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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807983/cancer-associated-pathways-and-biomarkers-of-venous-thrombosis
#1
Yohei Hisada, Nigel Mackman
Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this review, we will summarize common and cancer type-specific pathways of VTE in cancer patients. Increased levels of leukocytes, platelets and tissue factor-positive (TF+) microvesicles are all potential factors that alone or in combination increase cancer-associated thrombosis. Lung and colorectal cancer patients often exhibit leukocytosis. Neutrophils could increase VTE in cancer patients by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps whereas monocytes may express TF...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795678/-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-coagulation-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#2
Fangxiao Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are net-like structure composed of DNA and nuclear proteins, which are produced by activated neutrophils under the circumstances of a variety of pathogens or drugs. As part of defensive mechanism, NETs have been proved to restrict the spread of pathogens and release of antimicrobial molecules. NETs can not only strengthen the adhesion between neutrophils and platelets, promote platelet mediated procoagulant reaction, but also lead to endothelial cell damage and coagulopathy in sepsis...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775074/stasis-promotes-erythrocyte-adhesion-to-von-willebrand-factor
#3
Michel W J Smeets, Marjon J Mourik, Hans W M Niessen, Peter L Hordijk
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism is a major contributor to global disease burden. Leukocytes and platelets initiate thrombogenesis on blood stasis and initiate the formation of a fibrin, VWF (von Willebrand factor), and neutrophil extracellular trap scaffolds for erythrocytes. However, there is little knowledge on how erythrocytes become stably incorporated into this scaffold. Recently, we described the adhesion of calcium-loaded erythrocytes to endothelial-derived VWF strings. Because VWF is part of the scaffold of venous thrombi, we questioned whether reduced flow or stasis promotes the adhesion of normal erythrocytes to VWF and whether venous thrombi show evidence of erythrocyte-VWF interactions...
August 3, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760115/a-model-of-acute-antibody-mediated-renal-allograft-rejection-in-the-sensitized-rata
#4
Sharmila Ramessur Chandran, William R Mulley, John Kanellis, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Frank Y Ma
OBJECTIVES: Antibody-mediated rejection in transplant recipients with preexisting donor-specific antibodies is a challenging clinical situation. However, we lack suitable animal models to study this scenario. The aim of this study was to develop an animal model of acute antibody-mediated rejection of renal allografts in sensitized recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used major histocompatibility complex class I and II incompatible rat strains (Dark Agouti RT1av1 and Lewis RT1l), which develop aggressive rejection...
July 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743887/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-the-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-implications-for-the-establishment-of-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#5
Ana C Leal, Daniella M Mizurini, Tainá Gomes, Natalia C Rochael, Elvira M Saraiva, Marcos S Dias, Claudio C Werneck, Micheli S Sielski, Cristina P Vicente, Robson Q Monteiro
Cancer patients are at an increased risk of developing thromboembolic complications. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain cancer-associated thrombosis including the release of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles and the activation of host vascular cells. It was proposed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the prothrombotic phenotype in cancer. In this study, we evaluated the possible cooperation between tumor-derived exosomes and NETs in cancer-associated thrombosis. Female BALB/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741500/immunity-gone-astray-nets-in-cancer
#6
Jessica Cedervall, Anna-Karin Olsson
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer-associated pathologies such as metastasis, thrombosis, and organ dysfunction in preclinical models. We review recent discoveries of the involvement of NETs in human cancers and suggest tumor-induced NET formation as an interesting potential therapeutic target in oncology.
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#7
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727215/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-coincide-with-a-pro-coagulant-status-of-microcirculatory-endothelium-in-burn-wounds
#8
H Ibrahim Korkmaz, Magda M W Ulrich, Sanne Vogels, Tim de Wit, Paul P M van Zuijlen, Paul A J Krijnen, Hans W M Niessen
Burn-induced tissue loss is partly related to secondary expansion of necrosis into vital dermis neighboring the initial burn injury. An important factor herein is the severe loss of perfusion of the burn wound, probably caused by microvascular damage induced by the intense local inflammatory responses as well as burn-induced hypercoagulation. We hypothesize that the formation of neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in this. The purpose of this study was to investigate postburn intravascular thrombosis, NETs formation and the coagulant state in the microvasculature of burns in both animal models and patients...
July 20, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687627/phase-ii-trial-of-sorafenib-in-combination-with-capecitabine-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-inst-08-20
#9
Yehuda Patt, Cristhiam Rojas-Hernandez, Houman Mohammad Fekrazad, Pranshu Bansal, Fa Chyi Lee
LESSONS LEARNED: There continues to be a lack of systemic options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); sorafenib and, very recently, regorafenib are the only approved options. There exists a potential to combine sorafenib with chemotherapeutic agents shown to be active in HCC, such as capecitabine, safely.Good tumor response was observed, with objective improvement in a few patients seldom seen by single agent sorafenib; however, because of the limited number of patients, meaningful conclusions on survival cannot be drawn...
July 7, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684614/ubiquinol-effects-on-antiphospholipid-syndrome-prothrombotic-profile-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Carlos Pérez-Sánchez, María Ángeles Aguirre, Patricia Ruiz-Limón, María Carmen Abalos-Aguilera, Yolanda Jiménez-Gómez, Iván Arias-de la Rosa, Antonio Rodriguez-Ariza, Lucía Fernández-Del Río, José Antonio Gonzalez-Reyes, Pedro Segui, Eduardo Collantes-Estévez, Nuria Barbarroja, Francisco Velasco, Savino Sciascia, Irene Cecchi, María José Cuadrado, José Manuel Villalba, Chary López-Pedrera
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) leukocytes exhibit an oxidative perturbation, directly linked to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism. This disturbance is related to the patients' prothrombotic status and can be prevented by in vitro treatment with coenzyme Q10. Our aim was to investigate short-term effects of in vivo ubiquinol (reduced coenzyme Q10[Qred]) supplementation on markers related to inflammation and thrombosis in APS through a prospective, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial...
July 6, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682809/mechanisms-of-erosion-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#11
Thibaut Quillard, Grégory Franck, Thomas Mawson, Eduardo Folco, Peter Libby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review explores the mechanisms of superficial intimal erosion, a common cause of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Human coronary artery atheroma that give rise to thrombosis because of erosion differ diametrically from those associated with fibrous cap rupture. Eroded lesions characteristically contain few inflammatory cells, abundant extracellular matrix, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Innate immune mechanisms such as engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on cultured endothelial cells can impair their viability, attachment, and ability to recover a wound...
July 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678391/interferon-lambda1-il-29-and-inorganic-polyphosphate-are-novel-regulators-of-neutrophil-driven-thromboinflammation
#12
Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou, Konstantinos Kambas, Dimitrios Stakos, Ioannis Mitroulis, Alexandros Mitsios, Veroniki Vidali, Iliana Angelidou, Magdalena Bochenek, Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Ioanna-Evdokia Galani, Panagiotis Skendros, Elias A Couladouros, Stavros Konstantinides, Evangelos Andreakos, Katrin Schäfer, Konstantinos Ritis
Neutrophils and neutrophil-released meshwork structures termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are major mediators of thromboinflammation and emerging targets for therapy, yet the mechanisms and pathways that control the role of neutrophils in thromboinflammation remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the role of IFN-λ1/IL-29, a major antiviral cytokine recently shown to suppress the neutrophil migratory capacity, in prothrombotic and proNETotic functions of neutrophils. In an ex vivo human experimental setting of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), we show that IFN-λ1/IL-29 hinders NET release and diminishes the amount of cytoplasmic TF in neutrophils...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654465/high-velocity-paint-gun-injuries
#13
Wendi E Wohltmann, Joshua A Wisell, Celina M C Lafrades, Daniel M Cramer, Bruce D Ragsdale
Cutaneous injuries due to industrial high-pressure paint guns are well-documented in the literature; however, the histologic characteristics are uncommonly described, and facial involvement has not been previously reported. Histopathologic features of paint gun injuries vary depending on the time since injection and type of material. Early lesions display an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, edema, and thrombosis, with varying degrees of skin, fat, and muscle necrosis. More developed lesions (120-192 hours after injury) have prominent histiocytes and fibrosis around necrotic foci, possibly with the pitfall of muscle regenerative giant cells that could be mistaken for sarcoma...
August 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650848/ser-thr-protein-kinase-b%C3%AE-nadph-oxidase-2-signaling-in-thromboinflammation
#14
Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions between neutrophils and platelets contribute to the progression of thromboinflammatory disease. However, the regulatory mechanism governing these interactions is poorly understood. The present review focuses on the crucial role of Ser/Thr protein kinase B (AKT)β-NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) signaling in regulating neutrophil and platelet activation and their heterotypic interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence has shown that platelets, leukocytes, and blood coagulation need to be considered to treat thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation and thrombosis occur concurrently...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640782/perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Ronald J Gordon, Frederick W Lombard
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant problem in the perioperative period, increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. It is also considered the most preventable of the major postoperative complications. Despite widespread adoption of prophylaxis guidelines, it appears that morbidity from the disease has not substantially changed within the past 2 decades. It is becoming clear that current prophylaxis efforts are not sufficient. Using more potent anticoagulants may decrease the incidence of VTE, but increase the risk for bleeding and infection...
August 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634671/venous-thromboembolism-is-an-independent-predictor-of-mortality-among-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#16
Harry E Fuentes, D M Oramas, L H Paz, Y Wang, X A Andrade, A J Tafur
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an independent predictor of death among patients with cancer. Patients with gastric cancer (GC) are at higher risk for VTE when compared to other solid tumors, and if one considers its prevalence, GC may be responsible for one of the highest incidences of cancer-associated thrombosis. The impact of VTE on mortality is not well defined among patients with GC. AIM: The aim of this study is to measure the impact of VTE as independent predictor of GC mortality...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611024/platelet-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-a-modulator-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-mice
#17
Ilaria Canobbio, Caterina Visconte, Stefania Momi, Gianni Francesco Guidetti, Marta Zarà, Jessica Canino, Emanuela Falcinelli, Paolo Gresele, Mauro Torti
The amyloid precursor protein (APP), primarily known as the precursor of amyloid peptides that accumulate in the brain of patients with Alzheimer disease, is abundant in platelets, but its physiological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of APP in hemostasis and thrombosis, using APP knockout (KO) mice. Ex vivo aggregation, secretion, and integrin αIIbβ3 inside-out activation induced by several agonists were normal in APP-deficient platelets, but the number of circulating platelets was reduced by about 20%, and their size was slightly increased...
July 27, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594748/inhibition-of-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-reduces-renal-allograft-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-sensitized-recipients
#18
Sharmila Ramessur Chandran, Yingjie Han, Greg H Tesch, Julie Di Paolo, William R Mulley, John Kanellis, Frank Y Ma, David J Nikolic-Paterson
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation into sensitized patients with preexisting donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is very challenging. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) promotes leukocyte recruitment and activation via signalling through various cell surface receptors. We investigated whether a selective Syk inhibitor (GS-492429) could suppress antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in a rat model of AMR in sensitized recipients. METHODS: Recipient Lewis rats (RT1) were immunized with donor (Dark Agouti, RT1) spleen cells (day -5)...
June 7, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570273/myeloid-related-protein-14-regulates-deep-vein-thrombosis
#19
Yunmei Wang, Huiyun Gao, Chase W Kessinger, Alvin Schmaier, Farouc A Jaffer, Daniel I Simon
Using transcriptional profiling of platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, we identified myeloid-related protein-14 (MRP-14, also known as S100A9) as an acute myocardial infarction gene and reported that platelet MRP-14 binding to platelet CD36 regulates arterial thrombosis. However, whether MRP-14 plays a role in venous thrombosis is unknown. We subjected WT and Mrp-14-deficient (Mrp-14-/-) mice to experimental models of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) by stasis ligation or partial flow restriction (stenosis) of the inferior vena cava...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567089/combined-use-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-c-reactive-protein-level-to-predict-clinical-outcomes-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#20
Ho-Cheol Shin, Jae-Sik Jang, Han-Young Jin, Jeong-Sook Seo, Tae-Hyun Yang, Dae-Kyeong Kim, Dong-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Both neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are biomarkers associated with poor prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the combined usefulness of NLR and CRP in predicting adverse outcomes has not been investigated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 381 consecutive AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January 2012 to January 2014. The endpoints were all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, repeat revascularization, stroke, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 2-year follow-up...
May 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
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