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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928651/cognitive-and-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#1
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928255/altered-whole-brain-and-network-based-functional-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926324/12-h-abstinence-induced-functional-connectivity-density-changes-and-craving-in-young-smokers-a-resting-state-study
#3
Shuzhi Zhao, Yangding Li, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoqi Lu, Dahua Yu, Likun Yang, Kai Yuan
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM)...
June 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926172/corticobasal-degeneration-with-tdp-43-pathology-presenting-with-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-syndrome-a-distinct-clinicopathologic-subtype
#4
Shunsuke Koga, Naomi Kouri, Ronald L Walton, Mark T W Ebbert, Keith A Josephs, Irene Litvan, Neill Graff-Radford, J Eric Ahlskog, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, Bradley F Boeve, Adam Parks, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a clinically heterogeneous tauopathy, which has overlapping clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This study aimed to elucidate whether transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology contributes to clinicopathologic heterogeneity of CBD. Paraffin-embedded sections of the midbrain, pons, subthalamic nucleus, and basal forebrain from 187 autopsy-confirmed CBD cases were screened with immunohistochemistry for phospho-TDP-43...
June 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925465/a-novel-task-for-examining-the-neural-basis-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder
#5
Kiran Grant, Stefanie Hassel, Jacqueline A Bobyn, Geoffrey B C Hall, Glenda M MacQueen
Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) processing have been observed in people with bipolar disorder (BD), but the neural basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we studied the relations between neural activation, dysfunctional beliefs and behavioral responses in people with BD during a second-order ToM task. Twenty-five patients and 25 healthy-control participants (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a novel ToM task. The Dysfunctional Attitudes scale (DAS) and the Brief Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (BHAPPI) were used to assess dysfunctional beliefs...
June 4, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925331/brain-mri-morphometric-analysis-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-sleep-disturbances
#6
Andrius Radziunas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Rymante Gleizniene, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Kestutis Petrikonis, Adomas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association of cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume with sleep disturbances in PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight PD patients (14 men and 14 women, median age 58 years) were evaluated for sleep disturbances with PDSS and underwent brain MRI. Control group consisted of 28 healthy volunteers who were matched by age and gender...
June 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923456/transcription-independent-expression-of-pkm%C3%AE-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-contributes-to-chronically-maintained-neuropathic-pain
#7
Hyoung-Gon Ko, Sanghyun Ye, Dae-Hee Han, Pojeong Park, Chae-Seok Lim, Kyungmin Lee, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Protein kinase M ζ is well known for its role in maintaining memory and pain. Previously, we revealed that the activation of protein kinase M ζ in the anterior cingulate cortex plays a role in sustaining neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism by which protein kinase M ζ is expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex by peripheral nerve injury, and whether blocking of protein kinase M ζ using its inhibitor, zeta inhibitory peptide, produces analgesic effects in neuropathic pain maintained chronically after injury, have not previously been resolved...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923271/dissociations-of-cognitive-inhibition-response-inhibition-and-emotional-interference-voxelwise-ale-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#8
Yuwen Hung, Schuyler L Gaillard, Pavel Yarmak, Marie Arsalidou
Inhibitory control is the stopping of a mental process with or without intention, conceptualized as mental suppression of competing information because of limited cognitive capacity. Inhibitory control dysfunction is a core characteristic of many major psychiatric disorders. Inhibition is generally thought to involve the prefrontal cortex; however, a single inhibitory mechanism is insufficient for interpreting the heterogeneous nature of human cognition. It remains unclear whether different dimensions of inhibitory processes-specifically cognitive inhibition, response inhibition, and emotional interference-rely on dissociated neural systems...
June 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922575/single-session-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-has-a-lasting-impact-on-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-strategies
#9
Katherine E MacDuffie, Jeff MacInnes, Kathryn C Dickerson, Kari M Eddington, Timothy J Strauman, R Alison Adcock
To benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), individuals must not only learn new skills but also strategically implement them outside of session. Here, we tested a novel technique for personalizing CBT skills and facilitating their generalization to daily life. We hypothesized that showing participants the impact of specific CBT strategies on their own brain function using real-time functional magnetic imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback would increase their metacognitive awareness, help them identify effective strategies, and motivate real-world use...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922481/anterior-cingulate-cortex-activity-as-a-candidate-biomarker-for-treatment-selection-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
Andreas Frick, Jonas Engman, Kurt Wahlstedt, Malin Gingnell, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
We aimed to identify biomarkers to guide the decision to add selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Forty-eight patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and collection of clinical and demographic variables before treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy, combined on a double-blind basis with either escitalopram or placebo for 9 weeks. Pre-treatment neural reactivity to aversive faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but not clinical/demographic variables, moderated clinical outcomes...
2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922197/the-neural-basis-of-and-a-common-neural-circuitry-in-different-types-of-pro-social-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Jun Luo
Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922151/abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
Chao-Qun Yan, Cun-Zhi Liu, Xu Wang, Jian-Wei Huo, Ping Zhou, Shuai Zhang, Qing-Nan Fu, Jie Zhang, Zhong-Yan Wang, Qing-Quan Liu
Background: Recently, there have been many reports about abnormalities regarding structural and functional brain connectivity of the patients with primary insomnia. However, the alterations in functional interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres have not been well understood. The resting-state fMRI approach, which reveals spontaneous neural fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals, offers a method to quantify functional interactions between the hemispheres directly. Methods: We compared interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) between 26 patients with primary insomnia (48...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920392/pretherapeutic-motor-thalamus-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-visual-areas-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-thalamotomy-for-essential-tremor-tracing-the-cerebello-thalamo-visuo-motor-network
#13
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is non-invasive neuroimaging method acquired in absence of task. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims at correlating pretherapeutic ventro-lateral thalamus functional connectivity (FC) with clinical result 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) for drug-resistant ET. Data from 12 healthy controls was included. METHODS: Resting-state was acquired for 17 consecutive (right handed) patients, before and after left unilateral SRS-T...
June 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916789/storytelling-is-intrinsically-mentalistic-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-narrative-production-across-modalities
#14
Ye Yuan, Judy Major-Girardin, Steven Brown
People utilize multiple expressive modalities for communicating narrative ideas about past events. The three major ones are speech, pantomime, and drawing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify common brain areas that mediate narrative communication across these three sensorimotor mechanisms. In the scanner, participants were presented with short narrative prompts akin to newspaper headlines (e.g., "Surgeon finds scissors inside of patient"). The task was to generate a representation of the event, either by describing it verbally through speech, by pantomiming it gesturally, or by drawing it on a tablet...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915555/working-memory-related-effective-connectivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients
#15
Jacob Lahr, Lora Minkova, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout, Stefan Klöppel, Elisa Scheller
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically caused neurodegenerative disorder characterized by heterogeneous motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms. Although motor symptoms may be the most prominent presentation, cognitive symptoms such as memory deficits and executive dysfunction typically co-occur. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and task fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to evaluate HD-related changes in the neural network underlying working memory (WM). Sixty-four pre-symptomatic HD mutation carriers (preHD), 20 patients with early manifest HD symptoms (earlyHD), and 83 healthy control subjects performed an n -back fMRI task with two levels of WM load...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915074/changes-in-white-matter-in-mice-resulting-from-low-frequency-brain-stimulation
#17
Denise M Piscopo, Aldis P Weible, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Recent reports have begun to elucidate mechanisms by which learning and experience produce white matter changes in the brain. We previously reported changes in white matter surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex in humans after 2-4 weeks of meditation training. We further found that low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of the anterior cingulate in mice increased time spent in the light in a light/dark box paradigm, suggesting decreased anxiety similar to what is observed following meditation training. Here, we investigated the impact of this stimulation at the cellular level...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914991/the-multifaceted-abstract-brain
#18
REVIEW
Rutvik H Desai, Megan Reilly, Wessel van Dam
concepts play a central role in human behaviour and constitute a critical component of the human conceptual system. Here, we investigate the neural basis of four types of abstract concepts, examining their similarities and differences through neuroimaging meta-analyses. We examine numerical and emotional concepts, and two higher-order abstract processes, morality judgements and theory of mind. Three main findings emerge. First, representation of abstract concepts is more widespread than is often assumed. Second, representations of different types of abstract concepts differ in important respects...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914377/neural-correlates-of-free-recall-of-famous-events-in-a-hypermnestic-individual-as-compared-to-an-age-and-education-matched-reference-group
#19
Thorsten Fehr, Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J Markowitsch, Peter Erhard, Manfred Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Memory performance of an individual (within the age range: 50-55 years old) showing superior memory abilities (protagonist PR) was compared to an age- and education-matched reference group in a historical facts ("famous events") retrieval task. RESULTS: Contrasting task versus baseline performance both PR and the reference group showed fMRI activation patterns in parietal and occipital brain regions. The reference group additionally demonstrated activation patterns in cingulate gyrus, whereas PR showed additional widespread activation patterns comprising frontal and cerebellar brain regions...
June 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913971/brain-activation-due-to-postoperative-pain-from-the-right-hand-measured-with-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-positron-emission-tomography
#20
Torsten Gordh, Bertil Vinnars, Håkan Fischer, Hans Blomberg, Jan Modig, Mats Fredrikson, Per Hartvig
Background Brain activation resulting from acute postoperative pain has to our knowledge not previously been studied using positron emission tomography, except from one case study. The aim of this study was to monitor activation in brain sensory pathways during acute pain after surgery of the hand. A secondary aim was to compare brain activation in clinical postoperative pain to that previously reported, by the same research group, for a model of experimental pain from the same body area. Increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is presumed to indicate neuronal activation and decrease in blood flow decreased neuronal firing...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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