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Arne Buchter, Johannes Hoffmann, Alexandra Delvallée, Enrico Brinciotti, Dimitri Hapiuk, Christophe Licitra, Kevin Louarn, Alexandre Arnoult, Guilhem Almuneau, François Piquemal, Markus Zeier, Ferry Kienberger
A calibration algorithm based on one-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration for scanning microwave microscopes (SMMs) is presented and used to extract quantitative carrier densities from a semiconducting n-doped GaAs multilayer sample. This robust and versatile algorithm is instrument and frequency independent, as we demonstrate by analyzing experimental data from two different, cantilever- and tuning fork-based, microscope setups operating in a wide frequency range up to 27.5 GHz. To benchmark the SMM results, comparison with secondary ion mass spectrometry is undertaken...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
February 19, 2018: Virus Research
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Damiano Magrì, Gaetana D'Alessandro, Claudia Fiorucci, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Masahiro Ogawa, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
The relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of the sinus node and heart rate variability has been extensively investigated. Current study sought to evaluate, in an animal experimental model of pacing-induced tachycardia congestive heart failure (CHF), a possible ANS influence on P wave duration and PR interval oscillations. Short term (5-minutes) time and frequency domain analysis has been obtained in six dogs for the following electrocardiographic intervals: P wave duration (P), from the onset to peak of P wave (Pp), from the onset of P wave to the q onset (PR) and from the end of P wave to the onset of q wave (PeR)...
February 2, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Guillermo Galvez-Romero, Mónica Salas-Rojas, Ericka N Pompa-Mera, Karina Chávez-Rueda, Álvaro Aguilar-Setién
Rabies DNA vaccines based on full-length glycoprotein (G) induce virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) responses and protect against the virus challenge. Although conformational epitopes of G are the main target of VNAs, some studies have shown that a polypeptide linear epitope G5 is also able to induce VNAs. However, a G5 DNA vaccine has not been explored. While multiple doses of DNA vaccines are required in order to confer a protective immune response, this could be overcome by the inclusion of C3d-P28, a molecular adjuvant is know to improve the antibody response in several anti-viral vaccine models...
January 4, 2018: Vaccine
Amanda Y Poon, David J Vance, Yinghui Rong, Dylan Ehrbar, Nicholas J Mantis
As part of an effort to engineer ricin antitoxins and immunotherapies, we previously produced and characterized a collection of phage-displayed, heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) from alpacas that had been immunized with ricin antigens. In our initial screens, we identified nine VHHs directed against ricin toxin's binding subunit (RTB), but only one, JIZ-B7, had toxin-neutralizing activity. Linking JIZ-B7 to different VHHs against ricin's enzymatic subunit (RTA) resulted in several bispecific antibodies with potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo...
November 23, 2017: Toxins
Yuan Yuan, Zhaolei Jiang, Ye Zhao, Wei-Chung Tsai, Jheel Patel, Lan S Chen, Changyu Shen, Shien-Fong Lin, Huei-Sheng Vincent Chen, Thomas H Everett, Michael C Fishbein, Zhenhui Chen, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Reducing sympathetic efferent outflow from the stellate ganglia (SG) may be antiarrhythmic. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic thoracic subcutaneous nerve stimulation (ScNS) could reduce SG nerve activity (SGNA) and control paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). METHODS: Thoracic ScNS was performed in 8 dogs while SGNA, vagal nerve activity (VNA), and subcutaneous nerve activity (ScNA) were monitored...
March 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Tiina Nokireki, Miia Jakava-Viljanen, Anna-Maija Virtala, Liisa Sihvonen
BACKGROUND: Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0...
October 2, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Duye Ye, Weizheng Wang, David Moline, Md Saiful Islam, Feng Chen, Pingshan Wang
This study presents a microwave flow detector technique for liquid chromatography (LC) application. The detector is based on a tunable microwave interferometer (MIM) with a vector network analyzer (VNA) for signal measurement and a computer for system control. A microstrip-line-based 0.3 μL flow cell is built and incorporated into the MIM. With syringe pump injection, the detector is evaluated by measuring a few common chemicals in DI water at multiple frequencies from 0.98 to 7.09 GHz. Less than 30 ng minimum detectable quantity (MDQ) is demonstrated...
October 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Shumin Zhao, Hao Chi Zhang, Jiahao Zhao, Wen Xuan Tang
In this paper, we propose a scheme to construct a new type of ultra-compact rejection filter by loading split-ring resonators (SRRs) on the transmission line of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). From the dispersion analysis of the spoof SPP transmission line with and without the SRR loading, we clearly reveal the mechanism of the rejection characteristic for this compact filter. Meanwhile, we fabricate two spoof SPPs waveguides loaded with different amounts of metamaterials particles, and experimentally test them using an Agilent Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and a homemade near-field scanning system...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tiange Chen, Yajing Zhang, Zhao Wang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains a public health threat that kills approximately 59,000 people worldwide each year, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine is crucial for rabies control in these countries. Interleukin (IL)-15, an immunoregulatory cytokine, is a pluripotent molecule with therapeutic potential, which targets many cell types and links the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, IL-15 gene was cloned and inserted into the genome of a recombinant rabies virus (RABV) strain LBNSE (designated as LBNSE-IL15), and the effect of over-expression of IL-15 on the immunogenicity of RABV was investigated...
August 2017: Virologica Sinica
Hang Zhao, Lei Hou, Siyi Bi, Yinxiang Lu
Despite tremendous efforts, fabrication of lightweight conductive fabrics for high-performance X-band electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding remains a daunting technical challenge. We herein report an ingenious and efficient strategy to deposit polyaniline/cobalt-nickel (PANI/Co-Ni) coatings onto lyocell fabrics that involves consecutive steps of in situ polymerization and electroless plating. The PANI-Co-Ni ternary-component system successfully induced a synergistic effect from EM wave-absorption and EM wave-reflection and, moreover, upgraded the match level between magnetic loss and dielectric loss...
September 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
K Zhugunissov, Ye Bulatov, D Taranov, Z Yershebulov, Zh Koshemetov, Ye Abduraimov, Zh Kondibayeva, A Samoltyrova, Zh Amanova, B Khairullin, A Sansyzbay
In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
Mario R Casu, Marco Vacca, Jorge A Tobon, Azzurra Pulimeno, Imran Sarwar, Raffaele Solimene, Francesca Vipiana
Microwave imaging is an emerging breast cancer diagnostic technique, which aims at complementing already established methods like mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. It offers two striking advantages: no-risk for the patient and potential low-cost for national health systems. So far, however, the prototypes developed for validation in labs and clinics used costly lab instruments such as a vector network analyzer (VNA). Moreover, the CPU time required by complex image reconstruction algorithms may not be compatible with the duration of a medical examination...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
J J de Wit, R Dijkman, P Guerrero, J Calvo, A Gonzalez, H Hidalgo
In the period from July 2008 to 2010, a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry was reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and four strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype...
August 22, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Craig Pouliott, Michelle Dupuis, Kim Appler, Scott Brunt, Robert Rudd, April Davis
Maintaining a healthy, continuous immortalized cell line is essential for rabies laboratories that perform virus isolation assays and test for the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies. Individuals who routinely work with rabies virus, such as rabies laboratory employees, or those who may have a high potential for exposure to rabies virus, including veterinarians, should be tested for the presence of anti-rabies viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) every 6-24 months, depending on potential exposure level...
September 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Yuesheng Qiu, Jie-Hua Chen, Weijun Yu, Pei Wang, Minxian Rong, Hong Deng
The QuEChERS sample preparation method and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were employed to determine nine volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs) in Chinese salted fish. This method was validated by considering calibration plot linearity, selectivity, matrix effects, trueness, precision, limits of quantification and specificity. Fifty-four samples of Chinese salted fish obtained from five provinces were analyzed. The results indicated that the concentrations of one VNA, N-nitrosodimethylamine in 57.4% of the samples exceeded the acceptable limit (the China national standard value of 4μgkg(-1)), and total VNA contents in 68...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Supakorn Harnsoongnoen, Anuwat Wanthong
Magnetic sensing at microwave frequencies for real-time monitoring of sucrose, sorbitol, d-glucose and d-fructose concentrations is reported. The sensing element was designed based on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with a split ring resonator (SRR), which was fabricated on a DiClad 880 substrate with a thickness of 1.6mm and relative permittivity (εr) of 2.2. The magnetic sensor was connected to a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and the electromagnetic interaction between the samples and sensor was analyzed...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jihua Fu, Xu Wang, Tao Wei, Meng Wei, Yang Shen
Observations of surface deformation are essential for understanding a wide range of geophysical problems, including earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and glaciers. Current geodetic technologies, such as global positioning system (GPS), interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), borehole and laser strainmeters, are costly and limited in their temporal or spatial resolutions. Here we present a new type of strainmeters based on the coaxial cable Bragg grating (CCBG) sensing technology that provides cost-effective strain measurements...
April 12, 2017: Sensors
Paul Vescovo, Nils Rettby, Nirinarilala Ramaniraka, Julie Liberman, Karen Hart, Astrid Cachemaille, Laurent-Dominique Piveteau, Reto Zanoni, Pierre-Alexandre Bart, Giuseppe Pantaleo
In a single-center study, 66 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 50years were randomized to be immunized against rabies with three different injection routes: intradermal with DebioJect™ (IDJ), standard intradermal with classical needle (IDS), also called Mantoux method, and intramuscular with classical needle (IM). "Vaccin rabique Pasteur®" and saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) were administered at D0, D7 and D28. Antigen doses for both intradermal routes were 1/5 of the dose for IM. Tolerability, safety and induced immunogenicity of IDJ were compared to IDS and IM routes...
March 27, 2017: Vaccine
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