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Stool DNA

Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lara Ambrosio Leal Dutra, Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is responsible for outbreaks in Brazil and has immense potential as an emerging virus. VACV can be found naturally circulating in India, Pakistan and South America, where it causes infections characterised by exanthematic lesions in buffaloes, cattle and humans. The transmission cycle of Brazilian VACV has still not been fully characterised; one of the most important gaps in knowledge being the role of wild animals. Capybaras, which are restricted to the Americas, are the world's largest rodents and have peculiar characteristics that make them possible candidates for being part of a natural VACV reservoir...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Virology
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jenny Knapp, Benoît Combes, Gérald Umhang, Soufiane Aknouche, Laurence Millon
Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Rinki Murphy, Peter Tsai, Mia Jüllig, Amy Liu, Lindsay Plank, Michael Booth
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D. METHODS: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Avnish Kumar Seth, Pawan Rawal, Ruchika Bagga, Priti Jain
Forty-four-year-old male with ulcerative colitis (UC) for 11 years reported frequent relapse despite daily sulfasalazine 4 g, azathioprine 125 mg, and rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid. Repeated use of corticosteroids led to cataract. At enrollment, he was passing eight stools a day with blood with a Mayo score of 9 (3+1+3+2). Stool was negative for ova/cysts/acid fast bacilli and Clostridium difficile toxin assay. Rectal biopsy showed cryptitis, crypt abscess, and crypt distortion with no inclusion bodies, and cytomegalovirus DNA was negative...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Rowan R Thomas, Heather J L Brooks, Rory O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhoeal and extraintestinal disease. Due to lack of EPEC screening and use of Sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar in faecal screening, the true prevalence of EPEC and non-O157 STEC in New Zealand diarrhoeal cases is unknown. METHODS: Diarrhoeic stools sourced from Dunedin hospital were pre-enriched, DNA extracted with Chelex-100 resin and screened using a multiplex TaqMan quantitative PCR assay amplifying stx1, sxt2 and EPEC (eae) gene markers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Maaike J C van den Beld, Alexander W Friedrich, Evert van Zanten, Frans A G Reubsaet, Mirjam A M D Kooistra-Smid, John W A Rossen
An inter-laboratory collaborative trial for the evaluation of diagnostics for detection and identification of Shigella species and Entero-invasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) was performed. Sixteen Medical Microbiological Laboratories (MMLs) participated. MMLs were interviewed about their diagnostic methods and a sample panel, consisting of DNA-extracts and spiked stool samples with different concentrations of Shigella flexneri, was provided to each MML. The results of the trial showed an enormous variety in culture-dependent and molecular diagnostic techniques currently used among MMLs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Floriana Giorgio, Enzo Ierardi, Claudia Sorrentino, Mariabeatrice Principi, Michele Barone, Giuseppe Losurdo, Andrea Iannone, Antonio Giangaspero, Rosa Monno, Alfredo Di Leo
PURPOSE: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a widely used technique for bacterial and viral infection diagnosis. Herein, we report our preliminary experience in retrieving H. pylori genetic sequences in stools and analyzing genotypic clarithromycin resistance by RT-PCR (noninvasive), with the aim of comparing this procedure with that performed on biopsy samples (invasive). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After 'in vitro' demonstration of H. pylori DNA detection from pure and stool-mixed bacteria, 52 consecutive patients at the first diagnosis of infection were investigated...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
Gut colonization with enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) appears to be associated with the development of colorectal cancer. However, differences in carriage rates are seen with various testing methods and sampling sites. We compared standard PCR, SYBR green and TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) in detecting the B. fragilis toxin (bft) gene from cultured ETBF, and from matched luminal and faecal stool samples from 19 colorectal cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis found that all three quantitative methods performed comparably in detecting bft from purified bacterial DNA, with the same limits of detection (<1 copy/μl)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fabiana Martins de Paula, Fernanda Mello Malta, Marcelo Andreetta Corral, Priscilla Duarte Marques, Maiara Gottardi, Dirce Mary Correia Lima Meisel, Juliana Yamashiro, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Vera Lucia Pagliusi Castilho, Elenice Messias do Nascimento Gonçalves, Ronaldo César Borges Gryschek, Pedro Paulo Chieffi
Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Liying Liu, Yuan Qian, You Zhang, Linqing Zhao, Liping Jia, Huijing Dong
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea caused by viruses is a global problem among young children. We investigated two of the most important agents, rotavirus and adenovirus, to provide epidemiological evidence for a better understanding of their role among children with acute diarrhea. METHODS: A total of 3147 hospitalized children were enrolled in the study during 2010 ~ 2014. Antigen testing for rotavirus and DNA testing for adenovirus were performed on stool specimens collected from participants...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jolanta Piekarska, Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Magdalena Kantyka, Magdalena Podkowik
INTRODUCTION: Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Attakorn Palasuwan, Duangdao Palasuwan, Aongart Mahittikorn, Rachatawan Chiabchalard, Valery Combes, Supaluk Popruk
Blastocystis is a common zoonotic enteric protozoan that has been classified into 17 distinct subtypes (STs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis in villagers living along the Chao Phraya River, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand, and to assess the risk of zoonotic infection. In total, 220 stool samples were collected, and DNA was extracted. PCR and sequencing were performed with primers targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
C Gils, M-C Eckhardt, P E Nielsen, M Nybo
Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Elvia Michelli, Adriana Millán, Hectorina Rodulfo, Mirian Michelli, Jesús Luiggi, Numirin Carreño, Marcos De Donato
INTRODUCTION: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is an important causative agent of acute diarrheic syndrome.  OBJECTIVE: To identify clonal groups of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), in 485 children with acute diarrhea aged 0 to 10 years attending health care centers in Arismendi, Benítez and Sucre municipalities, Sucre state, Venezuela, from March to December, 2011.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining the informed consent, stool samples were collected...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Lauren K Barron, Christopher P Gayer, Anne Roberts, Jamie M Golden, Bola G Aladegbami, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease causes significant mortality in patients with short bowel syndrome. Steatosis, a major component of intestinal failure-associated liver disease has been shown to persist even after weaning from parenteral nutrition. We sought to determine whether steatosis occurs in our murine model of short bowel syndrome and whether steatosis was affected by manipulation of the intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Male C57BL6 mice underwent 50% small bowel resection and orogastric gavage with vancomycin or vehicle for 10 weeks...
August 31, 2016: Surgery
Renata K N R Silva, Flávia T F Pacheco, Adson S Martins, Joelma F Menezes, Hugo Costa-Ribeiro, Tereza C M Ribeiro, Ângela P Mattos, Ricardo R Oliveira, Neci M Soares, Márcia C A Teixeira
Techniques for Giardia diagnosis based on microscopy are usually applied as routine laboratory testing; however, they typically exhibit low sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate Giardia duodenalis and other intestinal parasitic infections in different pediatric groups, with an emphasis on the comparison of Giardia diagnostic techniques. Feces from 824 children from different groups (diarrheic, malnourished, with cancer and from day care) were examined by microscopy and ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium sp...
December 2016: Parasitology International
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