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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906010/sickle-cell-vaso-occlusive-crisis-it-s-a-gut-feeling
#1
Seah H Lim, Loren Fast, Alison Morris
Insights in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusive crisis in patients with sickle cell disease have changed significantly in the last decade. Various laboratory and clinical evidence have provided support to the pivotal role of activated neutrophils in this process. A recent study in murine sickle cell disease indicated that the intestinal microbiota is responsible for regulating the number of aged neutrophils, a subset of neutrophils that are overly activated. Reduction of these neutrophils in vivo protected the mice from fatal TNFα-induced vaso-occlusive crisis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898958/technical-note-a-procedure-to-estimate-glucose-requirements-of-an-activated-immune-system-in-steers
#2
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M Abuajamieh, E J Mayorga, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard
: Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788218/clinical-and-laboratory-differences-between-lymphocyte-and-neutrophil-predominant-pleural-tuberculosis
#3
Hayoung Choi, Hae Ri Chon, Kang Kim, Sukyeon Kim, Ki-Jong Oh, Suk Hyeon Jeong, Woo Jin Jung, Beomsu Shin, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Won-Jung Koh
Pleural tuberculosis (TB), a form of extrapulmonary TB, can be difficult to diagnose. High numbers of lymphocytes in pleural fluid have been considered part of the diagnostic criteria for pleural TB; however, in many cases, neutrophils rather than lymphocytes are the predominant cell type in pleural effusions, making diagnosis more complicated. Additionally, there is limited information on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of neutrophil-predominant pleural effusions caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756543/analytical-and-biological-variability-in-biomarker-measurement-in-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos
#4
Bharat Thyagarajan, Annie Green Howard, Ramon Durazo-Arvizu, John H Eckfeldt, Marc D Gellman, Ryung S Kim, Kiang Liu, Armando J Mendez, Frank J Penedo, Gregory A Talavera, Marston E Youngblood, Lihui Zhao, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Biomarker variability, which includes within-individual variability (CVI), between-individual variability (CVG) and methodological variability (CVP+A) is an important determinant of our ability to detect biomarker-disease associations. Estimates of CVI and CVG may be population specific and little data exists on biomarker variability in diverse Hispanic populations. Hence, we evaluated all 3 components of biomarker variability in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) using repeat blood collections (n=58) and duplicate blood measurements (n=761-929 depending on the biomarker)...
December 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755222/altered-fasting-glycemia-in-cardiac-patients-during-in-hospital-rehabilitation-impact-on-short-and-long-term-follow-up
#5
Sergio E Masnaghetti, Simona Sarzi Braga, Raffaella Vaninetti, Paola Baiardi, Roberto F E Pedretti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hospitalized patients after acute cardiovascular events have poorer prognosis if glucose regulation is diagnosed as abnormal. We compared the short and long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed altered fasting glycemia (AFG) to that of known diabetic patients and patients with normal glucose regulation (NGR) after admission to cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2490 consecutive patients. Three groups were identified: known diabetes mellitus (n = 540, 22%), fasting glycemia above 110 mg/dl (AFG, n = 269, 11%), and fasting glycemia 110 mg/dl or less (NGR, n = 1681, 67%)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744556/detection-of-human-neutrophil-elastase-hne-on-wound-dressings-as-marker-of-inflammation
#6
Ana V Ferreira, Ilana Perelshtein, Nina Perkas, Aharon Gedanken, Joana Cunha, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
Chronic wound fluids have elevated concentration of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) which can be used as inflammation/infection marker. Our goal is to develop functional materials for fast diagnosis of wound inflammation/infection by using HNE as a specific marker. For that, fluorogenic peptides with a HNE-specific cleavage sequence were incorporated into traditional textile dressings, to allow real-time detection of the wound status. Two different fluorogenic approaches were studied in terms of intensity of the signal generated upon HNE addition: a fluorophore 7-amino-4-trifluormethylcoumarin (AFC) conjugated to a HNE-specific peptide and two fluorophore/quencher pairs (FAM/Dabcyl and EDANS/Dabcyl) coupled to a similar peptide as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711188/immunological-signatures-after-bordetella-pertussis-infection-demonstrate-importance-of-pulmonary-innate-immune-cells
#7
René H M Raeven, Jolanda Brummelman, Larissa van der Maas, Wichard Tilstra, Jeroen L A Pennings, Wanda G H Han, Cécile A C M van Els, Elly van Riet, Gideon F A Kersten, Bernard Metz
Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690724/correlation-of-the-leucocyte-count-with-traditional-and-non-traditional-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Bai-Yu Su, Chun-Feng Tian, Bu-Lang Gao, Yu-Hong Tong, Xu-Hong Zhao, Ying Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate correlation of the white blood cell (WBC) and its subtype count with the traditional and non-traditional components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2013, 18222 people were enrolled in this study. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were tested for all subjects after an overnight fast. The count of WBC and its subtypes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, aminotransferases, fibrinogen, uric acid, and fasting blood glucose were all assessed...
October 2, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668899/report-of-data-on-children-with-non-typhi-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-a-three-year-period
#9
Öznur Küçük, Suat Biçer, Meltem Ugraş, Defne Çöl, Tuba Giray, Gülay Çiler Erdag, Yeşim Gürol, Gülden Yilmaz, Zerrin Yalvaç, Ayça Vitrinel, Çigdem Kaspar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. between January 2010 and October 2012 were evaluated. Differences between the groups for categorical variables were estimated with a chi-square or Fisher exact test; for continuous variables with two independent samples a t test was used...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647892/nanoparticles-size-dependently-initiate-self-limiting-netosis-driven-inflammation
#10
Luis E Muñoz, Rostyslav Bilyy, Mona H C Biermann, Deborah Kienhöfer, Christian Maueröder, Jonas Hahn, Jan M Brauner, Daniela Weidner, Jin Chen, Marina Scharin-Mehlmann, Christina Janko, Ralf P Friedrich, Dirk Mielenz, Tetiana Dumych, Maxim D Lootsik, Christine Schauer, Georg Schett, Markus Hoffmann, Yi Zhao, Martin Herrmann
The critical size for strong interaction of hydrophobic particles with phospholipid bilayers has been predicted to be 10 nm. Because of the wide spreading of nonpolar nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment, we aimed to reveal the ability of living organisms to entrap NPs via formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Upon interaction with various cell types and tissues, 10- to 40-nm-sized NPs induce fast (<20 min) damage of plasma membranes and instability of the lysosomal compartment, leading to the immediate formation of NETs...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566263/pharmacologic-study-jp28927-of-alectinib-in-japanese-patients-with-alk-nsclc-with-or-without-prior-crizotinib-therapy
#11
Toyoaki Hida, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Takashi Seto, Miyako Satouchi, Makoto Nishio, Katsuyuki Hotta, Toshiaki Takahashi, Yuichiro Ohe, Koji Takeda, Masahiro Tatsuno, Takashi Asakawa, Tadashi Shimada, Tomohiro Tanaka, Tomohide Tamura
We report pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety data for a new 150 mg alectinib capsule in ALK+ non-small-cell lung cancer in a multicenter, open-label pharmacologic study (JP28927). Eligible patients (≥20 years, locally advanced/metastatic ALK+ disease, ALK inhibitor-naïve and -pretreated [including crizotinib refractory]) were randomized 1:1 to receive one of two sequences of alectinib 300 mg twice daily (comprising different schedules of 20/40 mg and 150 mg capsules) until investigator-determined lack of clinical benefit...
August 27, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561821/hyponatremia-with-persistent-elevated-urinary-fractional-uric-acid-excretion-evidence-for-proximal-tubular-injury
#12
S-M Kurt Lee, Miguel A Lanaspa, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyponatremia associated with high urinary fractional excretion of uric acid which persists after serum sodium is corrected is the cardinal feature of salt losing nephropathy (SLN). We hypothesize that low grade proximal tubular injury is present in SLN because the proximal tubule is the main site of uric acid and sodium transport. METHODS: Five subjects with SLN were compared to four subjects with recurrent hyponatremia and three healthy individuals...
August 26, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558333/regulation-of-neutrophil-functions-through-inhibitory-receptors-an-emerging-paradigm-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Benoit Favier
Neutrophils are the most abundant subset of leukocytes and play a crucial role in the immune responses against the daily pathogen attacks faced by the host. Neutrophils exhibit several functions for fighting microbes, including the release of granules containing highly toxic molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines as well as NETosis. Therefore, immune responses mediated by neutrophils must be tightly regulated to protect the host from pathogen assaults without inducing detrimental inflammation and tissue damage...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551153/g-csf-maintains-controlled-neutrophil-mobilization-during-acute-inflammation-by-negatively-regulating-cxcr2-signaling
#14
Besnik Bajrami, Haiyan Zhu, Hyun-Jeong Kwak, Subhanjan Mondal, Qingming Hou, Guangfeng Geng, Kutay Karatepe, Yu C Zhang, César Nombela-Arrieta, Shin-Young Park, Fabien Loison, Jiro Sakai, Yuanfu Xu, Leslie E Silberstein, Hongbo R Luo
Cytokine-induced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to circulation is a critical event in acute inflammation, but how it is accurately controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that CXCR2 ligands are responsible for rapid neutrophil mobilization during early-stage acute inflammation. Nevertheless, although serum CXCR2 ligand concentrations increased during inflammation, neutrophil mobilization slowed after an initial acute fast phase, suggesting a suppression of neutrophil response to CXCR2 ligands after the acute phase...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526246/mean-platelet-volume-as-a-potential-predictor-of-cholesteatoma-in-children
#15
Mehmet Akif Eryilmaz, Serhan Derin
OBJECTIVES: Cholesteatoma is a chronic inflammatory clinical disorder, and it may cause hearing loss and various complications due to its destructive nature. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a prothrombotic and proinflammatory marker. The aim of this study is to investigate predictive values of MPV, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte distribution width, and platelet lymphocyte ratio in cholesteatomatous or noncholesteatomatous pediatric chronic otitis media. METHODS: In this study, the authors retrospectively analyzed 24 patients with cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media, 9 patients with noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media, and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
September 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501318/fast-and-specific-assessment-of-the-halogenating-peroxidase-activity-in-leukocyte-enriched-blood-samples
#16
Jörg Flemmig, Pauline Schwarz, Ingo Bäcker, Anna Leichsenring, Franziska Lange, Jürgen Arnhold
In this paper a protocol for the quick and standardized enrichment of leukocytes from small whole blood samples is described. This procedure is based on the hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and can be applied to human samples as well as to blood of non-human origin. The small initial sample volume of about 50 to 100 µl makes this method applicable to recurrent blood sampling from small laboratory animals. Moreover, leukocyte enrichment is achieved within minutes and with low material efforts regarding chemicals and instrumentation, making this method applicable in multiple laboratory environments...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496089/oral-citrulline-supplementation-protects-female-mice-from-the-development-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#17
Cathrin Sellmann, Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Jean-Pascal De Bandt, Ina Bergheim
PURPOSE: Impairments of intestinal barrier function are discussed as risk factors for the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies suggest an association between arginine/citrulline homeostasis and the development of liver damages. Here, the effect of an oral L-citrulline (Cit) supplement on the development of a Western-style diet (WSD)-induced NAFLD was determined in mice. METHODS: Female 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a liquid Western-style or control diet (C) ± 2...
August 5, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472870/investigation-of-the-correlation-between-some-immune-system-and-biochemical-indicators-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Jamshid Karimi, Mojgansadat Safe, Ahmad Sadeghian, Shiva Borzooei, Ehsan Siahpoushi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Since changes in some immune system indicators such as leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the blood and Inflammation is directly in relation with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, measuring these indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes and comparing them with control group can be a suitable indicator of Inflammation and prognosis of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study was done on 75 patients with type 2 diabetes and 72 healthy individuals as patient and healthy group respectively...
June 8, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441589/short-term-exercise-training-improves-flow-mediated-dilation-and-circulating-angiogenic-cell-number-in-older-sedentary-adults
#19
Rian Q Landers-Ramos, Kelsey J Corrigan, Lisa M Guth, Christine N Altom, Espen E Spangenburg, Steven J Prior, James M Hagberg
Cardiovascular disease risk increases with age due, in part, to impaired endothelial function and decreased circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) number and function. We sought to determine if 10 days of aerobic exercise training improves endothelial function, CAC number, and intracellular redox balance in older sedentary adults. Eleven healthy subjects (4 men, 7 women), 61 ± 2 years of age participated in 60 min of aerobic exercise at 70% maximal oxygen consumption for 10 consecutive days while maintaining body weight...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438317/effect-of-targeting-inflammation-with-salsalate-the-tinsal-cvd-randomized-clinical-trial-on-progression-of-coronary-plaque-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-using-statins
#20
Thomas H Hauser, Ninad Salastekar, Ernst J Schaefer, Tanvi Desai, Harvey L Goldfine, Kristen M Fowler, Griffin M Weber, Francine Welty, Melvin Clouse, Steven E Shoelson, Allison B Goldfine
IMPORTANCE: Inflammation may contribute to pathological associations among obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether targeting inflammation using salsalate compared with placebo reduces progression of noncalcified coronary artery plaque. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In the Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate in Cardiovascular Disease (TINSAL-CVD) trial participants were randomly assigned between September 23, 2008, and July 5, 2012, to 30 months of salsalate or placebo in addition to standard, guideline-based therapies...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
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