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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#1
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731544/localized-mrs-reliability-of-in-vivo-glutamate-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-shortened-scan-times-a-feasibility-study
#2
J Eric Jensen, Randy P Auerbach, Angela Pisoni, Diego A Pizzagalli
Glutamate is the prime excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and has been implicated in a wide range of psychiatric conditions. To improve the applicability and clinical reach of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), research is needed to develop shortened, yet reliable, MRS scanning procedures for standard 1.5-3-T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, particularly with young or vulnerable populations unable to tolerate longer protocols. To this end, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of a shortened J-resolved MRS sequence in healthy adolescents (n = 22) aged 12-14 years...
July 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729938/abnormal-resting-state-effective-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-spectral-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#3
Liang Li, Baojuan Li, Yuanhan Bai, Wenlei Liu, Huaning Wang, Hoi-Chung Leung, Ping Tian, Linchuan Zhang, Fan Guo, Long-Biao Cui, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu, Qingrong Tan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. OBJECTS: The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729935/single-trial-eeg-informed-fmri-analysis-of-emotional-decision-problems-in-hot-executive-function
#4
Qian Guo, Tiantong Zhou, Wenjie Li, Li Dong, Suhong Wang, Ling Zou
BACKGROUND: Executive function refers to conscious control in psychological process which relates to thinking and action. Emotional decision is a part of hot executive function and contains emotion and logic elements. As a kind of important social adaptation ability, more and more attention has been paid in recent years. OBJECTIVE: Gambling task can be well performed in the study of emotional decision. As fMRI researches focused on gambling task show not completely consistent brain activation regions, this study adopted EEG-fMRI fusion technology to reveal brain neural activity related with feedback stimuli...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729647/neural-determinants-of-human-goal-directed-vs-habitual-action-control-and-their-relation-to-trait-motivation
#5
Hamdi Eryilmaz, Anais Rodriguez-Thompson, Alexandra S Tanner, Madeline Giegold, Franklin C Huntington, Joshua L Roffman
Instrumental learning is mediated by goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729438/electrophysiological-evidence-that-the-retrosplenial-cortex-displays-a-strong-and-specific-activation-phased-with-hippocampal-theta-during-paradoxical-rem-sleep
#6
Koike Bruna Del Vechio, Farias Kelly Soares, Billwiller Francesca, Almeida-Filho Daniel, Libourel Paul-Antoine, Tiran-Cappello Alix, Parmentier Régis, Blanco Wilfredo, Ribeiro Sidarta, Luppi Pierre-Herve, Queiroz Claudio Marcos
It is widely accepted that cortical neurons are similarly more activated during waking and paradoxical sleep (PS, aka REM) than during slow wave sleep (SWS). However, we recently reported using Fos labeling that only a few limbic cortical structures including the retrosplenial (RSC) and anterior cingulate (ACA) cortices contain a large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia. Our aim in the present study was to record local field potentials (LFPs) and unit activity from these two structures across all vigilance states in freely moving male rats to determine whether the RSC and the ACA are electrophysiologically specifically active during basal PS episodes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728462/increased-binding-potential-of-brain-adenosine-a-sub-1-sub-receptor-in-chronic-stages-of-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-measured-with-1-methyl-sup-11-sup-c-8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine-pet-imaging
#7
Shihori Hayashi, Motoki Inaji, Tadashi Nariai, Keiichi Oda, Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii, Kiichi Ishiwata, Taketoshi Maehara
The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for adenosine A <sub>1</sub> receptor (A1R) [1-methyl- <sup>11</sup>C] 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine (MPDX) has recently been developed for human brain imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the alteration of the A1R in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in chronic stage <i>in vivo</i>. Ten patients with DAI (7 men and 3 women) were included in this study. Three PET examinations were sequentially performed to measure A1R binding with <sup>11</sup>C-MPDX, glucose metabolism with <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and central benzodiazepine receptor binding with <sup>11</sup>C-flumazenil (FMZ), decreases of <sup>11</sup>C-FMZ uptake indicate neuronal loss...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728018/unbelievable-neural-correlate-of-the-feedback-negativity-in-the-anterior-cingulate
#8
Bruno B Averbeck
The feedback- or error-related negativity (FN) has been extensively documented in frontal EEG recordings in human participants. In this issue of Neuron, Hyman et al. (2017) have documented a single-cell correlate of the FN in the ACC of rodents.
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#9
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#10
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724902/human-pursuance-of-equality-hinges-on-mental-processes-of-projecting-oneself-into-the-perspectives-of-others-and-into-future-situations
#11
Hirofumi Takesue, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Shiro Sakaiya, Hongwei Fan, Tetsuya Matsuda, Junko Kato
In the pursuance of equality, behavioural scientists disagree about distinct motivators, that is, consideration of others and prospective calculation for oneself. However, accumulating data suggest that these motivators may share a common process in the brain whereby perspectives and events that did not arise in the immediate environment are conceived. To examine this, we devised a game imitating a real decision-making situation regarding redistribution among income classes in a welfare state. The neural correlates of redistributive decisions were examined under contrasting conditions, with and without uncertainty, which affects support for equality in society...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724894/self-viewing-is-associated-with-negative-affect-rather-than-reward-in-highly-narcissistic-men-an-fmri-study
#12
Emanuel Jauk, Mathias Benedek, Karl Koschutnig, Gayannée Kedia, Aljoscha C Neubauer
Subclinical narcissism is a personality trait with two faces: According to social-cognitive theories it is associated with grandiosity and feelings of superiority, whereas psychodynamic theories emphasize vulnerable aspects like fluctuating self-esteem and emotional conflicts. The psychodynamic view, however, is commonly not supported by self-report studies on subclinical narcissism. Personality neuroscience might help to better understand the phenomenon of narcissism beyond the limits of self-report research...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724588/automatic-measurement-of-prosody-in-behavioral-variant-ftd
#13
Naomi Nevler, Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, David J Irwin, Mark Liberman, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To help understand speech changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), we developed and implemented automatic methods of speech analysis for quantification of prosody, and evaluated clinical and anatomical correlations. METHODS: We analyzed semi-structured, digitized speech samples from 32 patients with bvFTD (21 male, mean age 63 ± 8.5, mean disease duration 4 ± 3.1 years) and 17 matched healthy controls (HC). We automatically extracted fundamental frequency (f0, the physical property of sound most closely correlating with perceived pitch) and computed pitch range on a logarithmic scale (semitone) that controls for individual and sex differences...
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722022/opioid-release-after-high-intensity-interval-training-in-healthy-human-subjects
#14
Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jetro J Tuulari, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eveliina Arponen, Kari Kalliokoski, Jussi Hirvonen
Central opioidergic mechanisms may modulate the positive effects of physical exercise such as mood elevation and stress reduction. How exercise intensity and concomitant affective changes affect central opioidergic responses is unknown. We studied the effects of acute physical exercise on the cerebral μ-opioid receptors (MOR) of 22 healthy recreationally active males using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MOR-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil. MOR binding was measured in three conditions on separate days: after a 60-min aerobic moderate-intensity exercise session, after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, and after rest...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719018/ante-mortem-csf-tau-levels-correlate-with-post-mortem-tau-pathology-in-ftld
#15
D J Irwin, A Lleó, S X Xie, C T McMillan, D Wolk, E B Lee, V M Van Deerlin, L M Shaw, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) antemortem cerebrospinal fluid tau levels correlate with postmortem tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 2) tauopathy patients have higher phosphorylated-tau levels compared to TDP-43 proteinopathy patients while accounting for Alzheimer's disease co-pathology. METHODS: Patients had autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (n=31), TDP-43 proteinopathy (n=49), or Alzheimer's disease (n=26) with antemortem cerebrospinal fluid...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718512/overweight-is-associated-with-lower-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-females-after-eliminating-genetic-effects-a-twin-study
#16
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eelco van Duinkerken, Eco J de Geus, Parniane Arbab-Zadeh, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obesity is related to altered functional connectivity of resting state brain networks that are involved in reward and motivation. It is unknown to what extent these associations reflect genetic confounding and whether the obesity-related connectivity changes are associated with differences in dietary intake. In this study, resting state functional MRI was performed after an overnight fast in 16 female monozygotic twin pairs (aged 48.8 ± 9.8 years) with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range 0...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715661/cognitive-decline-and-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-across-3-years-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#17
Sigan L Hartley, Benjamin L Handen, Darlynne Devenny, Iulia Mihaila, Regina Hardison, Patrick J Lao, William E Klunk, Peter Bulova, Sterling C Johnson, Bradley T Christian
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing a unique opportunity to explore the early, preclinical stages of AD neuropathology. We examined change in brain amyloid-β accumulation via the positron emission tomography tracer [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) across 2 data collection cycles, spaced 3 years apart, and decline in cognitive functioning in 58 adults with DS without clinical AD. PiB retention increased in the anterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus cortex, parietal cortex, and anterior ventral striatum...
June 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715349/altered-neural-responses-to-heat-pain-in-drug-naive-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#18
Katarina Forkmann, Wiebke Grashorn, Katharina Schmidt, Odette Fründt, Carsten Buhmann, Ulrike Bingel
Pain is a frequent but still neglected nonmotor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD). However, neural mechanisms underlying pain in PD are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether the high prevalence of pain in PD might be related to dysfunctional descending pain control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we explored neural responses during the anticipation and processing of heat pain in 21 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr I-III) and 23 healthy controls (HC). Parkinson disease patients were naive to dopaminergic medication to avoid confounding drug effects...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714728/functional-neural-changes-following-behavioral-therapies-and-disulfiram-for-cocaine-dependence
#19
Elise E DeVito, Guangheng Dong, Hedy Kober, Jiansong Xu, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
A growing literature exists on neural correlates of treatment outcome. However, different types-or components of-treatment have distinct theorized mechanisms of action. And it is not yet known how changes in neural activity across treatment relate to engagement in different treatment components. Participants with cocaine use disorders in a randomized clinical trial received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus, in a 2 × 2 design, contingency management (CM) or no CM, and disulfiram or placebo. Participants performed a functional MRI Stroop task, a measure of cognitive control, at the beginning of and after the 12-week treatment...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714434/altered-interoceptive-activation-before-during-and-after-aversive-breathing-load-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#20
L A Berner, A N Simmons, C E Wierenga, A Bischoff-Grethe, M P Paulus, U F Bailer, A V Ely, W H Kaye
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms of anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe and chronic psychiatric illness, are still poorly understood. Altered body state processing, or interoception, has been documented in AN, and disturbances in aversive interoception may contribute to distorted body perception, extreme dietary restriction, and anxiety. As prior data implicate a potential mismatch between interoceptive expectation and experience in AN, we examined whether AN is associated with altered brain activation before, during, and after an unpleasant interoceptive state change...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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