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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#1
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917897/blood-borne-phagocytes-internalize-urate-microaggregates-and-prevent-intravascular-netosis-by-urate-crystals
#2
Elmar Pieterse, Ivica Jeremic, Christine Czegley, Daniela Weidner, Mona H C Biermann, Susan Veissi, Christian Maueröder, Christine Schauer, Rostyslav Bilyy, Tetiana Dumych, Markus Hoffmann, Luis E Munoz, Anders A Bengtsson, Georg Schett, Johan van der Vlag, Martin Herrmann
Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to cardiovascular complications including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In individuals with hyperuricemia, needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals (nsMSU) frequently form within joints or urine, giving rise to gouty arthritis or renal calculi, respectively. These nsMSU are potent instigators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Little is known on the mechanism(s) that prevent nsMSU formation within hyperuricemic blood, which would potentially cause detrimental consequences for the host...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911367/a-simple-fluorescence-assay-for-quantification-of-canine-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release
#3
Unity Jeffery, Robert D Gray, Dana N LeVine
Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA, histones and neutrophil proteins released in response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Although a component of the innate immune response, NETs are implicated in a range of disease processes including autoimmunity and thrombosis. This protocol describes a simple method for canine neutrophil isolation and quantification of NETs using a microplate fluorescence assay. Blood is collected using conventional venipuncture techniques. Neutrophils are isolated using dextran sedimentation and a density gradient using conditions optimized for dog blood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900452/microparticles-from-splenectomized-%C3%AE-thalassemia-hbe-patients-play-roles-on-procoagulant-activities-with-thrombotic-potential
#4
Phatchanat Klaihmon, Kunwadee Phongpao, Wasinee Kheansaard, Egarit Noulsri, Archrob Khuhapinant, Suthat Fucharoen, Noppawan Phumala Morales, Saovaros Svasti, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Pornthip Chaichompoo
Thromboembolic events including cerebral thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are major complications in β-thalassemia. Damaged red blood cells and chronic platelet activation in splenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients were associated with increased microparticles (MPs) releases into blood circulation. MPs are small membrane vesicles, which play important roles on coagulation. However, the role of MP in thalassemia is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of splenectomized-MPs on platelet activation and aggregation were investigated...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895638/intercellular-interactions-as-regulators-of-netosis
#5
REVIEW
Nayef M Kazzaz, Gautam Sule, Jason S Knight
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are chromatin-derived webs extruded from neutrophils in response to either infection or sterile stimulation with chemicals, cytokines, or microbial products. The vast majority of studies have characterized NET release (also called NETosis) in pure neutrophil cultures in vitro. The situation is surely more complex in vivo as neutrophils constantly sample not only pathogens and soluble mediators but also signals from cellular partners, including platelets and endothelial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885378/netosis-provides-the-link-between-activation-of-neutrophils-on-hemodialysis-membrane-and-comorbidities-in-dialyzed-patients
#6
REVIEW
Marie Korabecna, Vladimir Tesar
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by activated neutrophils during the process of NETosis in which the nuclear material is released into extracellular space, including DNA molecules, citrullinated histones, and neutrophil granule enzymes, such as elastase. This material forms networks that are able not only to physically entrap bacteria but also to provide elevated concentration of bactericidal components. Over the last years, it has become clear that NETs can also be formed under numerous sterile inflammatory conditions, i...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876233/role-of-platelets-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-production-and-tissue-injury
#7
REVIEW
Seok-Joo Kim, Craig N Jenne
In addition to their well-known role as the cellular mediator of thrombosis, numerous studies have identified key roles for platelets during various disease processes. Importantly, platelets play a critical role in the host immune response, directly interacting with, and eliminating pathogens, from the blood stream. In addition to pathogen clearance, platelets also contribute to leukocyte recruitment at sites of infection and inflammation, and modulate leukocyte activity. Platelet interaction with activated neutrophils is a potent inducer of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836374/inflammatory-cell-content-of-coronary-thrombi-is-dependent-on-thrombus-age-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#8
Wessel W Fuijkschot, Wouter E Groothuizen, Yolande Appelman, Teodora Radonic, Niels van Royen, Maarten A H van Leeuwen, Paul A J Krijnen, Allard C van der Wal, Yvo M Smulders, Hans W M Niessen
BACKGROUND: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is typically caused by an occlusive coronary thrombus. The process of intracoronary thrombus formation is poorly understood. It is known that inflammatory cells play a role in the formation and resolution of venous thrombi, however their role in coronary thrombosis is not clear. We therefore analyzed inflammatory cells in thrombi derived from patients with STEMI in relation to histologically classified thrombus age. METHODS: Thrombus aspirates of 113 patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively collected and classified (fresh, lytic, or organized) based on hematoxylin and eosin staining...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796477/neutrophils-from-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-exhibit-an-increased-capacity-to-release-extracellular-traps-nets
#9
Enrique Podaza, Florencia Sabbione, Denise Risnik, Mercedes Borge, María B Almejún, Ana Colado, Horacio Fernández-Grecco, María Cabrejo, Raimundo F Bezares, Analía Trevani, Romina Gamberale, Mirta Giordano
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by immune defects that contribute to a high rate of infections and autoimmune cytopenias. Neutrophils are the first line of innate immunity and respond to pathogens through multiple mechanisms, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These web-like structures composed of DNA, histones, and granular proteins are also produced under sterile conditions and play important roles in thrombosis and autoimmune disorders. Here we show that neutrophils from CLL patients are more prone to release NETs compared to those from age-matched healthy donors (HD)...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784011/decreased-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-degradation-in-shiga-toxin-associated-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#10
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769639/platelets-and-infection
#11
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755122/disentangling-the-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-rheumatic-diseases
#12
Yaíma L Lightfoot, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A breakdown of immune tolerance to self-antigens in a genetically predisposing background, precipitated by environmental triggers, contributes to the development of systemic autoimmune diseases. Renewed interest in the immunomodulatory capabilities of neutrophils in systemic autoimmunity has identified neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation as a distinguishing action of neutrophils in afflicted hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidation of nucleic acids and posttranslational modifications of proteins distinctly occur during NET formation and may promote enhanced immunogenicity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730040/an-interesting-case-of-lucio-phenomenon-triggered-by-activation-of-hepatitis-c-infection
#13
Jacob Mareen, Jithendriya Madhukara
Lucio phenomenon (LP) or erythema necroticans is a rare type of reaction pattern found in untreated patients with diffuse non-nodular leprosy. It is important to distinguish this from vasculonecrotic erythema nodosum because thalidomide with high-dose steroids is the mainstay of treatment for the latter, whereas LP shows no response to thalidomide. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with purpuric patches, hemorrhagic blisters, and ulcers over extremities of 15 days duration. On cutaneous examination, there were multiple stellate purpuric patches, hemorrhagic bullae, and deep necrotic ulcers, mainly over extremities...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723901/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-health-and-disease
#14
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708646/netosis-in-cancer-platelet-neutrophil-crosstalk-promotes-tumor-associated-pathology
#15
Anna-Karin Olsson, Jessica Cedervall
It has become increasingly clear that circulating immune cells in the body have a major impact on cancer development, progression, and outcome. The role of both platelets and neutrophils as independent regulators of various processes in cancer has been known for long, but it has quite recently emerged that the platelet-neutrophil interplay is yet a critical component to take into account during malignant disease. It was reported a few years ago that neutrophils in mice with cancer have increased propensity to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) - web-like structures formed by externalized chromatin and secreted proteases...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707800/innate-effector-memory-t-cell-activation-regulates-post-thrombotic-vein-wall-inflammation-and-thrombus-resolution
#16
Natascha Luther, Fatemeh Shahneh, Melanie Brähler, Franziska Krebs, Sven Jäckel, Saravanan Subramaniam, Christian Stanger, Tanja Schönfelder, Bettina Kleis-Fischer, Christoph Reinhardt, Hans C Probst, Philip Wenzel, Katrin Schäfer, Christian Becker
RATIONALE: Immune cells play an important role during the generation and resolution of thrombosis. T cells are powerful regulators of immune and non-immune cell function, however their role in sterile inflammation in venous thrombosis has not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the recruitment, activation and inflammatory activity of T cells in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its consequences for venous thrombus resolution. METHODS AND RESULTS: CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells infiltrate the thrombus and vein wall rapidly upon DVT induction and remain in the tissue throughout thrombus resolution...
October 5, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696751/in-vivo-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-antiphospholipid-antibody-mediated-venous-thrombosis
#17
He Meng, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Yogendra Kanthi, Levi F Mazza, Megan A Elfline, Catherine E Luke, David J Pinsky, Peter K Henke, Jason S Knight
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a leading acquired cause of thrombotic events. While antiphospholipid antibodies have been shown to promote thrombosis in mice, the role of neutrophils has not been explicitly studied. Here, we characterized neutrophils in the context of a new model of antiphospholipid antibody-mediated venous thrombosis. METHODS: Mice were administered IgG fractions prepared from patients with APS. At the same time, flow through the inferior vena cava was reduced by a standard stenosis...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628010/thrombosis-and-von-willebrand-factor
#18
Minoo Shahidi
One of the key players in both hemostasis and thrombosis is von Willebrand factor (vWF), which demonstrates a duality between these two processes. Thrombus is structured by numerous elements, including endothelial cells, platelets, plasma proteins and shear stress alteration. In circulation, once a vessel wall is injured, collagen is exposed and platelets attach to the site of injury. Accordingly, vWF mediates adherence of platelets to the damaged vessel wall by binding both to the collagen and platelet receptor...
September 15, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578502/current-pathological-and-laboratory-considerations-in-the-diagnosis-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation
#19
REVIEW
Cheng Hock Toh, Yasir Alhamdi, Simon T Abrams
Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface...
November 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574188/disulfide-hmgb1-derived-from-platelets-coordinates-venous-thrombosis-in-mice
#20
Konstantin Stark, Vanessa Philippi, Sven Stockhausen, Johanna Busse, Antonella Antonelli, Meike Miller, Irene Schubert, Parandis Hoseinpour, Sue Chandraratne, Marie-Luise von Brühl, Florian Gärtner, Michael Lorenz, Alessandra Agresti, Raffaele Coletti, Daniel J Antoine, Ralf Heermann, Kirsten Jung, Sven Reese, Iina Laitinen, Markus Schwaiger, Axel Walch, Markus Sperandio, Peter P Nawroth, Christoph Reinhardt, Sven Jäckel, Marco E Bianchi, Steffen Massberg
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. While sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) - a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation - to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation...
August 29, 2016: Blood
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