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Yael Hashiloni-Dolev, Silke Schicktanz
The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction (PHR) focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies. Based on a cross-cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR. The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Carolyn Briody, Leonard Rubenstein, Les Roberts, Eamon Penney, William Keenan, Jeffrey Horbar
Background: In the ongoing conflicts of Syria and Yemen, there have been widespread reports of attacks on health care facilities and personnel. Tabulated evidence does suggest hospital bombings in Syria and Yemen are far higher than reported in other conflicts but it is unclear if this is a reporting artefact. Objective: This article examines attacks on health care facilities in conflicts in six middle- to high- income countries that have occurred over the past three decades to try and determine if attacks have become more common, and to assess the different methods used to collect data on attacks...
2018: Conflict and Health
Woo Kyun Bae, Jihyun Kwon, Hyun Woo Lee, Sang-Cheol Lee, Eun-Kee Song, Hyeok Shim, Keun Ho Ryu, Jemin Song, Sungbo Seo, Yaewon Yang, Jong-Hyock Park, Ki Hyeong Lee, Hye Sook Han
PURPOSE: There is growing interest in integrating electronic patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures into routine oncology practice for symptom monitoring. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and accessibility of electronic PRO measures using a smartphone (PRO-SMART) for cancer patients receiving routine chemotherapy. METHODS: The proposed PRO-SMART application obtains daily personal health record (PHR) data from cancer patients via a smartphone. An analysis report of cumulative PHR data is provided to the clinician in a format suitable for upload to electronic medical records (EMRs)...
May 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Prasanta Baishya, Tarun Kumar Maji
Activated carbon (AC) prepared from Jatropha curcas and graphene oxide (GO) were employed in the preparation of natural polymer based wood starch composites (WSC) through the solution blending technique using water as a solvent. In this study, methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the starch polymer and this MMA grafted starch (MMA-g-starch) was cross-linked with the cheap soft wood flour using the citric acid as cross-linker and water as a solvent in the whole process. The prepared GO and AC were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman study...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rohini J Haar, Casey B Risko, Sonal Singh, Diana Rayes, Ahmad Albaik, Mohammed Alnajar, Mazen Kewara, Emily Clouse, Elise Baker, Leonard S Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Violent attacks on and interferences with hospitals, ambulances, health workers, and patients during conflict destroy vital health services during a time when they are most needed and undermine the long-term capacity of the health system. In Syria, such attacks have been frequent and intense and represent grave violations of the Geneva Conventions, but the number reported has varied considerably. A systematic mechanism to document these attacks could assist in designing more protection strategies and play a critical role in influencing policy, promoting justice, and addressing the health needs of the population...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
Julia Frangella, Gabriela Garcia, Lucila Bruchanski, María Smith, Janine Sommer, Romina Rapisarda, Daniel Luna
The aim of this article was to know physician perceptions about a PHR for inpatients and to examine ways to take advantage of possible functionalities that could help physicians in their daily workflow. This qualitative research, was conducted through: two focus groups and nine personal interviews performed with internal medicine physicians. Collection and analysis of obtained data was carried out by two professionals. It was made by the codification and categorization of data based on a process of constant comparison...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
José Ángel Hernández, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Cristiana Filipa Cazapal-Monteiro, Fabián Leonardo Arroyo, Jaime Manuel Sanchís, Adolfo Paz-Silva, María Sol Arias
BACKGROUND: An approach to preventing strongyle infection in horses was tested, comprising rotational pasturing and the administration of spores of two parasiticidal fungi, Mucor circinelloides and Duddingtonia flagrans. METHODS: Twenty-two adult Spanish Sport Horses were dewormed with ivermectin (1 mg pour-on/kg body weight) and then randomly divided into three groups. G-1 was maintained with continuous grazing, and G-2 and G-3 were kept on a four-paddock rotation system...
April 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Liuying He, Yuexiang Lu, Feiyang Wang, Xinxin Gao, Ying Chen, Yueying Liu
The authors describe a colorimetric method for the determination of Hg2+ ions based on the inhibition of the activity of the enzyme urease. The pH value of solution increases when urease hydrolyzes urea, which can be visualized by adding a pH indicator such as Phenol Red (PhR). Mercaptoethanol as a typical thiol is added to the system to improve selectivity because it binds metal ions and then - unlike the Hg2+ mercaptoethanol complex - does not inhibit urease. Hence, the color of the pH indicator PhR turns from yellow to pink as the solution becomes alkaline...
February 13, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Sonia Menon, Stanley Luchters, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Mandaliya Kishor, Johannes Bogers, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV are at increased risk to be co-infected with HPV, persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR HPV viral load, which make them more at risk for cervical cancer. Despite their inherent vulnerability, there is a scarcity of data on potential high risk (pHR) and HR HPV genotypes in HIV- infected women with cervical dysplasia and HPV-type specific viral load in this population in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this analysis of HIV-infected women was to explore the virological correlates of high-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN 2+) in HIV-infected women, thereby profiling HPV genotypes...
March 27, 2018: Virology Journal
Massoud Hajia, Amir Sohrabi
Objective: Persistence of HPV infection is the true cause of cervical disorders. It is reported that competition may exist among HPV genotypes for colonization. This survey was designed to establish the multiple HPV genotype status in our community and the probability of multiple HPV infections involvement. Methods: All multiple HPV infections were selected for investigation in women suffering from genital infections referred to private laboratories in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 multi HPV positive specimens from cervical scraping were identified by the HPV genotyping methods, "INNO-LiPA and Geno Array"...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Edward H Ntege, Bernard N Kanoi, Daisuke Ito, Takahiro Nakata, Ji-Won Lee, Kazuaki Tokunaga, Tadahiro Iimura, Motomi Torii, Takafumi Tsuboi, Eizo Takashima
Upon invasion, Plasmodium falciparum exports hundreds of proteins across its surrounding parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) to remodel the infected erythrocyte. Although this phenomenon is crucial for the parasite growth and virulence, elucidation of precise steps in the export pathway is still required. A translocon protein complex, PTEX, is the only known pathway that mediates passage of exported proteins across the PVM. P. falciparum Parasitophorous Vacuolar protein 1 (PfPV1), a previously reported parasitophorous vacuole (PV) protein, is considered essential for parasite growth...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
R A Pereira-Junior, C Huarte-Bonnet, F R S Paixão, D W Roberts, C Luz, N Pedrini, É K K Fernandes
AIMS: The effect of nutritional supplementation of two Metarhizium species with riboflavin (Rb) during production of conidia was evaluated on (i) conidial tolerance (based on germination) to UV-B radiation and on (ii) conidial expression following UV-B irradiation, of enzymes known to be active in photoreactivation, viz., photolyase (Phr), laccase (Lac) and polyketide synthase (Pks). METHODS AND RESULTS: Metarhizium acridum (ARSEF 324) and Metarhizium robertsii (ARSEF 2575) were grown either on (i) potato dextrose agar medium (PDA), (ii) PDA supplemented with 1% yeast extract (PDAY), (iii) PDA supplemented with Rb (PDA+Rb), or (iv) PDAY supplemented with Rb (PDAY+Rb)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Misao Mizuno, Ayumi Nakajima, Hideki Kandori, Yasuhisa Mizutani
We revealed the chloride ion pumping mechanism in halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis ( pHR) by exploring sequential structural changes in the retinal chromophore during its photocycle using time-resolved resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy on the nanosecond to millisecond time scales. A series of RR spectra of the retinal chromophore in the unphotolyzed state and of the three intermediates of pHR were obtained. Using singular value decomposition analysis of the C═C and C-C stretch bands in the time-resolved RR spectra, we identified the spectra of the K, L, and N intermediates...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
Yunjian Xu, Fang Liu, Guomin Han, Beijiu Cheng
The present study identified several important candidate Pi regulation genes of maize and provides a better understanding on the generation of PHR genes in gramineous plants. Plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with low phosphate (Pi) soils. The previous studies have indicated that phosphate starvation response (PHR) genes play central roles in regulating plant Pi starvation responses. However, the investigation of PHR family in gramineous plants is limited. In this study, we identified 64 PHR genes in four gramineous plants, including maize, rice, sorghum, and brachypodium, and conducted systematical analyses on phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and expression pattern of these PHR genes...
May 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Kyung Jae Lee, Sangyeop Lee, Seul-Ki Bac, Seonghoon Choi, Hakjoon Lee, Jihoon Chang, Suho Choi, Phunvira Chongthanaphisut, Sanghoon Lee, X Liu, M Dobrowolska, J K Furdyna
Magnetization reversal in a GaMnAs trilayer system consisting of two GaMnAs layers separated by a Be-doped GaAs spacer was investigated by magnetotransport measurements. The rotation of magnetization in the two GaMnAs layers is observed as two abrupt independent transitions in planar Hall resistance (PHR). Interestingly, one GaMnAs layer manifests a positive change in PHR, while the other layer shows a negative change for the same rotation of magnetization. Such opposite behavior of the two layers indicates that anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) has opposite signs in the two GaMnAs layers...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charic D Farinango, Juan S Benavides, Jesús D Cerón, Diego M López, Rosa E Álvarez
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of information and communication technologies to support healthy lifestyle interventions. In particular, personal health record systems (PHR-Ss) empower self-care, essential to support lifestyle changes. Approaches such as the user-centered design (UCD), which is already a standard within the software industry (ISO 9241-210:2010), provide specifications and guidelines to guarantee user acceptance and quality of eHealth systems...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Laura Popolo, Genny Degani, Carlo Camilloni, William A Fonzi
Candida albicans is an opportunistic microorganism that can become a pathogen causing mild superficial mycosis or more severe invasive infections that can be life-threatening for debilitated patients. In the etiology of invasive infections, key factors are the adaptability of C. albicans to the different niches of the human body and the transition from a yeast form to hypha. Hyphal morphology confers high adhesiveness to the host cells, as well as the ability to penetrate into organs. The cell wall plays a crucial role in the morphological changes C...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Ilana Graetz, Jie Huang, Richard J Brand, John Hsu, Cyrus K Yamin, Mary E Reed
OBJECTIVES: Some patients lack regular computer access and experience a digital divide that causes them to miss internet-based health innovations. The diffusion of smartphones has increased internet access across the socioeconomic spectrum, and increasing the channels through which patients can access their personal health records (PHRs) could help bridge the divide in PHR use. We examined PHR use through a computer-based Web browser or mobile device. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional historical cohort analysis...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Chenyang Zhang, Jincheng Wang
A series of flame-retardant nanocomposites were established based on compounding of natural rubber (NR) and dendrimer modified flame-retardant organic montmorillonite (FR-DOMt). The merits of these nanocomposites were focused on their better mechanical and flame-retardant properties. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that exfoliation, intercalation, or aggregation status in the NRmatrix can be achieved by addition of different amounts of FR-DOMt...
December 28, 2017: Materials
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