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Yajing Zhang, Ming Zhou, Zhao Wang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
Previous studies have demonstrated that the lack of interleukin-21 (IL-21) signaling could affect specific antibody induction after rabies vaccination. Here, to further investigate the overexpression of IL-21 on the immunogenicity of rabies virus (RABV), a recombinant RABV expressing murine IL-21, designated as LBNSE-IL21, was constructed and evaluated in a mouse model. It was found that mice immunized with LBNSE-IL21 could substantially increase the number of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and germinal center (GC) B cells but did not enhance dendritic cell (DC) activation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Fen Wang, Xing Wang, Jianfeng Zhu, Haibo Yang, Xingang Kong, Xiao Liu
3D network structure NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized by a templated salt precipitation method using PMMA colloid crystal as templates. The morphology, phase composition and microwave absorbing properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer (VNA), and so on. The results revealed that the 3D network structure was configurated with smooth spherical walls composed of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their pore diameters being in the range of 80-250 nm...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
D L Manalo, K Yamada, I Watanabe, M E G Miranda, S M D Lapiz, E Tapdasan, W Petspophonsakul, S Inoue, P Khawplod, A Nishizono
The mass vaccination of dogs against rabies is a highly rational strategy for interrupting the natural transmission of urban rabies. According to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the immunization of at least 70% of the total dog population minimizes the risk of endemic rabies. Knowledge of the virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) level against the rabies virus (RABV) is required to evaluate protective immunity and vaccine coverage of dogs in the field. The rapid focus fluorescent inhibition test (RFFIT) and the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test are recommended by OIE and WHO to determine the VNA levels in serum...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Zhao Wang, Mingming Li, Ming Zhou, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Yandi Cao, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies still remains a public health threat in most parts of the world, and approximately 99% of the cases are transmitted by dogs. There is an urgent need to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine to control canine-transmitted rabies in developing countries. Our previous studies demonstrate that overexpression of chemokines/cytokines such as CCL-3 (MIP-1α) and GM-CSF can enhance the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines. In the present study, the chemokine CXCL13 was inserted into the genome of the recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) strain LBNSE, and the effect of the chemokine CXCL13 on the immunogenicity of the RABV was investigated...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
Fa-Ming Miao, Shou-Feng Zhang, Shu-Chao Wang, Ye Liu, Fei Zhang, Rong-Liang Hu
Rabies is a lethal neurological disease caused by the neurotropic rabies virus (RABV). To investigate the innate immune response in the brain during rabies infection, key gene transcripts indicative of innate immunity in a mouse model system were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Mice were infected via the intracerebral or intramuscular route with either attenuated rabies virus (SRV9) or pathogenic rabies virus (BD06). Infection with SRV9 resulted in the early detection of viral replication and the rapid induction of innate immune response gene expression in the brain...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Virology
J E Nobles, V Zagorodnii, A Hutchison, Z Celinski
We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Catherine E Vrentas, Mahtab Moayeri, Andrea B Keefer, Allison J Greaney, Jacqueline Tremblay, Danielle O'Mard, Stephen H Leppla, Charles B Shoemaker
Infection with Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, can lead to persistence of lethal secreted toxins in the bloodstream, even after antibiotic treatment. VHH single-domain antibodies have been demonstrated to neutralize diverse bacterial toxins both in vitro and in vivo, with protein properties such as small size and high stability that make them attractive therapeutic candidates. Recently, we reported on VHHs with in vivo activity against the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxins...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
I G Ovsyannikova, H M Salk, R B Kennedy, I H Haralambieva, M T Zimmermann, D E Grill, A L Oberg, G A Poland
This study aimed to identify gene expression markers shared between both influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and virus-neutralization antibody (VNA) responses. We enrolled 158 older subjects who received the 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Influenza-specific HAI and VNA titers and mRNA-sequencing were performed using blood samples obtained at Days 0, 3 and 28 post vaccination. For antibody response at Day 28 versus Day 0, several gene sets were identified as significant in predictive models for HAI (n=7) and VNA (n=35) responses...
December 2016: Genes and Immunity
Gui Mei Yu, Shu Long Zu, Wei Wei Zhou, Xi Jun Wang, Lei Shuai, Xue Lian Wang, Jin Ying Ge, Zhi Gao Bu
Rabies is still an important world-wide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vaccine vector in animals using a reverse genetics system. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed a variant, rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies G protein RVGTM containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain(TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
Kathleen M Baldwin, Denice L Black, Lorrie K Normand, Patricia Bonds, Melissa Townley
PURPOSE: The project goal of was to decrease new graduate nurse (NGN) attrition during the first year of employment by improving communication skills and providing additional mentoring for NGNs employed in a community hospital located in a rural area. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT: All NGNs participate in the Versant Residency Program. Even with this standardized residency program, exit interviews of NGNs who resigned during their first year of employment revealed 2 major issues: communication problems with patients and staff and perceived lack of support/mentoring from unit staff...
September 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, Sung-Suk Choi, Seong Heon Lee, In-Soo Cho
PURPOSE: Rabies viruses (RABV) circulating worldwide in various carnivores occasionally cause fatal encephalitis in swine. In this study, the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant rabies virus, the ERAGS strain constructed with a reverse genetics system, was evaluated in domestic pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Growing pigs were administered 1 mL (10(8.0) FAID50/mL) of the ERAGS strain via intramuscular (IM) or oral routes and were observed for 4 weeks' post-inoculation...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, Sung-Suk Choi, Jong-Tack Kim, Kang-Bok Lee, Seong Heon Lee, In-Soo Cho
PURPOSE: The development of a genetically modified live rabies vaccine applicable to wild raccoon dogs is necessary for the eradication of rabies in Korea. Thus, we constructed a recombinant rabies virus (RABV) called the ERAGS strain, using a reverse genetic system and evaluated its safety and efficacy in mice and its safety and immunogenicity in raccoon dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERAGS, which has Asn194Ser and Arg333Glu substitutions in the glycoprotein, was constructed using site-directed mutagenesis...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Devi Balkrishnan Dhurga, Kumar Suresh, Tian Chye Tan
The role and function of the granular life cycle stage in Blastocystis sp, remains uncertain despite suggestions being made that the granules are metabolic, reproductive and lipid in nature. This present study aims to understand granular formation by triggering apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. by treating them with metronidazole (MTZ). Blastocystis sp.cultures of 4 sub-types namely 1, 2, 3 and 5 when treated with 0.01 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (MTZ) respectively showed many of the parasites to be both viable and apoptotic (VA)...
2016: PloS One
Diane J Schmidt, Gillian Beamer, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Jennifer A Steele, Hyeun Bum Kim, Yaunkai Wang, Michele Debatis, Xingmin Sun, Elena A Kashentseva, Igor P Dmitriev, David T Curiel, Charles B Shoemaker, Saul Tzipori
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading cause of nosocomial infection, is a serious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. CDI varies greatly from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening diarrhea, toxic megacolon, and toxemia. The incidence of community-acquired infection has increased due to the emergence of hypervirulent antibiotic-resistant strains. These new strains contribute to the frequent occurrence of disease relapse, complicating treatment, increasing hospital stays, and increasing morbidity and mortality among patients...
September 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
John Yount
The incidence and consequences of falls for older adults are well documented and well known to home care clinicians. In the absence of a falls-prevention program targeting older adults living in the community, home healthcare professionals at Cooley Dickinson VNA & Hospice in Northampton, MA, observed a high rate of falls and hip fractures. The clinicians designed a falls reduction program titled Strength in Numbers, an evidence-informed, multifaceted approach offered in community settings such as local senior centers and retirement communities...
July 2016: Home Healthcare Now
Rayyan Manwar, Sazzadur Chowdhury
Experimental measurement results of a 1.75 mm × 1.75 mm footprint area Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) planar array fabricated using a bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB)-based adhesive wafer bonding technique has been presented. The array consists of 40 × 40 square diaphragm CMUT cells with a cavity thickness of 900 nm and supported by 10 µm wide dielectric spacers patterned on a thin layer of BCB. A 150 µm wide one µm thick gold strip has been used as the contact pad for gold wire bonding...
2016: Sensors
James A Hodgson, Tiffany H Seyler, Lanqing Wang
Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are established teratogens and carcinogens in animals and classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans by the IARC. High levels of VNAs have been detected in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. VNA exposure may lead to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (e.g., inflammation), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). To conduct epidemiological studies on the effects of VNA exposure, short-term and long-term stabilities of VNAs in the urine matrix are needed...
July 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Mingyang Zhao, Xinlu Gao, Mutong Xie, Wensheng Zhai, Wenjing Xu, Shanguo Huang, Wanyi Gu
An indirect approach based on phase measurement is proposed to measure the rotational Doppler frequency shift, which takes full advantage of the phase structure of orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams in radio domain, using a vector network analyzer (VNA) as a phase discriminator. A proof-of-concept experiment is established by an optical-controlled system with the OAM state of 1. By analyzing the experiment's results, the rotational Doppler frequency shift is measured as 24.83 Hz (max error rate 0.67%) at 50π rad/s rotational velocity, deducing the rotational velocity as 50...
June 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Richard B Kennedy, Whitney L Simon, Michael J Gibson, Krista M Goergen, Diane E Grill, Ann L Oberg, Gregory A Poland
Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality annually. Although vaccination offers a considerable amount of protection, it is far from perfect, especially in aging populations. This is due to age-related defects in immune function, a process called immunosenescence. To date, there are no assays or methods to predict or explain variations in an individual's level of response to influenza vaccination. In this study, we measured levels of several immune cell subsets at baseline (Day 0) and at Days 3 and 28 post-vaccination using flow cytometry...
July 2016: Immunology
Jiwoong Park, Harinath Garudadri, Patrick P Mercier
: The purpose of this contribution is to estimate the path loss of capacitive human body communication (HBC) systems under practical conditions. METHODS: Most prior work utilizes large, grounded instruments to perform path loss measurements, resulting in overly optimistic path loss estimates for wearable HBC devices. In this paper, small battery-powered transmitter and receiver devices are implemented to measure path loss under realistic assumptions. A hybrid electrostatic-FEM simulation model is presented that validates measurements and enables rapid and accurate characterization of future capacitive HBC systems...
April 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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