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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316423/comparison-and-evaluation-of-four-methods-for-extracting-dna-from-giardia-duodenalis-cysts-for-pcr-targeting-the-tpi-gene
#1
Akram Sepahvand, Nader Pestehchian, Hossein Ali Yousefi, Reza Pahlavan Gharehbaba
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan and the common cause of gastrointestinal diseases in human. This parasite can be seen in two different forms in its life cycle including as cyst and trophozoite. Due to presence of resistant cyst wall, DNA extraction inhibitors along with artifact in stool specimens, this study was performed aiming to evaluate four methods for DNA extraction from G. duodenalis cysts. Seventy G. duodenalis positive stool specimens that were confirmed by light microscope were included in this study...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#2
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290266/improved-diagnosis-of-trichuris-trichiura-by-using-a-bead-beating-procedure-on-ethanol-preserved-stool-samples-prior-to-dna-isolation-and-the-performance-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-intestinal-parasites
#3
Maria M M Kaisar, Eric A T Brienen, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Jaco J Verweij, Taniawati Supali, Lisette VAN Lieshout
For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285507/human-cases-of-fascioliasis-in-fujian-province-china
#4
Lin Ai, Yu-Chun Cai, Yan Lu, Jia-Xu Chen, Shao-Hong Chen
Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268038/comparison-of-different-commercial-dna-extraction-kits-and-pcr-protocols-for-the-detection-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-eggs-in-faecal-samples-from-foxes
#5
Pavlo Maksimov, Gereon Schares, Sebastian Press, Andreas Fröhlich, Walter Basso, Mandy Herzig, Franz J Conraths
Effective and sensitive methods for the molecular detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in faecal samples of final hosts are crucial for the prevention and control of human alveolar echinococcosis and for studies on the epidemiology of the parasite. Little is known about the suitability of commercial test kits for isolating DNA of E. multilocularis from fox faeces and the performance of standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols in relation to the quality of DNA extracted by these kits. We compared four different kits: ZR Faecal DNA MiniPrep™ (Zymo Research), FastDNA(®) SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals), QIAamp(®) Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) and NucleoSpin(®) Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel) for the extraction of DNA from E...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260999/gut-microbiota-analysis-results-are-highly-dependent-on-the-16s-rrna-gene-target-region-whereas-the-impact-of-dna-extraction-is-minor
#6
Anniina Rintala, Sami Pietilä, Eveliina Munukka, Erkki Eerola, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Asta Laiho, Satu Pekkala, Pentti Huovinen
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the method of choice for analyzing gut microbiota composition. As gut microbiota composition is a potential future target for clinical diagnostics, it is of utmost importance to enhance and optimize the NGS analysis procedures. Here, we have analyzed the impact of DNA extraction and selected 16S rDNA primers on the gut microbiota NGS results. Bacterial DNA from frozen stool specimens was extracted with 5 commercially available DNA extraction kits. Special attention was paid to the semiautomated DNA extraction methods that could expedite the analysis procedure, thus being especially suitable for clinical settings...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259056/ruthenium-ii-piano-stool-coordination-compounds-with-aminomethylphosphanes-synthesis-characterisation-and-preliminary-biological-study-in-vitro
#7
Michał Płotek, Radosław Starosta, Urszula K Komarnicka, Agnieszka Skórska-Stania, Przemysław Kołoczek, Agnieszka Kyzioł
Reaction of {[Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl]2(μ-Cl)2} (1) with aminomethylphosphane derived from morpholine (P{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O}3 (A), PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O} (B)) or piperazine (P{CH2N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH3}3 (C), PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH3} (D)) results in four new piano stool ruthenium(II) coordination compounds: [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(A)] (2A), [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(B)] (2B), [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(C)] (2C) and [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(D)] (2D). Every complex was fully characterized using spectroscopic methods ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H} NMR and ESI-MS), elemental analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction and DFT calculations...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252573/influence-of-feeding-type-on-gut-microbiome-development-in-hospitalized-preterm-infants
#8
Xiaomei Cong, Michelle Judge, Wanli Xu, Ana Diallo, Susan Janton, Elizabeth A Brownell, Kendra Maas, Joerg Graf
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother's own milk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed up for the first 30 days of life...
March 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238285/urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-sth-in-cameroon-an-epidemiological-update-at-barombi-mbo-and-barombi-kotto-crater-lakes-assessing-prospects-for-intensified-control-interventions
#9
Suzy J Campbell, J Russell Stothard, Faye O'Halloran, Deborah Sankey, Timothy Durant, Dieudonné Eloundou Ombede, Gwladys Djomkam Chuinteu, Bonnie L Webster, Lucas Cunningham, E James LaCourse, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté
BACKGROUND: The crater lakes of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis having had several important control initiatives previously. To collect contemporary epidemiological information, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken inclusive of: signs and symptoms of disease, individual treatment histories, local water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related factors and malacological surveillance, with molecular characterisation of specimens...
February 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223725/gut-microbial-diversity-analysis-using-illumina-sequencing-for-functional-dyspepsia-with-liver-depression-spleen-deficiency-syndrome-and-the-interventional-xiaoyaosan-in-a-rat-model
#10
Juan-Juan Qiu, Zhe Liu, Peng Zhao, Xue-Jun Wang, Yu-Chun Li, Hua Sui, Lawrence Owusu, Hui-Shu Guo, Zheng-Xu Cai
AIM: To investigate gut microbial diversity and the interventional effect of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) in a rat model of functional dyspepsia (FD) with liver depression-spleen deficiency syndrome. METHODS: The FD with liver depression-spleen deficiency syndrome rat model was established through classic chronic mild unpredictable stimulation every day. XYS group rats received XYS 1 h before the stimulation. The models were assessed by parameters including state of the rat, weight, sucrose test result and open-field test result...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222680/field-evaluation-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-hunan-province-of-china
#11
Weiwei Xing, Xinling Yu, Jingtao Feng, Kui Sun, Wenliang Fu, Yuanyuan Wang, Minji Zou, Wenrong Xia, Zhihong Luo, Hongbin He, Yuesheng Li, Donggang Xu
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for Schistosoma japonicum infection are insensitive for low-density infections. Therefore, a new diagnostic assay based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology was established and assessed for field applification. METHODS: The S.japonicum RPA assay was developed to target highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 gene of S japonicum, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed by serial dilution of S. japonicum genomic DNA and other related worm genomic DNA respectively...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210082/multitarget-stool-dna-tests-increases-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-previously-noncompliant-medicare-patients
#12
Mark Prince, Lynn Lester, Rupal Chiniwala, Barry Berger
AIM: To determine the uptake of noninvasive multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) in a cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening non-compliant average-risk Medicare patients. METHODS: This cross sectional primary care office-based study examined mt-sDNA uptake in routine clinical practice among 393 colorectal cancer screening non-compliant Medicare patients ages 50-85 ordered by 77 physicians in a multispecialty group practice (USMD Physician Services, Dallas, TX) from October, 2014-September, 2015...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#13
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177797/development-of-a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assay-for-sapovirus-in-children-under-5-years-old-in-regina-margherita-hospital-of-turin-italy
#14
Massimiliano Bergallo, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Martina Rosa Brusin, Serena Finotti, Giulia Paderi, Clara Gabiano
Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children. It is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but it causes milder illness than do rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in the analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays among clinical laboratories. This study developed a reverse transcription real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from children under 5-years-old with acute gastroenteritis...
December 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173852/molecular-stool-testing-as-an-alternative-for-surveillance-colonoscopy-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#15
Meta C J van Lanschot, Beatriz Carvalho, Veerle M H Coupé, Manon van Engeland, Evelien Dekker, Gerrit A Meijer
BACKGROUND: As in many other European countries, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) has recently been introduced in the Netherlands. As a side effect, such a screening program will inherently yield an increase in the demand for surveillance after removal of polyps/adenomas or CRC. Although these patients are at increased risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia, solid evidence on CRC-related mortality reduction as a result of colonoscopy-based surveillance programs is lacking...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173773/colorectal-cancer-surveillance-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-survivors-at-increased-risk-of-therapy-related-colorectal-cancer-study-design
#16
Lisanne S Rigter, Manon C W Spaander, Leon M Moons, Tanya M Bisseling, Berthe M P Aleman, Jan Paul de Boer, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Cecile P M Janus, Eefke J Petersen, Judith M Roesink, John M M Raemaekers, Richard W M van der Maazen, Annemieke Cats, Eveline M A Bleiker, Petur Snaebjornsson, Beatriz Carvalho, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Katarzyna Jóźwiak, Hein Te Riele, Gerrit A Meijer, Flora E van Leeuwen, Monique E van Leerdam
BACKGROUND: Second primary malignancies are a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy surveillance plays an important role in colorectal cancer prevention by removal of the precursor lesions (adenomas) and early detection of cancer, resulting in improved survival rates. Therefore, Hodgkin lymphoma survivors treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine could benefit from colonoscopy, or other surveillance modalities, which are expected to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165194/diversity-and-functions-of-the-sheep-faecal-microbiota-a-multi-omic-characterization
#17
Alessandro Tanca, Cristina Fraumene, Valeria Manghina, Antonio Palomba, Marcello Abbondio, Massimo Deligios, Daniela Pagnozzi, Maria Filippa Addis, Sergio Uzzau
Little is currently known on the microbial populations colonizing the sheep large intestine, despite their expected key role in host metabolism, physiology and immunity. This study reports the first characterization of the sheep faecal microbiota composition and functions, obtained through the application of a multi-omic strategy. An optimized protocol was first devised for DNA extraction and amplification from sheep stool samples. Then, 16S rDNA sequencing, shotgun metagenomics and shotgun metaproteomics were applied to unravel taxonomy, genetic potential and actively expressed functions and pathways respectively...
February 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163824/draft-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-e2c2-and-e2c5-isolated-from-human-stool-culture
#18
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Dhiraj Paul, Swapnil P Doijad, Shrikant S Bhute, Tejashri B Hingamire, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Probiotic Lactobacillus species offer various health benefits, thus have been employed in treatment and prevention of various diseases. Due to the differences in the isolation source and the site of action, most of the lactobacilli tested in-vitro for probiotics properties fail to extend similar effects in-vivo. Consequently, the search of autochthonous, efficacious and probably population specific probiotics is a high priority in the probiotics research. In this regards, whole genome sequencing of as many Lactobacillus as possible will help to deepen our understanding of biology and their health effects...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162096/intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-uganda-at-high-altitude-1400%C3%A2-m-malacological-and-epidemiological-surveys-on-mount-elgon-and-in-fort-portal-crater-lakes-reveal-extra-preventive-chemotherapy-needs
#19
Michelle C Stanton, Moses Adriko, Moses Arinaitwe, Alison Howell, Juliet Davies, Gillian Allison, E James LaCourse, Edridah Muheki, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis is of public health importance in Uganda but communities living above 1400 m are not targeted for control as natural transmission is thought unlikely. To assess altitudinal boundaries and at-risk populations, conjoint malacological and epidemiological surveys were undertaken on Mount Elgon (1139 m-3937 m), in Fort Portal crater lakes and in the Rwenzori Mountains (1123 m-4050 m). METHODS: Seventy freshwater habitats [Mount Elgon (37), Fort Portal crater lakes (23), Rwenzori Mountains (8) and Lake Albert (2)] were inspected for Biomphalaria species...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155091/epi-procolon-%C3%A2-2-0-ce-a-blood-based-screening-test-for-colorectal-cancer
#20
Yvette N Lamb, Sohita Dhillon
Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE is a blood-based test designed to aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. The test comprises a qualitative assay for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methylated Septin9 DNA, the presence of which is associated with colorectal cancer: however, positive results should be verified by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE discriminated between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls with high clinical sensitivity and specificity in pivotal case-control studies...
April 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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