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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156182/obesity-pharmacotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Katherine H Saunders, Devika Umashanker, Leon I Igel, Rekha B Kumar, Louis J Aronne
Although diet, physical activity, and behavioral modifications are the cornerstones of weight management, weight loss achieved by lifestyle modifications alone is often limited and difficult to maintain. Pharmacotherapy for obesity can be considered if patients have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m(2) or greater or BMI of 27 kg/m(2) or greater with weight-related comorbidities. The 6 most commonly used antiobesity medications are phentermine, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended release, lorcaserin, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR, and liraglutide 3...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156179/dietary-management-of-obesity-cornerstones-of-healthy-eating-patterns
#2
REVIEW
Alissa D Smethers, Barbara J Rolls
Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#3
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151813/dietary-energy-density-applying-behavioural-science-to-weight-management
#4
B J Rolls
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151592/diet-resistant-obesity-is-characterized-by-a-distinct-plasma-proteomic-signature-and-impaired-muscle-fiber-metabolism
#5
A B Thrush, G Antoun, M Nikpay, D A Patten, C DeVlugt, J-F Mauger, B L Beauchamp, P Lau, R Reshke, É Doucet, P Imbeault, R Boushel, D Gibbings, J Hager, A Valsesia, R Slack, O Y Al-Dirbashi, R Dent, R McPherson, M-E Harper
BACKGROUND/OBJECT: Inter-individual variability in weight loss during obesity treatment is complex and poorly understood. Here we use whole body and tissue approaches to investigate fuel oxidation characteristics in skeletal muscle fibers, cells, and distinct circulating protein biomarkers before and after a high fat meal (HFM) challenge in those who lost the most (obese diet-sensitive; ODS), vs the least (obese diet-resistant; ODR) amount of weight in a highly controlled weight management program...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149192/diet-improvement-for-western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larvae
#6
Man P Huynh, Lisa N Meihls, Bruce E Hibbard, Stephen L Lapointe, Randall P Niedz, Dalton C Ludwick, Thomas A Coudron
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably one of the world's most expensive pests to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and public researchers to evaluate WCR larvae in diet-toxicity bioassays. However, a publicly available diet that produces normative insects that are physiologically similar to WCR larvae reared on corn roots will accelerate development of management technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143063/translating-aetiological-insight-into-sustainable-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Roy Taylor, Alison C Barnes
Using a low-energy diet as a tool, it has been possible to elucidate the sequence of pathophysiological changes that lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Negative energy balance in type 2 diabetes causes a profound fall in liver fat content resulting in normalisation of hepatic insulin sensitivity within 7 days. As the period of negative energy balance extends and liver fat levels fall to low normal, the rate of export of triacylglycerol from the liver falls. Consequent to this, the raised pancreas fat content falls and in early type 2 diabetes, normal first-phase insulin secretion becomes re-established with normal plasma glucose control...
November 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142618/melatonin-supplementation-lowers-oxidative-stress-and-regulates-adipokines-in-obese-patients-on-a-calorie-restricted-diet
#10
Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Paweł Rajewski, Marcin Gackowski, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Roland Wesołowski, Paweł Sutkowy, Marta Pawłowska, Alina Woźniak
Obesity is one of the major global health problems. Melatonin deficiency has been demonstrated to correlate with obesity. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and adipokine levels in obese patients on a calorie-restricted diet. Thirty obese patients were supplemented with a daily dose of 10 mg of melatonin (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) for 30 days with a calorie-restricted diet. Serum levels of melatonin, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), adiponectin, omentin-1, leptin, and resistin, as well as erythrocytic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and Zn/Cu-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, were measured at baseline and after supplementation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141973/energy-metabolism-profile-in-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome-and-implications-for-clinical-management-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Maha Alsaif, Sarah A Elliot, Michelle L MacKenzie, Carla M Prado, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with excessive weight gain. Hyperphagia associated with PWS may result in higher energy intake, but alterations in energy expenditure may also contribute to energy imbalance. The purpose of this critical literature review is to determine the presence of alterations in energy expenditure in individuals with PWS. Ten studies that measured total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE), sleep energy expenditure (SEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) were included in this review...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120192/weight-stigma-and-health-the-mediating-role-of-coping-responses
#12
Mary S Himmelstein, Rebecca M Puhl, Diane M Quinn
OBJECTIVE: Considerable evidence has documented links between weight stigma and poor health, independent of weight. However, little research has assessed how individuals cope with weight stigma, and how stigma-specific coping responses contribute to health. The present study examined multiple stigma-specific coping responses as mediators of the relationship between experienced weight stigma and health. METHOD: A diverse national sample of 912 adults (53.9% female, Mage = 40...
November 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117472/text-messaging-approach-improves-weight-loss-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-study
#13
Page Axley, Sudha Kodali, Yong-Fang Kuo, Sujan Ravi, Toni Seay, Nina M Parikh, Ashwani K Singal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease. The only effective treatment is 7-10% weight loss. Mobile technology is increasingly used in weight management. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of text messaging intervention on weight loss in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: 30 well-defined NAFLD patients (mean age 52 yrs., 67% females, mean BMI 38) were randomized 1:1 to control group: counseling on healthy diet and exercise, or intervention group: text messages in addition to healthy life style counseling...
November 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108139/psychometric-testing-of-the-family-carer-diabetes-management-self-efficacy-scale
#14
Nutchanath Wichit, George Mnatzaganian, Mary Courtney, Paula Schulz, Maree Johnson
The aim of this study was to develop and test the construct and content validity, internal consistency of the Family-Carer Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (F-DMSES). A sample of 70 Thai individuals who cared for those living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural community in Thailand was included in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey in January 2014. The F-DMSES was initially derived from the DMSES, with subsequent forward and backward translations from and to English and Thai languages...
November 6, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107176/the-effects-of-multi-component-weight-management-interventions-on-weight-loss-in-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Leanne Harris, Craig Melville, Heather Murray, Catherine Hankey
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities have been shown to experience higher rates of obesity in comparison to the general population. AIM: To examine the effectiveness of randomised controlled trials of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and overweight/obesity. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted from database inception to January 2016...
October 27, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104286/leptin-regulation-of-the-p53-hif1%C3%AE-pkm2-aromatase-axis-in-breast-adipose-stromal-cells-a-novel-mechanism-for-the-obesity-breast-cancer-link
#16
H Zahid, K Subbaramaiah, N M Iyengar, X K Zhou, I-C Chen, P Bhardwaj, A Gucalp, M Morrow, C A Hudis, A J Dannenberg, K A Brown
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾30) is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, are elevated in breast tissue of obese women. Recently, the regulation of aromatase by the p53-HIF1α/PKM2 axis was characterized in adipose stromal cells (ASCs) of women with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome that predisposes to estrogen-dependent breast cancer...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099051/dietary-intake-after-weight-loss-and-the-risk-of-weight-regain-macronutrient-composition-and-inflammatory-properties-of-the-diet
#17
Harry Freitag Luglio Muhammad, Roel G Vink, Nadia J T Roumans, Laura A J Arkenbosch, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling...
November 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091813/dietary-red-raspberries-attenuate-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#18
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Persistent intestinal inflammation severely impairs intestinal integrity resulting in inflammatory bowel disease. Red raspberries (RB) are a rich source of bioactive compounds; their beneficial effect on the colitis protection was evaluated in the current study using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model. Six-week-old mice were fed a standard rodent research diet supplemented with RB (0 or 5% w/w, n=20 each group) for 6 weeks. At the 4th week of dietary treatment, approximately half of mice in each dietary group (n=12 each group) were subjected to 2...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075673/healthy-lifestyle-intervention-for-african-american-uterine-cancer-survivors-study-protocol
#19
Jessica Lynn Stewart, Gina B Besenyi, Lovoria B Williams, Victoria Burt, Judith C Anglin, Sharad A Ghamande, Steven Scott Coughlin
BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine corpus is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common cancer in U.S. women. There is a racial disparity in the survival from endometrial cancer and this may be addressed by culturally-tailored lifestyle interventions to help African American (AA) endometrial cancer survivors lose weight or maintain a healthy weight. OBJECTIVE: The overall purpose of this pilot study is to develop and evaluate a culturally-tailored lifestyle intervention to help AA uterine cancer survivors reduce their risk of cancer recurrence and improve their quality of life through healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074473/is-laser-acupuncture-an-effective-complementary-therapy-for-obesity-management-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials
#20
Nazli Namazi, Kajal Khodamoradi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Hossein Ayati
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies may increase the success rate of weight loss via a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity management. To our knowledge, no studies have summarised the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of LA, in particular with respect to its impact on anthropometric features and appetite in obese adults, by conducting a systematic review of previous clinical trials...
October 26, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
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