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Navaneetha Santhanam, Lee Kumanchik, Xiufang Guo, Frank Sommerhage, Yunqing Cai, Max Jackson, Candace Martin, George Saad, Christopher W McAleer, Ying Wang, Andrea Lavado, Christopher J Long, James J Hickman
There are currently no functional neuromuscular junction (hNMJ) systems composed of human cells that could be used for drug evaluations or toxicity testing in vitro. These systems are needed to evaluate NMJs for diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy or other neurodegenerative diseases or injury states. There are certainly no model systems, animal or human, that allows for isolated treatment of motoneurons or muscle capable of generating dose response curves to evaluate pharmacological activity of these highly specialized functional units...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials
Atqah AbdulWahab, Aseel Zeidan, Tony Avades, Prem Chandra, Ashraf Soliman
Asthma is one of the most common chronic disorders among children. Zinc (Zn) is an essential dietary antioxidant and may have a special role in assisting the airways of asthmatic subjects. The primary objective of this study was to measure serum Zn levels among asthmatic school children and to compare this to the serum Zn level in non-asthmatic children. The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between Zn levels and the degree of asthma control. A cross-sectional study following forty asthmatic children and forty matched non-asthmatic children of both genders was conducted...
March 16, 2018: Children
Corey M Leidenfrost, Matthew D Scalco, Elizabeth Randall, Peter S Martin, Samuel J Sinclair, Travis J Stewart, Ronald Schoelerman, Daniel Antonius
Early identification of treatment needs in incarcerated individuals with serious mental illness has significant implications. Validated assessment instruments to guide treatment are lacking in correctional settings. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the predictive validity of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) in 35 inmates admitted to a specialized treatment unit. The LOCI score was predictive of levels of depressogenic psychopathology and psychological well-being as well as changes in these constructs over time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Stephan Petersenn
Secondary adrenal insufficiency may pose specific challenges during pregnancy. The interpretation of diagnostic tests is hindered by physiological adaptations of the HPA axis. Due the relevant increases in CBG, measurement of salivary cortisol may be preferable, but lacks sufficiently established cut-offs both for early-morning evaluation and during dynamic testing. Hydrocortisone should be used for replacement to avoid overexposure of the fetus, with dose adjustments according to clinical judgement. To account for increased free cortisol levels during the course of pregnancy, hydrocortisone may be increased by 5-7...
March 15, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Aruna Vashishta, Lukasz P Slomnicki, Maciej Pietrzak, Scott C Smith, Murali Kolikonda, Shivani P Naik, Rosanna Parlato, Michal Hetman
Ribosome biogenesis, including the RNA polymerase 1 (Pol1)-mediated transcription of rRNA, is regulated by the pro-epileptogenic mTOR pathway. Therefore, hippocampal Pol1 activity was examined in mouse models of epilepsy including kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) as well as a single seizure in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Elevated 47S pre-rRNA levels were present acutely after induction of SE suggesting activation of Pol1. Conversely, after a single seizure, 47S pre-rRNA was transiently downregulated with increased levels of unprocessed 18S rRNA precursors in the cornu Ammonis (CA) region...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
K Kuismanen, K Nieminen, K Karjalainen, K Lehto, J Uotila
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the subjective outcome of primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) at 6 months, the factors associated with the symptoms of anal incontinence (AI), and the role of a simple survey consisting in one question with three answer choices, combined with the Wexner incontinence score for the assessment of this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with third- or fourth-degree OASIS operated on between January 2007 and December 2013 inclusive at Tampere University Hospital, Finland...
March 15, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Han-Xi Ding, Zhi Lv, Yuan Yuan, Qian Xu
Background: CircRNAs, a type of non-coding RNAs with special loop structure, of which the aberrant expression is closely related to tumor growth, proliferation, metastasis and recurrence. It remains unclear whether they have the potential to be biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. The study aims to clarify the relationship of circRNAs expression with cancers diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy; Hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were calculated to evaluate the association between circRNAs expression and survival of cancer patients...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Reina Sasaki, Yuki Haga, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tomoko Saito, Kazufumi Kobayashi, Soichiro Kiyono, Yoshihiko Ooka, Eiichiro Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Hitoshi Maruyama, Fumio Imazeki, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato
Background: Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Results: All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Daisuke Hirano, Takamichi Taniguchi
[Purpose] Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disease; individuals typically have no verbal skills or purposeful hand movements. In clinical settings, knowledge of their interests would be helpful for therapy. Therefore, we investigated the interests of Rett syndrome patients. [Subjects and Methods] In 2016, we sent a questionnaire regarding the interests of individuals with Rett syndrome to 1,016 directors of schools for special needs education and 204 directors of rehabilitation departments (130 facilities for persons with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, 73 wards for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and the National Hospital Organization and National Center Hospital, and the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry) in Japan...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Alejandra Nieto, Holger Roehl
There has been a growing interest in recent years in the assessment of suitable vial/stopper combinations for storage and shipment of frozen drug products. Considering that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of butyl rubber stoppers used in Container Closure Systems (CCS) is between -55°C to -65°C, a storage or shipment temperature of a frozen product below the Tg of the rubber stopper, may require special attention, since below the Tg the rubber becomes more plastic-like and loses its elastic (sealing) characteristics...
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
V Clergue-Duval, E Pot, J Azuar
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are fully concerned with the care of patients suffering from addiction and must have the support of a specialized network. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the addict follow-up care by GPs, their use of addictological care facilities and their needs in communicating with specialists. METHODS: Private and salaried GPs working in the 9th, 10th, 18th and 19th districts of Paris were contacted by phone, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed to respond...
March 12, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Schirin Akhbari Ziegler, Tineke Dirks, Mijna Hadders-Algra
BACKGROUND: Coaching is en vogue in pediatric physiotherapy, but often applied rather unspecific and undefined. METHODS: This paper aims to describe coaching in early physiotherapy intervention, taking the specific coaching approach of the family-centered program "COPing with and CAring for infants with special needs" (COPCA) as a case in point. RESULTS: The theoretical underpinnings of coaching in COPCA, including a meta-model, family-centered practice, the Neuronal Group Selection Theory and the goal-oriented coaching approach, are discussed...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ohad Ronen, Alexander Gurevich, Shimon Ivry, Edward Altman, Evgeni Kukuev
We describe a modified technique for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy using a 15F tube exchanger or Eschmann catheter. A retrospective review of 1180 procedures using this modified technique demonstrated it to be effective with a failure rate of only 0.25% (3 patients). Moreover, it provides an additional safeguard with the ability to rapidly reintroduce the endotracheal tube into the trachea guided by the exchange catheter in the event of accidental extubation during the procedure. This technique needs no additional special devices or equipment (eg, a bronchoscope)...
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mariana Matias, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Purpose - During the discovery and development of new drugs, compounds with low aqueous solubility pose special challenges in their pharmacological evaluation and, therefore, the selection of appropriate vehicles to administer the compounds of interest is determinant for the quality of the results generated during the in vivo non-clinical studies. This work aimed to evaluate the motor deficit (as a surrogate of neurotoxicity) of several administration/delivery vehicles through the rotarod performance test. Methods - Trained male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally administered with the following vehicles: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) 0...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
K Kragelund Nielsen, L Groth Grunnet, H Terkildsen Maindal
In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues for future research. A narrative review of the symposium presentations and related literature is given. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term adverse outcomes including Type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring...
March 15, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Qi Zhao, Yunchao Liu, Xiao Yuan, Eric Chitambar, Xiongfeng Ma
Manipulation and quantification of quantum resources are fundamental problems in quantum physics. In the asymptotic limit, coherence distillation and dilution have been proposed by manipulating infinite identical copies of states. In the nonasymptotic setting, finite data-size effects emerge, and the practically relevant problem of coherence manipulation using finite resources has been left open. This Letter establishes the one-shot theory of coherence dilution, which involves converting maximally coherent states into an arbitrary quantum state using maximally incoherent operations, dephasing-covariant incoherent operations, incoherent operations, or strictly incoherent operations...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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