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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452127/serotonergic-psychedelics-and-personality-a-systematic-review-of-contemporary-research
#1
REVIEW
José Carlos Bouso, Rafael G Dos Santos, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic psychedelics act as agonists at cortical 5-HT 2A receptors and seem to induce personality changes. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the effects of these drugs on personality. Papers published from 1985 to 2016 were included from PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Three hundred and sixty-nine studies were identified, and 18 were included. Specific personality traits, such as Absorption and Self-Transcendence, seem to influence the effects of psychedelics, and psychedelic drug users and nonusers appear to differ in some personality traits...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451300/decreased-anterior-cingulate-activation-in-a-motor-task-in-youths-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Punitha Subramaniam, Marie R Ehrler, Melissa P Lopez-Larson
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task. METHODS: Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self-paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450943/cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-gray-squirrels-sciurus-carolinensis
#3
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements toward environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of gray squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioral characteristics of gray squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450935/community-violence-exposure-correlates-with-smaller-gray-matter-volume-and-lower-iq-in-urban-adolescents
#4
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450645/brain-c-fos-expression-patterns-induced-by-emotional-stressors-differing-in-nature-and-intensity
#5
Jesús Úbeda-Contreras, Ignacio Marín-Blasco, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
Regardless of its particular nature, emotional stressors appear to elicit a widespread and roughly similar brain activation pattern as evaluated by c-fos expression. However, their behavioral and physiological consequences may strongly differ. Here we addressed in adult male rats the contribution of the intensity and the particular nature of stressors by comparing, in a set of brain areas, the number of c-fos expressing neurons in response to open-field, cat odor or immobilization on boards (IMO). These are qualitatively different stressors that are known to differ in terms of intensity, as evaluated by biological markers...
February 15, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#6
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449187/cortical-atrophy-patterns-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-hierarchical-cluster-analysis
#7
Carme Uribe, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Alexandra Abos, Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Anna Campabadal, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Eduard Tolosa, Carme Junque
INTRODUCTION: Cortical brain atrophy detectable with MRI in non-demented advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is well characterized, but its presence in early disease stages is still under debate. We aimed to investigate cortical atrophy patterns in a large sample of early untreated PD patients using a hypothesis-free data-driven approach. METHODS: Seventy-seven de novo PD patients and 50 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative database with T1-weighted images in a 3-tesla Siemens scanner were included in this study...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449186/the-reorganization-of-functional-architecture-in-the-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Noora Tuovinen, Klaus Seppi, Francesco de Pasquale, Christoph Müller, Michael Nocker, Michael Schocke, Elke R Gizewski, Christian Kremser, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian, Christoph Scherfler, Morinobu Seki
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to identify longitudinal abnormalities of functional connectivity and its relation with motor disability in early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: 3.0T structural and resting-state functional MRI was performed in healthy subjects (n = 16) and Parkinson's disease patients (n = 16) with mean disease duration of 2.2 ± 1.2 years at baseline with a clinical follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.3 years. Resting-state fMRI analysis included region-to-region connectivity in correlation with UPDRS-III scores and computation of Global Efficiency and Degree Centrality...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449183/altered-resting-state-voxel-level-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Hansheng Wang, Huiyue Chen, Jiahui Wu, Li Tao, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Ke Sheng, Jin Luo, Yida Hu, Weidong Fang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Recently, degree centrality, a voxel-level whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided the most promising way to explore the neural network mechanisms underlying depressed PD. METHODS: Degree centrality, voxel-wise image and clinical symptoms correlation and secondary seed-based FC analyses were performed in twenty-seven drug-naïve, early stage depressed PD patients, 27 non-depressed PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs) to reveal voxel-level whole-brain FC changes in depressed PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448033/environmental-enrichment-decreases-avoidance-responses-in-the-elevated-t-maze-and-delta-fosb-immunoreactivity-in-anxiety-related-brain-regions
#10
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#11
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#12
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445270/alterations-of-the-default-mode-network-and-cognitive-impairments-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Xianwei Hu, Haibao Wang, Youhui Tu, Mengdi Fei, Minmin Yin, Guanghe Fei, Yongqiang Yu
Background and objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common extrapulmonary comorbidity in COPD patients. The default mode network (DMN) plays a critical role in maintaining the normal activities of humans, and its function can be evaluated by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between cognition and function changes of the DMN in COPD patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen eligible participants including 30 control subjects and 83 COPD patients matched for demographic characteristics were recruited...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444971/anosognosia-predicts-default-mode-network-hypometabolism-and-clinical-progression-to-dementia
#14
Joseph Therriault, Kok Pin Ng, Tharick A Pascoal, Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Min Su Kang, Hanne Struyfs, Monica Shin, Andrea L Benedet, Ishan C Walpola, Vasavan Nair, Serge Gauthier, Pedro Rosa-Neto
OBJECTIVE: To identify the pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical significance of anosognosia for cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: We stratified 468 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment into intact and impaired awareness groups, determined by the discrepancy between the patient and the informant score on the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Voxel-based linear regression models evaluated the associations between self-awareness status and baseline β-amyloid load, measured by [ 18 F]florbetapir, and the relationships between awareness status and regional brain glucose metabolism measured by [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose at baseline and at 24-month follow-up...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444726/resting-state-thalamic-dysconnectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-relationships-with-symptoms
#15
J Ferri, J M Ford, B J Roach, J A Turner, T G van Erp, J Voyvodic, A Preda, A Belger, J Bustillo, D O'Leary, B A Mueller, K O Lim, S C McEwen, V D Calhoun, M Diaz, G Glover, D Greve, C G Wible, J G Vaidya, S G Potkin, D H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444449/dendritic-spine-density-and-ephrinb2-levels-of-hippocampal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-neurons-increase-sequentially-during-formation-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory-in-the-mouse
#16
Georgia Abate, Sandra Colazingari, Alessandra Accoto, David Conversi, Arturo Bevilacqua
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process that involves a sequential remodeling of hippocampal-cortical circuits. Although synaptic events underlying memory consolidation are well assessed, fine molecular events controlling this process deserve further characterization. To this aim, we challenged male C57BL/6N mice in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm and tested their memory 24 h, 7 days or 36 days later. Mice displayed a strong fear response at all time points with an increase in dendritic spine density and protein levels of the cell adhesion factor EphrinB2 in CA1 hippocampal neurons 24 h and 7 days post conditioning (p...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442274/congenital-olfactory-impairment-is-linked-to-cortical-changes-in-prefrontal-and-limbic-brain-regions
#17
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441653/cognitive-control-under-stressful-conditions-in-transitional-age-youth-with-bipolar-disorder-diagnostic-and-sleep-related-differences-in-fronto-limbic-activation-patterns
#18
Adriane M Soehner, Tina R Goldstein, Sarah M Gratzmiller, Mary L Phillips, Peter L Franzen
OBJECTIVES: Adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display aberrant activation in fronto-limbic neural circuitry during cognitive control. However, fronto-limbic response to cognitive control, and factors destabilizing this circuitry, remain under-studied during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood in BD. Sleep patterns are disturbed in BD, undergo change in adolescence, and support brain function. Among transitional age youth, BD diagnosis and sleep (duration and variability) were tested as predictors of fronto-limbic response to a stressful cognitive control task...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439345/joint-assessment-of-quantitative-18f-florbetapir-and-18f-fdg-regional-uptake-using-baseline-data-from-the-adni
#19
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
Joint analysis of amyloid and metabolic PET patterns across healthy, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects was performed using baseline 18F-florbetapir and 18F-FDG PET of 684 subjects from the ADNI (251 normal, 204 stable MCI, 85 AD converters, and 144 AD). Correlation between regional amyloid and metabolic uptake was measured and predictive value of PET profile regarding AD conversion in cognitively impaired subjects was assessed using survival analysis and support vector machine classification (SVM)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436061/anterior-insular-volume-decrease-is-associated-with-dysfunction-of-the-reward-system-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#20
E Ikeda, T Li, H Kobinata, S Zhang, J Kurata
BACKGROUND: Chronification of pain is associated with both anatomical and functional alterations of the brain. Alteration in regional gray matter volume might potentially be associated with modified activity of specific brain networks. In this cross-sectional, observational study, we sought to identify brain regions with gray matter volume changes in patients with chronic pain and to reveal its significance by analysing alteration in functional connectivity from those regions. We further explored relevance of such alterations with psychometrics of chronic pain...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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