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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100001/transplantation-tolerance-don-t-forget-about-the-b-cells
#1
REVIEW
Anita S Chong, Stella H Khiew
Establishing a state of transplantation tolerance that leads to indefinite graft survival without the need for lifelong immunosuppression has been successfully achieved in limited numbers of transplant recipients in the clinic. These successes led to studies aimed at identifying potential biomarkers that diagnose allograft tolerance and identify the patients most amenable to drug minimization, and implicated an enriched B cell signature of tolerance. The emergence of a specialized subset of regulatory B cell (Bregs) that possess immune-modulatory function in inflammation and autoimmune disease, raised the possibility that Bregs play critical roles in the promotion of transplantation tolerance and that Bregs are the underlying explanation for the B cell signature of tolerance...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095558/clinical-evaluation-of-a-4-hydroquinone-1-retinol-treatment-regimen-for-improving-melasma-and-photodamage-in-fitzpatrick-skin-types-iii-vi
#2
Marta I Rendon, Sylvia Barkovic
The bene ts of monotherapy with hydroquinone for melasma and retinoids for photodamaged skin is well established. Here we report results of a hydroquinone skincare regimen designed for melasma treatment combined with a cosmetic retinol cream on subjects presenting with both melasma and facial photodamage in a 24-week study. Improvement in melasma and photodamage ef cacy pa- rameters of melasma pigmentation intensity and melasma area and severity index (MASI), as well as overall photodamage and mottled hyperpigmentation were found by week 4, the rst post-baseline time point...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093662/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-uk
#3
Evelina A Zimovetz, Alain Joseph, Rajeev Ayyagari, Josephine A Mauskopf
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder in children that may persist into adulthood. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved in many countries for ADHD treatment in children, adolescents, and adults. OBJECTIVES: Estimate the cost-effectiveness of LDX as a first- or second-line treatment for adults with ADHD from the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) perspective compared with methylphenidate extended release (MPH-ER) and atomoxetine (ATX)...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093504/a-model-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-guinea-pig-using-sequential-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-and-streptozotocin-treatment
#4
Brendan K Podell, David F Ackart, Michael A Richardson, James E DiLisio, Bruce Pulford, Randall J Basaraba
Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among non-communicable diseases and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are critical to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after eight weeks of feeding a high fat, high carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091770/relevance-of-surgery-in-patients-with-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#5
S Dango, T Beißbarth, E Weiss, A Seif Amir Hosseini, D Raddatz, V Ellenrieder, J Lotz, B M Ghadimi, A Beham
INTRODUCTION: Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention...
January 14, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079339/survey-of-bullous-pemphigoid-in-an-italian-university-hospital-clinical-epidemiological-characteristics-and-follow-up
#6
Riccardo Balestri, Giulia Odorici, Annalisa Patrizi, Salvatore D Infusino, Michela Magnano, Federico Bardazzi
BACKGROUND: The clinical-epidemiological characteristics and course of bullous pemphigoid in the general population is not clear. Few studies have been performed to date, and only one in the Italian population more than ten years ago. We decided to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of patients admitted for a bullous pemphigoid at our Hospital in the last 4 years. METHODS: We retrospectively review the last 4 years' medical records of the Department of Dermatology of the University of Bologna, identifying all patients with histological and immunological data typical for bullous pemphigoid...
January 12, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074543/low-distress-tolerance-predicts-heightened-drug-seeking-and-taking-after-extended-abstinence-from-cocaine-self-administration
#7
Travis M Moschak, Douglas R Terry, Stacey B Daughters, Regina M Carelli
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to persist in goal-directed behavior while experiencing psychological distress, is associated with greater frequency of substance use and poor treatment outcomes. To examine a potential causal role substance use may play in DT, we developed a rodent model of DT in which rats had to press a lever within a continuously decreasing time window for reward while receiving negative feedback on failure trials. DT was defined as the time rats continued to seek reward before quitting the task...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043641/association-of-slow-recovery-of-mycobacterium-africanum-infected-patients-posttreatment-with-high-content-of-persister-like-bacilli-in-pretreatment-sputum
#8
Leopold D Tientcheu, Andrew Bell, Oumie Secka, Abigail Ayorinde, Jacob Otu, Nathalie J Garton, Jayne S Sutherland, Martin O Ota, Martin Antonio, H M Dockrell, Beate Kampmann, Michael R Barer
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum that causes 40% of tuberculosis (TB) in West Africa grows more slowly in culture and has similar transmission capacity compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but M. africanum-exposed contacts progress more slowly to active disease. The presence of lipid body (LB) containing M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cells in sputum samples has been associated with mycobacterial transcriptomes indicating slow or no growth and persister-like antibiotic tolerance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034549/basophil-activation-test-is-a-relevant-biomarker-of-the-outcome-of-rapid-desensitization-in-platinum-compounds-allergy
#9
Pedro Giavina-Bianchi, Violeta Régnier Galvão, Matthieu Picard, Joana Caiado, Mariana C Castells
BACKGROUND: Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) has become a cornerstone in the management of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the inherent risk of anaphylaxis during RDD, biomarkers to predict patients at risk of developing such severe reactions are needed. The basophil activation test (BAT) has been used in DHRs as a diagnostic tool. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated basophil CD63 and CD203c expression (BAT) as a biomarker to assess the safety and effectiveness of RDD in platinum compounds-allergic patients...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009939/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-antimuscarinic-agents-and-the-selective-%C3%AE-3-adrenoceptor-agonist-mirabegron-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-which-is-more-preferable-as-an-initial-treatment
#10
Minoru Kobayashi, Akinori Nukui, Takao Kamai
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate comparative efficacy and tolerability of antimuscarinics and mirabegron as primary and salvage therapy in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: Patients ≥50 years with OAB symptoms were enrolled. Patients were initially treated with antimuscrinics or mirabegron for 8 weeks. When patients were refractory or intolerant to an initial treatment, drugs were switched to the other. The initial and second-line efficacy was assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment having the following parameters of the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and post-void residual (PVR) urine volume...
December 23, 2016: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997707/two-regulatory-rna-elements-affect-tisb-dependent-depolarization-and-persister-formation
#11
Bork A Berghoff, Mirthe Hoekzema, Lena Aulbach, E Gerhart H Wagner
Bacterial survival strategies involve phenotypic diversity which is generated by regulatory factors and noisy expression of effector proteins. The question of how bacteria exploit regulatory RNAs to make decisions between phenotypes is central to a general understanding of these universal regulators. We investigated the TisB/IstR-1 toxin-antitoxin system of Escherichia coli to appreciate the role of the RNA antitoxin IstR-1 in TisB-dependent depolarization of the inner membrane and persister formation. Persisters are phenotypic variants that have become transiently drug-tolerant by arresting growth...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-adults-with-adhd-a-meta-review
#12
Franco De Crescenzo, Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Luigi Janiri
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by a persistent and impairing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity and it is one of the most common neuropsychiatric conditions. Evidence about interventions of adults with ADHD is growing rapidly and clinicians need a reliable summary of all the best available information in order to better inform their daily practice. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases until 31 May 2016 for systematic reviews about pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in adults with ADHD and carried out a meta-review to address clinically relevant questions...
December 19, 2016: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992118/tolerance-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-ciprofloxacin-coated-sinus-stent-in-a-preclinical-model
#13
Do-Yeon Cho, Daniel Skinner, Calvin Mackey, Kyle Hoffman, Dong Jin Lim, Ho-Wook Jun, Dong Keun Han, Bradford A Woodworth
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is often associated with persistent bacterial infection despite the use of systemic antibiotics. Topically administered antibiotics are an alternative strategy, but require effective local concentrations, prolonged mucosal contact time, minor systemic absorption, and minimal depletion. The objectives of the current study were to analyze the in vitro release rate and in vivo drug delivery tolerance and pharmacokinetics of a ciprofloxacin-coated sinus stent (CSS)...
December 19, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989769/adaptive-chromatin-remodeling-drives-glioblastoma-stem-cell-plasticity-and-drug-tolerance
#14
Brian B Liau, Cem Sievers, Laura K Donohue, Shawn M Gillespie, William A Flavahan, Tyler E Miller, Andrew S Venteicher, Christine H Hebert, Christopher D Carey, Scott J Rodig, Sarah J Shareef, Fadi J Najm, Peter van Galen, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Daniel P Cahill, Jeremy N Rich, Jon C Aster, Mario L Suvà, Anoop P Patel, Bradley E Bernstein
Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, is propagated by stem-like cancer cells refractory to existing therapies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) proliferation and drug resistance may reveal opportunities for therapeutic interventions. Here we show that GSCs can reversibly transition to a slow-cycling, persistent state in response to targeted kinase inhibitors. In this state, GSCs upregulate primitive developmental programs and are dependent upon Notch signaling...
December 2, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988913/baseline-characteristics-and-changes-in-bone-mineral-density-t-scores-of-bulgarian-women-with-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-receiving-denosumab-in-routine-clinical-practice
#15
Mihail Boyanov, Alexander Shinkov, Emi Psachoulia, Michele Intorcia, Reneta Petkova
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is common among women over 50 years of age and is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Bone-targeted agents, such as denosumab, can reduce fracture risk in patients with PMO. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe baseline characteristics and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores among women with PMO receiving denosumab in Bulgaria. METHODS: This multicenter chart review included women with PMO receiving denosumab for ≥1 year in Bulgaria (October 2011-August 2013)...
December 17, 2016: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987201/treatment-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-adults-applying-lessons-learned-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Ibrahim T Aldoss, Guido Marcucci, Vinod Pullarkat
Although pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has cure rates of over 90%, adult ALL remains a challenging disease to treat, with cure rates roughly half those seen in children. The inferior outcomes in adults can be attributed mainly to adverse genetic features, as well as the inability-particularly of older adults-to tolerate chemotherapy. Modest improvements have been seen in outcomes for adolescents and young adults; these can largely be attributed to the use of pediatric-type combination chemotherapy regimens in patients aged 50 years or younger...
December 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978802/novel-antibacterial-compounds-and-their-drug-targets-successes-and-challenges
#17
Agnieszka A Kaczor, Andrzej Polski, Karolina Sobótka-Polska, Anna Pachuta-Stec, Magdalena Makarska-Bialokoz, Monika Pitucha
Infectious diseases are one of the most important and urgent health problems in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics, infectious and parasitic diseases are a cause of about 16% of all deaths worldwide and over 40% of deaths in Africa. A considerable progress that has been made during last hundred years in the fight against infectious diseases, in particular bacterial infections, can be attributed mainly to three factors: (1) the general improvement of living conditions, in particular sanitation; (2) development of vaccines and (3) development of efficient antibacterial drugs...
December 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941743/response-of-dapsone-in-refractory-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenia
#18
M Ali, M S Islam, M H Rahman, M M Islam, M A Anis
This was a prospective study. A total number of 19 patients with chronic ITP with platelet count <50×10⁸/L, treated with dapsone at a dose of 100 mg/day for nine months and followed up to 12 months were included in this study. Among them 13 patients (76.5%) were responded well shortly to dapsone which persisted during Dapsone therapy. Response rate of Dapsone was declining after Dapsone therapy. Response persisted in 6 patients (35.3%) after stoppage of dapsone up to last follow up at 1 year. Mean platelets count during Dapsone therapy was 168...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939675/repurposing-the-anticancer-drug-mitomycin-c-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#19
Martha Yumiko Cruz-Muñiz, Luis Esau López-Jacome, Melissa Hernández-Durán, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Paula Licona-Limón, Jose Luis Ramos-Balderas, Mariano Martinéz-Vázquez, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for recalcitrant infections owing to its high intrinsic tolerance to most antibiotics; therefore, suitable strategies to treat these infections are needed. One plausible approach is the repurposing of drugs that are already in use. Among them, anticancer drugs may be especially useful due their cytotoxic activities and ample similarities between bacterial infections and growing tumours. In this work, the effectiveness of four anticancer drugs on the growth of A...
January 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933175/hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-associated-with-insulin-antibodies-caused-by-exogenous-insulin-analog
#20
Chih-Ting Su, Yi-Chun Lin
: Insulin antibodies (IA) associated with exogenous insulin administration seldom caused hypoglycemia and had different characteristics from insulin autoantibodies (IAA) found in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), which was first described by Dr Hirata in 1970. The characteristic of IAS is the presence of insulin-binding autoantibodies and related fasting or late postprandial hypoglycemia. Here, we report a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus under insulin glargine and insulin aspart treatment who developed recurrent spontaneous post-absorptive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with the cause probably being insulin antibodies induced by exogenous injected insulin...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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