siloxanes-what-is-in-common
#11
Thais Marchi Goulart, Christiann Davis Tosta, Vicente Estevam Machado, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Dennys Ghenry Samillan Ortiz, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Mara Cristina Pinto
Sand flies are natural hosts of various microorganisms. Due to their epidemiological importance, sand fly colonies are kept in laboratories to be studied in terms of their biology and vector/host/parasite interactions. In order to investigate the presence of oviposition pheromones in Nyssomyia neivai, experiments using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were performed. However, siloxanes which is an external class of contamination, present in breeding containers made by plaster used to maintain sand flies in colonies, may be hindered the experiments...
January 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109766/crohn-s-disease-in-italy-a-critical-review-of-the-literature-using-different-data-sources
#12
REVIEW
Carlotta Galeone, Claudio Pelucchi, Giovanna Barbera, Claudio Citterio, Carlo La Vecchia, Andrea Franchi
BACKGROUND: Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) have increased during the last decades in several world areas. Italian data on CD are scattered between various administrative, educational and scientific sources, and findings are poorly summarized. AIMS: We conducted a review focusing not only on prevalence and incidence of CD in Italy, but also on mortality, treatments, delayed diagnosis and hospitalization. METHODS: In October 2015, we searched for quantitative epidemiological data of CD using PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
January 9, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109704/nicotine-promotes-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-secretion-by-human-trophoblast-cells-under-hypoxic-conditions-and-improves-the-proliferation-and-tube-formation-capacity-of-human-umbilical-endothelial-cells
#13
Hongbo Zhao, Lanxiang Wu, Yahui Wang, Jiayi Zhou, Ruixia Li, Jiabing Zhou, Zehua Wang, Congjian Xu
Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription...
January 17, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109626/significance-of-lymph-node-metastasis-on-survival-of-women-with-uterine-adenosarcoma
#14
Hiroko Machida, Michael J Nathenson, Tsuyoshi Takiuchi, Crystal L Adams, Jocelyn Garcia-Sayre, Koji Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: Uterine adenosarcoma (UAS) is a rare gynecologic malignancy and the significance of lymph node metastasis on survival has not been well studied. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results Program to examine UAS (n=994), endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, n=2910), and uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS, n=5506) diagnosed between 1973 and 2013. The impact of lymph node metastasis on cause-specific survival (CSS) was cross-compared by multivariable analysis...
January 18, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109554/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-with-and-without-neutropenia-at-a-medical-centre-in-northern-taiwan-2008-2013
#15
Chien-Yuan Chen, Feng-Ming Tien, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and microbiology of 2083 patients with haematological malignancy who were treated for BSI from 2008 to 2013 at a medical centre in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphoma (38.1%) was the most common, followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (30.9%). Of the 2090 non-duplicate BSI isolates, 1310 (62.7%) were recovered from patients with neutropenia...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109473/competing-causes-of-death-in-the-head-and-neck-cancer-population
#16
Sean T Massa, Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Kara M Christopher, Lauren D Arnold, Mario Schootman, Ronald J Walker, Mark A Varvares
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The increasing survivorship of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comes with a risk of death from other causes, known as competing causes. The demographics of HNSCC are also evolving with increasing incidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) associated tumors. This study describes competing causes of death for the HNSCC population compared to the general population and identifies associated risk factors. METHODS: Adult patients with first mucosal HNSCC (2004-2011) were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result database...
February 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109465/racial-disparities-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-survival
#17
Uchechukwu C Megwalu, Yifei Ma
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Several studies have revealed racial disparities in head and neck cancer outcomes. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of race on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer, using a large population-based cancer database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Database of the National Cancer Institute...
February 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109269/an-appraisal-of-the-neglected-tropical-diseases-control-program-in-cameroon-the-case-of-the-national-program-against-onchocerciasis
#18
Tsi Njim, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes. Current global estimates suggest that it accounts for 1135.7 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100,000 population. The disease is endemic in many African countries including Cameroon, probably suggesting that the current health policies are inadequate to achieve eradication of the disease. We aimed to appraise the current Onchocerciasis control program in Cameroon in the context of existing literature...
January 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109260/changes-in-depressive-symptoms-and-correlates-in-hiv-people-at-an-hoa-clinic-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#19
Van-Anh N Huynh, Kien G To, Dung Van Do, Quyen G To, Mai T H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Understanding of depression among Vietnamese people living with HIV (PLWH) is limited. This longitudinal study examines changes in depressive symptoms and identifies its correlates among people living with HIV under antiretroviral therapy at An Hoa Clinic. METHODS: People living with HIV ≥18 years and undergoing antiretroviral therapy for ≥3 months were eligible. Those at final AIDS stage, too ill, or illiterate were excluded due to their inability to complete the self-administered questionnaire...
January 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109251/prevalence-and-trends-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-in-the-asia-pacific-region-a-systematic-review
#20
P Ranasinghe, Y Mathangasinghe, R Jayawardena, A P Hills, A Misra
BACKGROUND: The Asia-Pacific region is home to nearly half of the world's population. The region has seen a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present systematic review summarizes the recent prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among adults in countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. METHODS: Data on MetS in Asia-Pacific countries were obtained using a stepwise process by searching the online Medline database using MeSH terms 'Metabolic Syndrome X' and 'Epidemiology/EP'...
January 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
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