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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#1
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#2
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619831/stool-dna-test-of-methylated-syndecan-2-for-the-early-detection-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#3
Feng Niu, Jialing Wen, Xinhui Fu, Chujun Li, Rongsong Zhao, Shan Wu, Hao Yu, Xianglin Liu, Xia Zhao, Side Liu, Xinying Wang, Jianping Wang, Hongzhi Zou
BACKGROUND: While the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is steadily increasing, screening for CRC with conventional approaches is not routinely performed in China. Noninvasive screening methods are attractive options to resolve this issue. Syndecan-2 (SDC2) is frequently methylated in CRC. However, the value of a stool test of methylated SDC2 for the detection of CRC is unknown. METHODS: Methylation status of SDC2 was tested in cell lines and 398 colorectal tissue samples, and further evaluated with 497 stool samples, including 196 from CRC patients, 122 from adenoma patients, and 179 from normal individuals, using real-time methylation-specific PCR (qMSP)...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613041/genotyping-horse-epithelial-cells-from-fecal-matter-by-isolation-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-products
#4
Pero Dimsoski
AIM: To show that application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method modified for amplification of a low-copy number DNA samples, ie, the isolation of PCR products (IPCRp), would represent improvement in obtaining genotypes from a fecal DNA compared with previously used genotyping methods. METHODS: The DNA from the horse fecal matter was extracted by modified Qiagen DNA Stool Mini Kit protocol. Following the extraction, the DNA genotypes from fecal samples were obtained by the most powerful PCR amplification method, the IPCRp...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612148/first-detection-and-genotyping-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-stool-samples-collected-from-children-in-ghazni-province-eastern-afghanistan-and-evaluation-of-the-pcr-assay-in-formalin-fixed-specimens
#5
Anna Lass, Panagiotis Karanis, Krzysztof Korzeniewski
It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan...
June 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606969/faecal-microbiota-study-reveals-specific-dysbiosis-in-spondyloarthritis
#6
Maxime Breban, Julien Tap, Ariane Leboime, Roula Said-Nahal, Philippe Langella, Gilles Chiocchia, Jean-Pierre Furet, Harry Sokol
OBJECTIVE: Altered microbiota composition or dysbiosis is suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as spondyloarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on faecal DNA isolated from stool samples in two consecutive cross-sectional cohorts, each comprising three groups of adult volunteers: SpA, RA and healthy controls (HCs). In the second study, HCs comprised a majority of aged-matched siblings of patients with known HLA-B27 status...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596600/detection-of-dna-amplicons-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-litmus-test
#7
Dingran Chang, Kha Tram, Ben Li, Qian Feng, Zhifa Shen, Christine H Lee, Bruno J Salena, Yingfu Li
We report on a new colorimetric DNA detection method that takes advantage of the power of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the simplicity of the classic litmus test. The strategy makes use of a modified set of primers for PCR to facilitate ensuing manipulations of resultant DNA amplicons: their tagging with urease and immobilization onto magnetic beads. The amplicon/urease-laden beads are then used to hydrolyze urea, resulting in the increase of pH that can be conveniently reported by a pH-sensitive dye...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#8
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579087/the-protective-role-of-helicobacter-pylori-neutrophil-activating-protein-in-childhood-asthma
#9
A Karakullukcu, H B Tokman, S Nepesov, M Demirci, S Saribas, S Vehid, R Caliskan, Z Taner, H Cokugras, T Ziver, S Demiryas, B Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori quantity and HP-NAP gene expression were evaluated in the faeces of healthy and asthmatic children. METHODS: H. pylori DNAs and RNAs were isolated from the stool samples of 92 asthmatic children (AC; 3-8 years) and 88 healthy controls (HC). Quantitative PCR was used to determine the quantity of H. pylori and HP-NAP expression relative to the 16S rRNA (reference gene). Gene expression was analysed using the delta delta-Ct method. RESULTS: H...
May 31, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573511/early-detection-the-impact-of-genomics
#10
M C J van Lanschot, L J W Bosch, M de Wit, B Carvalho, G A Meijer
The field of genomics has shifted our view on disease development by providing insights in the molecular and functional processes encoded in the genome. In the case of cancer, many alterations in the DNA accumulate that enable tumor growth or even metastatic dissemination. Identification of molecular signatures that define different stages of progression towards cancer can enable early tumor detection. In this review, the impact of genomics will be addressed using early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example...
June 1, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545561/sources-of-variability-in-the-measurement-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-intensity-by-kato-katz-and-qpcr
#11
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Martin Walker, Elise M O'Connell, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joanne P Webster, Thomas B Nutman, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying the sources and implications of error in the measurement of helminth egg intensity using Kato-Katz (KK) and the newly emerging "gold standard" quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique is necessary for the appropriate design of epidemiological studies, including impact assessments for deworming programs. METHODS: Repeated measurements of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity were made from samples collected in western Kenya using the qPCR and KK techniques...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515219/a-novel-stool-pcr-test-for-helicobacter-pylori-may-predict-clarithromycin-resistance-and-patient-eradication-at-a-high-rate
#12
Erin Beckman, Ilaria Saracino, Giulia Fiorini, Courtney Clark, Vladimir Slepnev, Denise Patel, Clarissa Gomez, Reddy Ponaka, Vecheslav Elagin, Dino Vaira
Objectives: Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first line therapy in H. pylori positive patients, however treatment failures are associated with resistance to clarithromycin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA, while concurrently detecting mutations associated with the resistance to clarithromycin.Methods: Total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stools of H pylori positive and negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511718/simultaneous-development-of-kawasaki-disease-following-acute-human-adenovirus-infection-in-monozygotic-twins-a-case-report
#13
Sayaka Fukuda, Shuichi Ito, Maya Fujiwara, Jun Abe, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Hiroshi Katsumori
BACKGROUND: The etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown. However, many studies have suggested that specific genetic factors and/or some infectious agents underlie the onset of KD. Previous studies have suggested that human adenovirus (HAdV) is one of the triggering pathogens of KD. Here, we report monozygotic twin boys who sequentially developed KD in conjunction with acute HAdV type 3 (HAdV-3) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: The patients were four-year-old monozygotic twin boys...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502260/the-first-study-on-opportunistic-intestinal-microsporidiosis-in-ibd-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-medications-in-iran
#14
Z Hasani, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H Balaii, M Azimirad, E S Mirsamadi, H Mirjalali, M R Zali
Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487944/bortezomib-protects-against-dextran-sulfate-sodium%C3%A2-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice
#15
Li-Hong Hu, Yu-Jing Fan, Qing Li, Jing-Ming Guan, Bo Qu, Feng-Hua Pei, Bing-Rong Liu
Bortezomib, a first‑in‑class proteasome inhibitor, is a standard method of treatment in multiple myeloma. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of bortezomib was evaluated in an ulcerative colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice, and the mechanism of action was also investigated. Mice were administered with 3% DSS drinking water for 7 consecutive days and then they were intraperitoneally treated with bortezomib (0.2, 0.6 or 1 mg/kg) for 1, 3 or 7 days. Mice in the control group and the DSS group were provided the same volume of PBS, respectively...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487209/molecular-characterisation-of-carbapenemases-in-urban-pigeon-droppings-in-france-and-algeria
#16
Houda Morakchi, Lotfi Loucif, Djamila Gacemi-Kirane, Jean-Marc Rolain
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in stool samples of urban pigeons. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 73 pigeons in two Mediterranean cities, namely Marseille (France) and Annaba (Algeria). Faecal samples were screened by real-time PCR and standard PCR for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes. RESULTS: Carbapenem resistance genes were detected in 16 (21...
June 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473037/early-adoption-of-a-multitarget-stool-dna-test-for-colorectal-cancer-screening
#17
Lila J Finney Rutten, Robert M Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Debra J Jacobson, Chun Fan, John B Kisiel, Seth Sweetser, Sidna M Tulledge-Scheitel, Jennifer L St Sauver
OBJECTIVES: To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015...
May 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472153/first-report-and-molecular-identification-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-in-human-communities-from-lower-myanmar
#18
Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Kyi Kyi Thinn, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Rutchanee Rodpai, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in the South East Asian region, especially in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Thailand, but there have been no previous records from Myanmar. During stool surveys of rural populations in three regions of Lower Myanmar, Opisthorchis-like eggs were found in 34 out of 364 (9.3%) participants by stool microscopy after using the modified formalin-ether concentration technique. DNA was extracted from these positive stool samples and a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467925/gut-microbiome-based-metagenomic-signature-for-non-invasive-detection-of-advanced-fibrosis-in-human-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Rohit Loomba, Victor Seguritan, Weizhong Li, Tao Long, Niels Klitgord, Archana Bhatt, Parambir Singh Dulai, Cyrielle Caussy, Richele Bettencourt, Sarah K Highlander, Marcus B Jones, Claude B Sirlin, Bernd Schnabl, Lauren Brinkac, Nicholas Schork, Chi-Hua Chen, David A Brenner, William Biggs, Shibu Yooseph, J Craig Venter, Karen E Nelson
The presence of advanced fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most important predictor of liver mortality. There are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of gut microbiota-derived signature for predicting the presence of advanced fibrosis. In this prospective study, we characterized the gut microbiome compositions using whole-genome shotgun sequencing of DNA extracted from stool samples. This study included 86 uniquely well-characterized patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, of which 72 had mild/moderate (stage 0-2 fibrosis) NAFLD, and 14 had advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4 fibrosis)...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465629/noninvasive-molecular-analysis-of-helicobacter-pylori-is-it-time-for-tailored-first-line-therapy
#20
EDITORIAL
Enzo Ierardi, Floriana Giorgio, Andrea Iannone, Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Michele Barone, Antonio Pisani, Alfredo Di Leo
The main problem of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection management is linked to antibiotic resistances. This phenomenon has grown in the last decade, inducing a dramatic decline in conventional regimen effectiveness. The causes of resistance are point mutations in bacterial DNA, which interfere with antibiotic mechanism of action, especially clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Therefore, international guidelines have recently discouraged their use in areas with a relevant resistance percentage, suggesting first-line schedules with expected high eradication rates, i...
April 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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