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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545561/sources-of-variability-in-the-measurement-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-intensity-by-kato-katz-and-qpcr
#1
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Martin Walker, Elise M O'Connell, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joanne P Webster, Thomas B Nutman, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying the sources and implications of error in the measurement of helminth egg intensity using Kato-Katz (KK) and the newly emerging "gold standard" quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique is necessary for the appropriate design of epidemiological studies, including impact assessments for deworming programs. METHODS: Repeated measurements of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity were made from samples collected in western Kenya using the qPCR and KK techniques...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515219/a-novel-stool-pcr-test-for-helicobacter-pylori-may-predict-clarithromycin-resistance-and-patient-eradication-at-a-high-rate
#2
Erin Beckman, Ilaria Saracino, Giulia Fiorini, Courtney Clark, Vladimir Slepnev, Denise Patel, Clarissa Gomez, Reddy Ponaka, Vecheslav Elagin, Dino Vaira
Objectives: Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first line therapy in H. pylori positive patients, however treatment failures are associated with resistance to clarithromycin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA, while concurrently detecting mutations associated with the resistance to clarithromycin.Methods: Total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stools of H pylori positive and negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511718/simultaneous-development-of-kawasaki-disease-following-acute-human-adenovirus-infection-in-monozygotic-twins-a-case-report
#3
Sayaka Fukuda, Shuichi Ito, Maya Fujiwara, Jun Abe, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Hiroshi Katsumori
BACKGROUND: The etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown. However, many studies have suggested that specific genetic factors and/or some infectious agents underlie the onset of KD. Previous studies have suggested that human adenovirus (HAdV) is one of the triggering pathogens of KD. Here, we report monozygotic twin boys who sequentially developed KD in conjunction with acute HAdV type 3 (HAdV-3) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: The patients were four-year-old monozygotic twin boys...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502260/the-first-study-on-opportunistic-intestinal-microsporidiosis-in-ibd-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-medications-in-iran
#4
Z Hasani, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H Balaii, M Azimirad, E S Mirsamadi, H Mirjalali, M R Zali
Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487944/bortezomib-protects-against-dextran-sulfate-sodium%C3%A2-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice
#5
Li-Hong Hu, Yu-Jing Fan, Qing Li, Jing-Ming Guan, Bo Qu, Feng-Hua Pei, Bing-Rong Liu
Bortezomib, a first‑in‑class proteasome inhibitor, is a standard method of treatment in multiple myeloma. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of bortezomib was evaluated in an ulcerative colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice, and the mechanism of action was also investigated. Mice were administered with 3% DSS drinking water for 7 consecutive days and then they were intraperitoneally treated with bortezomib (0.2, 0.6 or 1 mg/kg) for 1, 3 or 7 days. Mice in the control group and the DSS group were provided the same volume of PBS, respectively...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487209/molecular-characterisation-of-carbapenemases-in-urban-pigeon-droppings-in-france-and-algeria
#6
Houda Morakchi, Lotfi Loucif, Djamila Gacemi-Kirane, Jean-Marc Rolain
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in stool samples of urban pigeons. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 73 pigeons in two Mediterranean cities, namely Marseille (France) and Annaba (Algeria). Faecal samples were screened by real-time PCR and standard PCR for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes. RESULTS: Carbapenem resistance genes were detected in 16 (21...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473037/early-adoption-of-a-multitarget-stool-dna-test-for-colorectal-cancer-screening
#7
Lila J Finney Rutten, Robert M Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Debra J Jacobson, Chun Fan, John B Kisiel, Seth Sweetser, Sidna M Tulledge-Scheitel, Jennifer L St Sauver
OBJECTIVES: To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015...
May 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472153/first-report-and-molecular-identification-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-in-human-communities-from-lower-myanmar
#8
Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Kyi Kyi Thinn, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Rutchanee Rodpai, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in the South East Asian region, especially in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Thailand, but there have been no previous records from Myanmar. During stool surveys of rural populations in three regions of Lower Myanmar, Opisthorchis-like eggs were found in 34 out of 364 (9.3%) participants by stool microscopy after using the modified formalin-ether concentration technique. DNA was extracted from these positive stool samples and a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467925/gut-microbiome-based-metagenomic-signature-for-non-invasive-detection-of-advanced-fibrosis-in-human-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Rohit Loomba, Victor Seguritan, Weizhong Li, Tao Long, Niels Klitgord, Archana Bhatt, Parambir Singh Dulai, Cyrielle Caussy, Richele Bettencourt, Sarah K Highlander, Marcus B Jones, Claude B Sirlin, Bernd Schnabl, Lauren Brinkac, Nicholas Schork, Chi-Hua Chen, David A Brenner, William Biggs, Shibu Yooseph, J Craig Venter, Karen E Nelson
The presence of advanced fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most important predictor of liver mortality. There are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of gut microbiota-derived signature for predicting the presence of advanced fibrosis. In this prospective study, we characterized the gut microbiome compositions using whole-genome shotgun sequencing of DNA extracted from stool samples. This study included 86 uniquely well-characterized patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, of which 72 had mild/moderate (stage 0-2 fibrosis) NAFLD, and 14 had advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4 fibrosis)...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465629/noninvasive-molecular-analysis-of-helicobacter-pylori-is-it-time-for-tailored-first-line-therapy
#10
EDITORIAL
Enzo Ierardi, Floriana Giorgio, Andrea Iannone, Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Michele Barone, Antonio Pisani, Alfredo Di Leo
The main problem of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection management is linked to antibiotic resistances. This phenomenon has grown in the last decade, inducing a dramatic decline in conventional regimen effectiveness. The causes of resistance are point mutations in bacterial DNA, which interfere with antibiotic mechanism of action, especially clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Therefore, international guidelines have recently discouraged their use in areas with a relevant resistance percentage, suggesting first-line schedules with expected high eradication rates, i...
April 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446068/multiplex-pcr-detection-of-cryptosporidium-sp-giardia-lamblia-and-entamoeba-histolytica-directly-from-dried-stool-samples-from-guinea-bissauan-children-with-diarrhoea
#11
Sointu Mero, Juha Kirveskari, Jenni Antikainen, Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools...
April 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443202/dna-methylation-assay-for-colorectal-carcinoma
#12
Ji-Jun Chen, Ai-Qin Wang, Qing-Qi Chen
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Two pathogenic pathways are involved in the development of adenoma to CRC. The first pathway involvesAPC/β-catenin characterized by chromosomal instability resulting in the accumulation of mutations. The second pathway is characterized by lesions inDNA mismatch repair genes. Aberrant DNA methylation in selected gene promoters has emerged as a new epigenetic pathway in CRC development. CRC screening is the most efficient strategy to reduce death...
February 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441827/-colonization-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-in-healthy-children
#13
Y Wang, S Guo, C N Zhao, X W Xu
Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438442/molecular-identification-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-and-encephalitozoon-spp-in-immunodeficient-patients-in-ahvaz-southwest-of-iran
#14
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Roohangiz Nashibi, Abdollah Rafie, Shahram Khademvatan
Microsporidia are often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immunodeficiency diseases; the aim of the study is to evaluate molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. At first, 310 stool samples were collected from patients with immunodeficiency...
April 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426643/incidence-and-trends-of-infections-with-pathogens-transmitted-commonly-through-food-and-the-effect-of-increasing-use-of-culture-independent-diagnostic-tests-on-surveillance-foodborne-diseases-active-surveillance-network-10-u-s-sites-2013-2016
#15
Ellyn P Marder, Paul R Cieslak, Alicia B Cronquist, John Dunn, Sarah Lathrop, Therese Rabatsky-Ehr, Patricia Ryan, Kirk Smith, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, Duc J Vugia, Shelley Zansky, Kristin G Holt, Beverly J Wolpert, Michael Lynch, Robert Tauxe, Aimee L Geissler
Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421309/genetic-makeup-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-relation-to-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-shedding-a-microarray-analysis-of-isolates-from-swedish-children
#16
A Matussek, C Jernberg, I-M Einemo, S Monecke, R Ehricht, I Engelmann, S Löfgren, S Mernelius
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are the primary cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide. This study investigated the correlation of genetic makeup of STEC strains as revealed by DNA microarray to clinical symptoms and the duration of STEC shedding. All STEC isolated (n = 96) from patients <10 years of age in Jönköping County, Sweden from 2003 to 2015 were included. Isolates were characterized by DNA microarray, including almost 280 genes...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#17
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404232/pcr-based-molecular-characterization-of-blastocystis-hominis-subtypes-in-southwest-of-iran
#18
Shahram Khademvatan, Rahim Masjedizadeh, Ehsan Yousefi-Razin, Hamidreza Mahbodfar, Fakher Rahim, Elham Yousefi, Masoud Foroutan
Blastocystis hominis is the most common intestinal parasite found in humans and many other hosts. Pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. remains controversial and it has been suggested that it may be associated with certain subtypes of organism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of B. hominis and its subtype distribution in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. During 2012-2014, a total of 481 samples were collected from patients referred to the medical laboratory centers in Ahvaz for stool examination...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400211/a-sybr-%C3%A2-green-based-real-time-pcr-method-for-improved-detection-of-mcr-1-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-human-stool-samples
#19
Valentina Donà, Odette J Bernasconi, Sara Kasraian, Regula Tinguely, Andrea Endimiani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to design a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method for colistin resistance mcr-1 gene detection in human faecal samples. METHODS: Stools (n=88) from 36 volunteers were analysed. To isolate mcr-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, samples were enriched overnight in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing 2mg/L colistin and were then plated on selective agar plates with 4mg/L colistin. A SYBR(®) Green-based rt-PCR targeting mcr-1 was then designed...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373197/pcr-dipstick-chromatography-for-differential-detection-of-carbapenemase-genes-directly-in-stool-specimens
#20
Rathina Kumar Shanmugakani, Yukihiro Akeda, Norihisa Yamamoto, Noriko Sakamoto, Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Dan Takeuchi, Yo Sugawara, Takuya Kodera, Mitsuo Kawase, Warawut Laolerd, Narong Chaihongsa, Pitak Santanirand, Yoshikazu Ishii, Shigeyuki Hamada, Kazunori Tomono
A PCR-dipstick chromatography technique was designed and evaluated for differential identification of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaOXA-48 carbapenemase genes directly in stool specimens within 2 h. It is a DNA-DNA hybridization-based detection system where PCR products could be easily interpreted by visual observation without electrophoresis. PCR-dipstick showed high sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (99.1%) in directly detecting carbapenemase genes in stool on comparing with multiplex PCR for genomic DNA of the isolates from those stool specimens...
April 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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