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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235461/oxytocin-enhances-observational-fear-in-mice
#1
Marc T Pisansky, Leah R Hanson, Irving I Gottesman, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Empathy is fundamental to human relations, but its neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the involvement of oxytocin in the capacity of mice to display emotional state-matching, an empathy-like behavior. When exposed to a familiar conspecific demonstrator in distress, an observer mouse becomes fearful, as indicated by a tendency to freeze and subsequent efforts to escape. Both intranasal oxytocin administration and chemogenetic stimulation of oxytocin neurons render males sensitive to the distress of an unfamiliar mouse...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#2
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234600/prediction-of-cognitive-and-motor-development-in-preterm-children-using-exhaustive-feature-selection-and-cross-validation-of-near-term-white-matter-microstructure
#3
Kornél Schadl, Rachel Vassar, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Kristin W Yeom, David K Stevenson, Jessica Rose
Background: Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Methods: Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232968/altered-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Ying Wang, Shuming Zhong, Guanmao Chen, Tao Liu, Lianping Zhao, Yao Sun, Yanbin Jia, Li Huang
OBJECTIVES: Several recent studies have reported a strong association between the cerebellar structural and functional abnormalities and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no studies to investigate possible changes in cerebellar functional connectivity in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to examine the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with remitted bipolar disorder II, in particular in the cerebellum. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with remitted bipolar disorder II and 25 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230167/changes-in-the-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-orexinergic-and-serotonergic-structures-forming-part-of-the-sleep-systems-of-adult-mice-exposed-to-intrauterine-alcohol
#5
Oladiran I Olateju, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure on certain neuronal systems involved with the sleep-wake cycle of C57BL/6J mice exposed to prenatal alcohol once they had reached 56 days post-natal. Pregnant mice were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentration (BAC)s averaging 1.84 mg/ml (chronic alcohol group, CA). Two control groups, an oral gavage sucrose control group (chronic alcohol control group, CAc) and a non-treated control group (NTc), were also examined...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230011/pairing-sound-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-modulates-cortical-synchrony-and-phase-coherence-in-tinnitus-an-exploratory-retrospective-study
#6
Sven Vanneste, Jeffrey Martin, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Recent research has shown that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with tones or with rehabilitative training can help patients to achieve reductions in tinnitus perception or to expedite motor rehabilitation after suffering an ischemic stroke. The rationale behind this treatment is that VNS paired with experience can drive neural plasticity in a controlled and therapeutic direction. Since previous studies observed that gamma activity in the auditory cortex is correlated with tinnitus loudness, we assessed resting-state source-localized EEG before and after one to three months of VNS-tone pairing in chronic tinnitus patients...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229052/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cerebral-hemodynamic-responses-to-pain-following-thoracic-thrust-manipulation-in-individuals-with-neck-pain-a-randomized-trial
#7
Cheryl L Sparks, Wen C Liu, Joshua A Cleland, Joseph P Kelly, Sarah J Dyer, Kathryn M Szetela, James M Elliott
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether cerebral activation in response to noxious mechanical stimuli varies with thrust manipulation (TM) when compared with sham manipulation (SM) as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Twenty-four volunteers (67% female) with complaints of acute or subacute mechanical (nontraumatic) neck pain satisfied eligibility requirements and agreed to participate...
November 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228889/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-brain-activity-with-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-depression
#8
Silke Conen, Julian C Matthews, Nikunj K Patel, José Anton-Rodriguez, Peter S Talbot
Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228119/rostro-caudal-connectional-heterogeneity-of-the-dorsal-part-of-the-macaque-prefrontal-area-46
#9
Elena Borra, Carolina Giulia Ferroni, Marzio Gerbella, Valentina Giorgetti, Chiara Mangiaracina, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
Based on neural tracer injections we found evidence for 3 connectionally distinct sectors of the dorsal part of the macaque prefrontal area 46 (46d), located at different rostro-caudal levels. Specifically, a rostral sector displayed an almost exclusive and extensive intraprefrontal connectivity and extraprefrontal connections limited to superior temporal areas and the caudal cingulate area 31. Conversely, both a middle and a caudal sector were characterized by robust, topographically organized connections with parietal and frontal sensorimotor areas...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227148/structural-abnormalities-and-altered-regional-brain-activity-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-simple-spinal-cord-involvement
#10
Ping Yin, Yi Liu, Hua Xiong, Yongliang Han, Shambhu Kumar Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes of the structural and functional abnormalities in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), voxel based morphology (VBM) and diffusion tensor tractography. METHODS: The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of 22 patients with MS-SSCI and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education were compared by using RS-fMRI...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225975/correlation-between-traits-of-emotion-based-impulsivity-and-intrinsic-default-mode-network-activity
#11
Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Şükrü B Demiral, Yi Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225570/flexible-and-stable-value-coding-areas-in-caudate-head-and-tail-receive-anatomically-distinct-cortical-and-subcortical-inputs
#12
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225346/actin-polymerization-is-reduced-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Hriday P Bhambhvani, Toni M Mueller, Micah S Simmons, James H Meador-Woodruff
Recent reports suggest abnormalities in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in schizophrenia, despite consistent evidence for normal actin expression. We hypothesized that this may be explained by changes in the polymerization state of actin, rather than in total actin expression. To test this, we prepared filamentous actin (F-actin, polymeric) and globular actin (G-actin, monomeric) fractions from postmortem anterior cingulate cortex from 16 patients with schizophrenia and 14 comparison subjects...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#14
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224580/the-neural-correlates-of-childhood-trauma-questionnaire-scores-in-adults-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#15
Sarah J Heany, Nynke A Groenewold, Anne Uhlmann, Shareefa Dalvie, Dan J Stein, Samantha J Brooks
Childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, may have sustained effects on the integrity and functioning of the brain, alter neurophysiological responsivity later in life, and predispose individuals toward psychiatric conditions involving socioaffective disturbances. This meta-analysis aims to quantify associations between self-reported childhood maltreatment and brain function in response to socioaffective cues in adults. Seventeen functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting on data from 848 individuals examined with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were included in a meta-analysis of whole-brain findings, or a review of region of interest findings...
December 11, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224573/brain-glutamate-in-medication-free-depressed-patients-a-proton-mrs-study-at-7-tesla
#16
Beata R Godlewska, Charles Masaki, Ann L Sharpley, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
BACKGROUND: The possible role of glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression is of intense current interest. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the detection of glutamate in the living human brain and meta-analyses of previous MRS studies in depressed patients have suggested that glutamate levels are decreased in anterior brain regions. Nevertheless, at conventional magnetic field strengths [1.5-3 Tesla (T)], it is difficult to separate glutamate from its metabolite and precursor, glutamine, with the two often being measured together as Glx...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223496/multi-modal-imaging-investigation-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-cytoarchitecture-in-neurodevelopment
#18
Natalie J Forde, Jilly Naaijen, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaïra J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
Multi-modal imaging may improve our understanding of the relationship between cortical morphology and cytoarchitecture. To this end we integrated the analyses of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) metrics within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Considering the ACCs role in neurodevelopmental disorders, we also investigated the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and the various metrics. T1 and diffusion-weighted MRI and 1H-MRS (ACC voxel) data along with phenotypic information were acquired from children (8-12 years) with various neurodevelopmental disorders (n=95) and healthy controls (n=50)...
December 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#19
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221833/giving-others-the-option-of-choice-an-fmri-study-on-low-cost-cooperation
#20
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, David M Amodio, Niels J Van Doesum, Dick J Veltman, Paul A M Van Lange
Successful social relationships require a consideration of a partner's thoughts and intentions. This aspect of social life is captured in the social mindfulness paradigm (SoMi task), in which participants make decisions that either limit or preserve options for their interaction partner's subsequent choice. Here we investigated the neural correlates of spontaneous socially mindful and unmindful behaviours. Functional magnetic resonance data were acquired from 47 healthy adolescents and young adults (age 16-27) as they completed the SoMi task...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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