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Stool DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210082/multitarget-stool-dna-tests-increases-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-previously-noncompliant-medicare-patients
#1
Mark Prince, Lynn Lester, Rupal Chiniwala, Barry Berger
AIM: To determine the uptake of noninvasive multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) in a cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening non-compliant average-risk Medicare patients. METHODS: This cross sectional primary care office-based study examined mt-sDNA uptake in routine clinical practice among 393 colorectal cancer screening non-compliant Medicare patients ages 50-85 ordered by 77 physicians in a multispecialty group practice (USMD Physician Services, Dallas, TX) from October, 2014-September, 2015...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#2
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177797/development-and-validation-of-a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assay-for-sapovirus-in-under-five-year-old-children
#3
Massimiliano Bergallo, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Martina Rosa Brusin, Serena Finotti, Giulia Paderi, Clara Gabiano
Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis although it causes milder illness than rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays amongst clinical laboratories. This study develops a RT real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from under-five-year-old children with acute gastroenteritis. 15 out of 137 (10...
December 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173852/molecular-stool-testing-as-an-alternative-for-surveillance-colonoscopy-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#4
Meta C J van Lanschot, Beatriz Carvalho, Veerle M H Coupé, Manon van Engeland, Evelien Dekker, Gerrit A Meijer
BACKGROUND: As in many other European countries, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) has recently been introduced in the Netherlands. As a side effect, such a screening program will inherently yield an increase in the demand for surveillance after removal of polyps/adenomas or CRC. Although these patients are at increased risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia, solid evidence on CRC-related mortality reduction as a result of colonoscopy-based surveillance programs is lacking...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173773/colorectal-cancer-surveillance-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-survivors-at-increased-risk-of-therapy-related-colorectal-cancer-study-design
#5
Lisanne S Rigter, Manon C W Spaander, Leon M Moons, Tanya M Bisseling, Berthe M P Aleman, Jan Paul de Boer, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Cecile P M Janus, Eefke J Petersen, Judith M Roesink, John M M Raemaekers, Richard W M van der Maazen, Annemieke Cats, Eveline M A Bleiker, Petur Snaebjornsson, Beatriz Carvalho, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Katarzyna Jóźwiak, Hein Te Riele, Gerrit A Meijer, Flora E van Leeuwen, Monique E van Leerdam
BACKGROUND: Second primary malignancies are a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy surveillance plays an important role in colorectal cancer prevention by removal of the precursor lesions (adenomas) and early detection of cancer, resulting in improved survival rates. Therefore, Hodgkin lymphoma survivors treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine could benefit from colonoscopy, or other surveillance modalities, which are expected to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165194/diversity-and-functions-of-the-sheep-faecal-microbiota-a-multi-omic-characterization
#6
Alessandro Tanca, Cristina Fraumene, Valeria Manghina, Antonio Palomba, Marcello Abbondio, Massimo Deligios, Daniela Pagnozzi, Maria Filippa Addis, Sergio Uzzau
Little is currently known on the microbial populations colonizing the sheep large intestine, despite their expected key role in host metabolism, physiology and immunity. This study reports the first characterization of the sheep faecal microbiota composition and functions, obtained through the application of a multi-omic strategy. An optimized protocol was first devised for DNA extraction and amplification from sheep stool samples. Then, 16S rDNA sequencing, shotgun metagenomics and shotgun metaproteomics were applied to unravel taxonomy, genetic potential and actively expressed functions and pathways respectively...
February 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163824/draft-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-e2c2-and-e2c5-isolated-from-human-stool-culture
#7
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Dhiraj Paul, Swapnil P Doijad, Shrikant S Bhute, Tejashri B Hingamire, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Probiotic Lactobacillus species offer various health benefits, thus have been employed in treatment and prevention of various diseases. Due to the differences in the isolation source and the site of action, most of the lactobacilli tested in-vitro for probiotics properties fail to extend similar effects in-vivo. Consequently, the search of autochthonous, efficacious and probably population specific probiotics is a high priority in the probiotics research. In this regards, whole genome sequencing of as many Lactobacillus as possible will help to deepen our understanding of biology and their health effects...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162096/intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-uganda-at-high-altitude-1400%C3%A2-m-malacological-and-epidemiological-surveys-on-mount-elgon-and-in-fort-portal-crater-lakes-reveal-extra-preventive-chemotherapy-needs
#8
Michelle C Stanton, Moses Adriko, Moses Arinaitwe, Alison Howell, Juliet Davies, Gillian Allison, E James LaCourse, Edridah Muheki, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis is of public health importance in Uganda but communities living above 1400 m are not targeted for control as natural transmission is thought unlikely. To assess altitudinal boundaries and at-risk populations, conjoint malacological and epidemiological surveys were undertaken on Mount Elgon (1139 m-3937 m), in Fort Portal crater lakes and in the Rwenzori Mountains (1123 m-4050 m). METHODS: Seventy freshwater habitats [Mount Elgon (37), Fort Portal crater lakes (23), Rwenzori Mountains (8) and Lake Albert (2)] were inspected for Biomphalaria species...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155091/epi-procolon-%C3%A2-2-0-ce-a-blood-based-screening-test-for-colorectal-cancer
#9
Yvette N Lamb, Sohita Dhillon
Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE is a blood-based test designed to aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. The test comprises a qualitative assay for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methylated Septin9 DNA, the presence of which is associated with colorectal cancer: however, positive results should be verified by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE discriminated between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls with high clinical sensitivity and specificity in pivotal case-control studies...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#10
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138376/survey-of-ctx-m-gene-frequency-in-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-using-the-combination-disk-and-pcr-methods-in-ahvaz-iran
#11
Mojtaba Moosavian, Nazanin Ahmadkhosravy
BACKGROUND: A common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase by Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, nonderivative extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from the TEM and SHV enzymes, such as CTX-M, that were related to different geographical regions have been recognized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in hospitalized patients in the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127718/detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-faeces-of-privately-owned-cats-using-two-pcr-assays-targeting-the-b1-gene-and-the-529-bp-repetitive-element
#12
Fabrizia Veronesi, Azzurra Santoro, Giovanni L Milardi, Manuela Diaferia, Giulia Morganti, David Ranucci, Simona Gabrielli
Toxoplasma gondii infection is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis with a high-health risk for humans. The key epidemiological role played by felids is related to oocyst shedding. The present study compared two amplification protocols for the molecular diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection in owned cats. A total of 78 owned cats referred to an Italian university-teaching hospital and exposed to various T. gondii-associated risk factors were sampled for blood and faeces. Faecal specimens were processed by flotation and tested using 2 copro-PCRs targeting the widely used B1 gene and the 529-bp repetitive element (RE)...
January 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126042/fournierella-massiliensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-human-associated-member-of-the-family-ruminococcaceae
#13
Amadou Hamidou Togo, Guillaume Durand, Saber Khelaifia, Nicholas Armstrong, Catherine Robert, Frederic Cadoret, Fabrizio DI Pinto, Jeremy Delerce, Anthony Levasseur, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
An anaerobic bacterium, strain AT2T, was isolated from the fresh stool sample of a healthy French man using the culturomics approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain AT2T had a 95.2% nucleotide sequence similarity with Gemmiger formicilis strain ATCC27749T, the phylogenetically closest species with standing in nomenclature. Cells are Gram-staining, catalase and oxidase negative; obligate anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and the bacilli were mesothermophilic. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (43...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121648/changes-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-early-administration-of-oral-synbiotics-to-young-infants-in-india
#14
Dinesh S Chandel, Maria E Perez-Munoz, Fang Yu, Robert Boissy, Radhanath Satpathy, Pravas R Misra, Nidhi Sharma, Rama Chaudhry, Sailajanandan Parida, Daniel A Peterson, Ira H Gewolb, Pinaki Panigrahi
OBJECTIVES: We examined the changes in the developing gut microbiota of Indian infants enrolled in a colonization study of an oral synbiotic (L. plantarum and fructo-oligosaccharides) preparation. METHODS: Frozen stool samples were available from a previously published clinical study of the synbiotic preparation administered daily for seven days to full term Indian infants delivered by C-section. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal bacterial community-DNA was done in 11 infants sampled at Day-7 and Day-60 of life...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117881/comparative-effectiveness-of-screening-strategies-for-colorectal-cancer
#15
Afsaneh Barzi, Heinz-Josef Lenz, David I Quinn, Sarmad Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been successful in decreasing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Although new screening tests have become available, their relative impact on CRC outcomes remains unexplored. This study compares the outcomes of various screening strategies on CRC outcomes. METHODS: A Markov model representing the natural history of CRC was built and validated against empiric data from screening trials as well as the Microstimulation Screening Analysis (MISCAN) model...
January 24, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116592/clostridium-difficile-infection-and-patient-specific-antimicrobial-resistance-testing-reveals-a-high-metronidazole-resistance-rate
#16
Jodie A Barkin, Daniel A Sussman, Nimita Fifadara, Jamie S Barkin
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) causes marked morbidity and mortality, accounting for large healthcare expenditures annually. Current CDI treatment guidelines focus on clinical markers of patient severity to determine the preferred antibiotic regimen of metronidazole versus vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance patterns for patients with CD are currently unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to define the antimicrobial resistance patterns for CD...
January 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102513/incidence-of-cryptosporidium-andersoni-in-diarrheal-patients-from-southern-assam-india-a-molecular-approach
#17
G Hussain, S Roychoudhury, B Singha, J Paul
The distribution and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in humans and bovine differ across geographical areas. Cryptosporidium species causes a disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. To characterize the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in humans in southern Assam, India, stool samples (n = 1119) of diarrhea patients were collected from different hospitals and from the community during the period January 2014 to July 2016. Fecal smears were examined microscopically for Cryptosporidium species using modified acid fast staining and were screened to ascertain the presence of Cryptosporidium antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100811/the-molecular-speciation-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-collected-from-school-children-across-six-endemic-countries
#18
Santosh George, Peter Geldhof, Marco Albonico, Shaali M Ame, Jeffrey M Bethony, Dirk Engels, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Sopheak Hem, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Nguyen Thu Huong, Gagandeep Kang, Jozef Vercruysse, Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms) is traditionally based on the demonstration of eggs in stool using microscopic techniques. While molecular techniques are more appropriate to speciate STH species they are seldom applied. In this study we speciated STH eggs from stool using molecular techniques to gain insights into the distribution of both human and animal STH species in the human host. METHODS: We speciated 207 STH egg isolates from stool collected during the baseline survey of six drug efficacy trials conducted in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Vietnam applying a PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphisms based approach...
January 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097082/a-review-of-colorectal-cancer-detection-modalities-stool-dna-and-fecal-immunochemistry-testing-in-adults-over-the-age-of-50
#19
REVIEW
Tyler Janz, Karen Lu, Michael R Povlow, Brittany Urso
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Recently, more focus has been placed on developing effective screening tools to detect the presence of both precancerous and cancerous lesions present in the colon and rectum. Colonoscopy has been well established as the gold standard of the colon and rectal cancer screening. However, not all patients are willing to undergo a colonoscopy due to the procedure's invasive nature. Non-invasive screening methods have been developed to appeal to patients who refuse colonoscopy...
December 16, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077747/first-molecular-identifications-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-infecting-rural-communities-in-lower-myanmar
#20
Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Rutchanee Ropai, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural Lower Myanmar. DNA was extracted from hookworm-positive stool samples, as determined by microscopy. DNA sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer 1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial internal transcribed spacer 2 were determined and compared with available hookworm sequences from public databases. Of the 11 polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, eight (Bago Region, N = 4; Mon State, N = 4) yielded sequences with high similarity to those of Necator americanus A further three sequences (Mon State, N = 2; Bago Region, N = 1) showed high similarity with those of Ancylostoma ceylanicum The latter is primarily a parasite of dogs and represents a zoonosis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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