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Weight managment diet

Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller
AIM: The prevalence of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care (RAC) is twice that of community dwelling older adults. Older adults with diabetes have been highlighted as being at high risk of frailty and malnutrition, particularly when managed on a therapeutic diet. However, assumptions may be based on clinical presentation of our oldest old which may be at conflict with the clinical presentation of younger older adults. The aim of this retrospective audit was to identify the characteristics of aged care residents with diabetes, their comorbidities and malnutrition risk...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Katy Sutcliffe, G J Melendez-Torres, Helen E D Burchett, Michelle Richardson, Rebecca Rees, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review...
March 14, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Shelley Macaulay, Martha Ngobeni, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of GDM amongst black South African women, describe GDM-associated risk factors and clinical management, and evaluate the efficacy of the fasting plasma glucose reading in diagnosing GDM. METHODS: A cross-sectional screening study was performed. Pregnant women were recruited from the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg. A total of 1906 women underwent a two-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Andrew Schneider, Deborah A Hutcheon, Allyson Hale, Joseph A Ewing, Megan Miller, John D Scott
BACKGROUND: Many insurance companies require patient participation in a medically supervised weight management program (WMP) before offering approval for bariatric surgery. Clinical data surrounding benefits of participation are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between preoperative insurance-mandated WMP participation and postoperative outcomes in bariatric surgery patients. SETTING: Regional referral center and teaching hospital...
February 2, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Rachel T McGrath, Sarah J Glastras, Emma S Scott, Samantha L Hocking, Gregory R Fulcher
Metformin is increasingly being used a therapeutic option for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women with GDM treated with metformin (with or without supplemental insulin) with those receiving other management approaches. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out and 83 women taking metformin were matched 1:1 with women receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification alone. Women managed with diet and lifestyle modification had a significantly lower fasting plasma glucose ( p < 0...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Karolina Zarychta, Carina K Y Chan, Magdalena Kruk, Aleksandra Luszczynska
PURPOSE: Theoretical models, such as the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders highlight the role of cognitive factors (e.g., the way people perceive their bodies) and their associations with maladaptive weight management behaviors resulting in underweight. This paper aims at testing the indirect association of adolescent's body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) through restrictive dieting, healthy eating or unhealthy eating as well as moderating role of adolescent's weight status...
March 8, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Kadie M Anderson, Albert Lewandowski, Patricia M Dennis
An 8 yr, intact male red-rumped agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina) was evaluated for weight loss. Examination revealed poor body condition, hypercalcemia, elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, metastatic calcification of soft tissues, and hyperechoic kidneys. The diet, formulated for laboratory rodents, contained elevated levels of vitamin D3 . Histopathology from a female conspecific that died 5 mo prior identified dystrophic mineralization and nephrosclerosis, suggestive of a vitamin D3 toxicity. The male agouti responded well to a dietary reduction in vitamin D3 and calcium...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Matthew R O'Connor, Michael M Garner
Within a 2-wk period, three African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) presented for emergency treatment. All three parrots had depressed behavior, an inability to fly, and significant weight loss. Plasma chemistry abnormalities included severe hypoproteinemia and elevated liver enzymes in all parrots. Two of the parrots died, and histologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains revealed severe hepatic iron storage. Quantitative analysis confirmed high hepatic iron concentrations...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jerica M Berge, Megan R Winkler, Nicole Larson, Jonathan Miller, Ann F Haynos, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Although previous cross-sectional research has revealed potential harmful outcomes associated with parent encouragement to diet, it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting and whether they are transmitted to the next generation. The main aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal associations between exposure to parent encouragement to diet in adolescence and weight-related and emotional health outcomes in adulthood and to examine whether intergenerational transmission of encouragement to diet occurs...
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Massa Oi, Daniel Donner, Jason Peart, Belinda Beck, Lauren Wendt, John P Headrick, Eugene F du Toit
Statins are effective in management of dyslipidaemia, and a cornerstone of CVD prevention strategies. However, the impacts of their pleiotropic effects on other cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial responses to infarction are not well characterised. We hypothesised that pravastatin treatment in obesity improves lipid profiles, insulin-resistance and myocardial resistance to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Wistar rats were fed a control (C) chow or high carbohydrate and fat diet (HCFD) for 16 weeks with vehicle or pravastatin (prava 7...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Michelle Mendez, Whitney Robinson, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo, Vijaya Hogan, Diane Rowley
Diet is dictated by the surrounding environment, as food access and availability may change depending on where one lives. Maternal diet during pregnancy is an important part of the in utero environment, and may affect the epigenome. Studies looking at overall diet pattern in relation to DNA methylation have been lacking. The Mediterranean diet is known for its health benefits, including decreased inflammation, weight loss, and management of chronic diseases. This study assesses the association between maternal adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern during pregnancy and infant DNA methylation at birth...
May 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Baskaran Yogalakshmi, Chandrasekaran Sathiya Priya, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
CONTEXT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver is a pathological outcome of nutrient excess and is suggested to be one of the hits for progressive liver injury. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) and metformin (MET) alone or in combination can relieve hepatic ER stress induced in rats subjected to calorie excess. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were given high calorie diet (HCD) for 45 days, while GSP (100 mg/kg body weight) and MET (50 mg/kg body weight) were administered either alone or in combination for last 15 days...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
G Campisciano, S Palmisano, C Cason, M Giuricin, M Silvestri, M Guerra, D Macor, N De Manzini, L S Crocé, M Comar
Intestinal microbiota analysis of obese patients after bariatric surgery showed that Proteobacteria decreased after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG), while it increased after laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB). Comparing to normal weight (NW) patients, obese patients that were selected for SG showed an almost equal amount of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the ratio was not affected by the surgery. Obese patients before LGB showed a predominance of Bacteroidetes, whose amount regained a relative abundance similar to NW patients after surgery...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Mariya Vizireanu, Daniel Hruschka
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. DESIGN: In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Vivian Hc Wang, Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Shufa Du, Fei Xu, Huijun Wang, Youfa Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China. DESIGN: Variables associated with child weight status, beliefs and behaviours, and obesity-related parenting practices were selected to examine their sex differences and association with a sex difference in child OW/OB outcomes using logistic regression analysis...
February 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Jenny H Conviser, Sheehan D Fisher, Susanna A McColley
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Linda Penn, Angela Rodrigues, Anna Haste, Marta M Marques, Kirsten Budig, Kirby Sainsbury, Ruth Bell, Vera Araújo-Soares, Martin White, Carolyn Summerbell, Elizabeth Goyder, Alan Brennan, Ashley J Adamson, Falko F Sniehotta
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the demonstrator phase and first wave roll-out of the National Health Service (NHS) Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England. To examine: (1) intervention design, provision and fidelity assessment procedures; (2) risk assessment and recruitment pathways and (3) data collection for monitoring and evaluation. To provide recommendations informing decision makers on programme quality, improvements and future evaluation. DESIGN: We reviewed programme documents, mapping against the NHS DPP specification and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) public health guideline: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention in people at high risk (PH38), conducted qualitative research using individual interviews and focus group discussions with stakeholders and examined recruitment, fidelity and data collection procedures...
February 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Gitanjali Srivastava, Cynthia Buffington
INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery results in massive weight loss, weight regain over time up to as much as 25% is not uncommon. Weight regain in this population often leads to long-term weight loss failure and non-compliance in clinical follow-up and program recommendations. METHODS: We analyzed early weight outcomes at 3 and 6 months of 48 bariatric patients referred to an individualized, multidisciplinary medical management program at the Center for Obesity Medicine (COM) to address weight regain in 2015 and compared to a group of matched non-bariatric patients...
February 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
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