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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318536/chromobacterium-violaceum-infection-in-a-horse
#1
Márcia Elisa Hammerschmitt, Veronica Machado Rolim, Gustavo Geraldo Medina Snel, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, David Driemeier, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen of mammals that produces characteristic violet pigment in bacterial culture. We report pneumonia and septicaemia caused by C. violaceum in a horse. Necropsy examination was performed on a 3-year-old Quarter Horse stallion with a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia, fever, dyspnoea and sanguineous nasal discharge. The lungs were not collapsed, but they contained dark red foci mixed with white areas, and multiple nodules of firm consistency. Within the liver and kidney there were randomly distributed, multifocal, white pinpoint lesions (0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299215/intra-abdominal-actinomycosis-mimicking-malignant-abdominal-disease
#2
Ali Ridha, Njideka Oguejiofor, Sarah Al-Abayechi, Emmanuel Njoku
Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298195/role-of-systemic-inflammation-scores-for-prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-atazanavir-not-boosted-by-ritonavir-in-the-italian-master-cohort
#3
Maria Concetta Postorino, Mattia Prosperi, Emanuele Focà, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Elisa Di Filippo, Franco Maggiolo, Alberto Borghetti, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Nicola Mazzini, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are unknown. METHODS: An observational study was carried out on the Italian MASTER, selecting HIV infected patients on cART switching to an uATV-containing regimen. Baseline was set as the last visit before uATV initiation. In the primary analysis, a composite clinical end-point was defined as the first occurring of any condition among: liver, cardiovascular, kidney, diabetes, non AIDS related cancer or death events...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295449/hepatic-mtdna-tlr9-microrna-223-forms-a-negative-feedback-loop-to-limit-neutrophil-over-activation-and-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#4
Yong He, Dechun Feng, Man Li, Yanhang Gao, Teresa Ramirez, Haixia Cao, Seung-Jin Kim, Yang Yang, Yan Cai, Cynthia Ju, Hua Wang, Jun Li, Bin Gao
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide, in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released by damaged hepatocytes activates neutrophils via the binding of TLR9, further aggravating liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that mtDNA/TLR9 also activates a negative feedback pathway via the induction of microRNA-223 (miR-223) to limit neutrophil over-activation and liver injury. After injection of APAP in mice, levels of miR-223, the most abundant miRNAs in neutrophils, were highly elevated in neutrophils...
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294319/grpr-antagonist-protects-from-drug-induced-liver-injury-by-impairing-neutrophil-chemotaxis-and-motility
#5
Rafael S Czepielewski, Natália Jaeger, Pedro E Marques, Maísa M Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Débora M Alvarenga, Rafaela V Pereira, Rodrigo D da Silva, Tiago G Lopes, Vinícius D da Silva, Bárbara N Porto, Gustavo B Menezes, Cristina Bonorino
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), where hepatocyte necrotic products trigger liver inflammation, release of CXCR2 ligands (IL-8) and other neutrophil chemotactic molecules. Liver infiltration by neutrophils is a major cause of the life threatening tissue damage that ensues. A GRPR (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor) antagonist impairs IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. We investigated its potential to reduce acetaminophen-induced ALF, neutrophil migration and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293378/hepatorenal-syndrome-update-on-diagnosis-and-therapy
#6
EDITORIAL
Juan G Acevedo, Matthew E Cramp
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a manifestation of extreme circulatory dysfunction and entails high morbidity and mortality. A new definition has been recently recommended by the International Club of Ascites, according to which HRS diagnosis relies in serum creatinine changes instead that on a fixed high value. Moreover, new data on urinary biomarkers has been recently published. In this sense, the use of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seems useful to identify patients with acute tubular necrosis and should be employed in the diagnostic algorithm...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289714/bile-acids-initiate-cholestatic-liver-injury-by-triggering-a-hepatocyte-specific-inflammatory-response
#7
Shi-Ying Cai, Xinshou Ouyang, Yonglin Chen, Carol J Soroka, Juxian Wang, Albert Mennone, Yucheng Wang, Wajahat Z Mehal, Dhanpat Jain, James L Boyer
Mechanisms of bile acid-induced (BA-induced) liver injury in cholestasis are controversial, limiting development of new therapies. We examined how BAs initiate liver injury using isolated liver cells from humans and mice and in-vivo mouse models. At pathophysiologic concentrations, BAs induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in mouse and human hepatocytes, but not in nonparenchymal cells or cholangiocytes. These hepatocyte-specific cytokines stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis. Inflammatory injury was mitigated in Ccl2(-/-) mice treated with BA or after bile duct ligation, where less hepatic infiltration of neutrophils was detected...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289147/gfpuv-expressing-recombinant-rickettsia-typhi-a-useful-tool-for-the-study-of-pathogenesis-and-cd8-t-cell-immunology-in-rickettsia-typhi-infection
#8
Matthias Hauptmann, Nicole Burkhardt, Ulrike Munderloh, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Susanne Krasemann, Kristin Hartmann, Till Krech, Bernhard Fleischer, Christian Keller, Anke Osterloh
Rickettsia (R) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that occurs wordwide with increasing incidence and can be fatal. Because of its obligate intracellular life style, genetic manipulation of this pathogen is difficult. Nonetheless, in recent years genetic manipulation tools have been successfully applied to rickettsiae. We describe here for the first time the transformation of R. typhi with the pRAM18dRGA plasmid that originally derives from R. amblyommatis and encodes for the expression of GFP(uv) Transformed R...
March 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286920/blockade-of-notch-signaling-promotes-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#9
Longfeng Jiang, Michael Ke, Shi Yue, Wen Xiao, Youde Yan, Xiaozhao Deng, Qi-Long Ying, Jun Li, Bibo Ke
Liver injury after experimental acetaminophen treatment is mediated both by direct hepatocyte injury through a P450-generated toxic metabolite and indirectly by activated liver Kupffer cells and neutrophils. This study was designed to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the regulation of innate immune responses in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Using a mouse model of APAP-induced liver injury, wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were injected intraperitoneally with APAP or PBS...
March 13, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285371/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-metachronous-liver-metastasis-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
Kota Arima, Hirohisa Okabe, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Hidetoshi Nitta, Takaaki Higashi, Takayoshi Kaida, Kensuke Yamamura, Yuki Kitano, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Toru Beppu, Motohiro Takeya, Hideo Baba
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are clinically malignant, having metastatic potential. Histological tumor grade is an accepted indicator of malignant potential, but noninvasive prognostic markers have not yet been identified. This study assessed whether the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could predict clinical outcomes of PNET patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients who underwent curative resection for PNETs between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282579/interleukin-23-mediates-the-pathogenesis-of-lps-galn-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#11
Suxia Bao, Qiang Zhao, Jianming Zheng, Ning Li, Chong Huang, Mingquan Chen, Qi Cheng, Mengqi Zhu, Kangkang Yu, Chenghai Liu, Guangfeng Shi
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is required for T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and IL-17 production in hepatitis B virus infection. A previous study showed that the IL-23/IL-17 axis aggravates immune injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. However, the role of IL-23 in acute liver injury remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine IL-23 in lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-induced acute liver injury in mice...
March 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270138/hepatocytes-express-the-antimicrobial-peptide-hbd-2-after-multiple-trauma-an-experimental-study-in-human-and-mice
#12
Stefanie Fitschen-Oestern, Matthias Weuster, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Sabine Fuchs, Thomas Pufe, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Andreas Bayer, Andreas Seekamp, Deike Varoga, Tim Klüter
BACKGROUND: Human-beta defensins (HBD) belong to the family of acute phase peptides and hold a broad antimicrobial spectrum that includes gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. HBD are up-regulated after severe injuries but the source of posttraumatic HBD expression has not been focused on before. In the current study we analysed the role of liver tissue in expression of HBD after multiple trauma in human and mice. METHODS: HBD-2 expression has been detected in plasma samples of 32 multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) over 14 days after trauma by ELISA...
March 7, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267673/paeoniflorin-attenuates-anit-induced-cholestasis-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-vivo-via-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#13
Hou-Qin Zhou, Wei Liu, Jian Wang, Yin-Qiu Huang, Peng-Yan Li, Yun Zhu, Jia-Bo Wang, Xiao Ma, Rui-Sheng Li, Shi-Zhang Wei, Kun Li, Hao-Tian Li, Jian-Yu Li, Xiao-He Xiao, Yan-Ling Zhao
Apoptosis induced by the bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic disease. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that Paeoniflorin (PF) exerts therapeutic effect on severe cholestatic liver diseases. However, whether PF could protect against alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis by inhibiting apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated the effect and anti-apoptosis mechanism of PF on cholestasis. Experimental results indicated that PF pretreatment could attenuate liver damage and cholestasis by ANIT in rats, lift the biliary excretion in addition to decrease serum indices (ALT, AST, DBIL, TBIL, TBA, ALP and ϒ-GT) and conspicuous neutrophil infiltration and cell apoptosis in liver evidenced by TUNEL staining...
March 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263289/establishment-of-a-mouse-model-of-enalapril-induced-liver-injury-and-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis
#14
Yuji Shirai, Shingo Oda, Sayaka Makino, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern in drug development and clinical drug therapy. Since the underlying mechanisms of DILI have not been fully understood in most cases, elucidation of the hepatotoxic mechanisms of drugs is expected. Although enalapril (ELP), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to cause liver injuries with a low incidence in humans, the precise mechanisms by which ELP causes liver injury remains unknown. In this study, we established a mouse model of ELP-induced liver injury and analyzed the mechanisms of its hepatotoxicity...
March 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254771/urine-kidney-injury-biomarkers-and-risks-of-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-all-cause-death-the-cric-study
#15
Meyeon Park, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Alan S Go, Harold I Feldman, Dawei Xie, Xiaoming Zhang, Theodore Mifflin, Sushrut S Waikar, Venkata S Sabbisetti, Joseph V Bonventre, Josef Coresh, Robert G Nelson, Paul L Kimmel, John W Kusek, Mahboob Rahman, Jeffrey R Schelling, Ramachandran S Vasan, Kathleen D Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CKD is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. We investigated whether select urine kidney injury biomarkers were associated with higher risk of heart failure (HF), CVD, and death in persons with CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Urine kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase were measured in urine of a subset of CRIC participants (n=2466)...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253724/predictive-value-of-serum-gamma-glutamyltransferase-levels-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
L Sun, R Wang, F Y Gao, Y X Li, M F Geng, J L Chen, X Q Ye, X S Li, X Yang, G Wan, Z Y Yang, X B Wang
Here we assessed the predictive value of gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) for the prognosis of patients with HCC and compared the γ-GT with other prognostic factors. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes for 858 patients first diagnosed with HCC. Cox univariate and multivariate analyses receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for the study of significance of prognostic factor. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess the value of γ-GT as an HCC prognostic factor in different classifications of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) or Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) and different levels of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP)...
March 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250999/a-rare-case-of-rivaroxaban-causing-delayed-symptomatic-hepatocellular-injury-and-hyperbilirubinemia
#17
Keith Glenn, Patrick Chen, Mustafa Musleh, Rao Pallivi, Melissa Grilliot
Importance. As Rivaroxaban has increased in popularity, it has been accompanied with a growing body of evidence displaying its ability to cause drug induced liver injury (DILI). Observation. A 74-year-old Caucasian female developed Rivaroxaban DILI two weeks after finishing a 14-day course. The patient was symptomatic and jaundiced with elevated transaminases and hyperbilirubinemia with normal lab values two months priorly. Liver biopsies showed mixed inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, rare necrotic hepatocytes, and canalicular and intrahepatocellular cholestasis, all of which are consistent with DILI...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249287/the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-mechanisms-of-bile-acid-induced-liver-damage
#18
Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which bile acids induce liver injury in cholestasis remains controversial. Although high levels of bile acids are toxic when applied to liver cells, the level of toxic bile acids in the liver of most cholestatic animals and patients is <10 μM, indicating there must be alternative mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may play an important role in bile acid-induced liver injury, as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is stimulated by bile acids in mouse hepatocyte cultures...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242240/norursodeoxycholic-acid-ameliorates-cholemic-nephropathy-in-bile-duct-ligated-mice
#19
Elisabeth Krones, Kathrin Eller, Marion J Pollheimer, Silvia Racedo, Alexander H Kirsch, Bianca Frauscher, Annika Wahlström, Marcus Ståhlman, Michael Trauner, Florian Grahammer, Tobias B Huber, Karin Wagner, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Peter Fickert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe cholestasis may cause cholemic nephropathy that can be modeled in common bile duct ligated (CBDL) mice. We aimed to explore the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) in cholemic nephropathy. METHODS: In 8-weeks CBDL mice fed norUDCA (prior or post CBDL) or chow we evaluated serum urea levels, urine cytology and urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (uNGAL), kidney and liver tissue including quantification of fibrosis by hydroxyproline content and gene chip expression including key genes of inflammation and fibrosis...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240988/identifying-a-size-specific-hazard-of-silica-nanoparticles-after-intravenous-administration-and-its-relationship-to-the-other-hazards-that-have-negative-correlations-with-the-particle-size-in-mice
#20
Takayuki Handa, Toshiro Hirai, Natsumi Izumi, Shun-Ichi Eto, Shin-Ichi Tsunoda, Kazuya Nagano, Kazuma Higashisaka, Yasuo Yoshioka, Yasuo Tsutsumi
Many of the beneficial and toxic biological effects of nanoparticles have been shown to have a negative correlation with particle size. However, few studies have demonstrated biological effects that only occur at specific nanoparticle sizes. Further elucidation of the size-specific biological effects of nanoparticles may reveal not only unknown toxicities, but also novel benefits of nanoparticles. We used surface-unmodified silica particles with a wide range of diameters and narrow size intervals between the diameters (10, 30, 50, 70, 100, 300, and 1000 nm) to investigate the relationship between particle size and acute toxicity after intravenous administration in mice...
February 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
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