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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793213/end-stage-renal-disease-models-in-the-americas-optimizing-resources-to-achieve-better-health-outcomes
#1
Ramiro E Gilardino, Eduardo González-Pier, Claudia Brabata
End-stage renal disease, the last and most severe stage of chronic kidney disease, represents a major and rising concern for countries in Latin America, driven in large part by aging populations and the near-epidemic rises in diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. This places a great clinical, economic, and social burden on the region's health systems. During the ISPOR 6th Latin America Conference held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in September 2017, an educational forum debated on value-based decision making in the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Latin America...
May 21, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793162/new-insights-into-the-formation-of-silver-based-nanoparticles-under-natural-and-semi-natural-conditions
#2
Andreas Wimmer, Anna Kalinnik, Michael Schuster
For the first time, the natural formation of silver-based nanoparticles (Ag-b-NPs) was studied in field investigations of two pre-alpine lakes in Germany that contain geogenic silver traces in the sub-ng L-1 range. Light-sensitive microorganisms most likely accumulate and transport these silver traces from deeper water layers to the surface. At the surface of the eutrophic lake, approximately 40% of total silver (5.7 ng L-1 ) consisted of Ag-b-NPs, whereas in the oligotrophic lake with similar enrichment of silver species, no Ag-b-NPs were detected...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793155/lessons-from-mosquitoes-painless-piercing
#3
Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793113/assessment-of-the-risk-of-antiangiogenic-agents-before-and-after-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Christina E Bailey, Alexander A Parikh
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of numerous solid tumor types, and thus, antiangiogenic agents have been studied for many years as potential therapeutic agents. Many different antiangiogenic agents, including monoclonal antibodies and multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have been approved for various oncology indications, and promising clinical activity has been demonstrated. However, some of these agents have also been associated with serious safety concerns...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793078/comparison-of-performance-based-assessment-and-real-world-skill-in-people-with-serious-mental-illness-ecological-validity-of-the-test-of-grocery-shopping-skills
#5
Laura A Faith, Melisa V Rempfer
Valid functional measures are essential for clinical and research efforts that address recovery and community functioning in people with serious mental illness. Although there is a great deal of interest in functional assessment, there is limited research supporting how well current evaluation methods provide a true assessment of real world functioning or naturalistic behavior. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the performance of individuals with serious mental illness (i.e., diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar disorder, or other depression/anxiety diagnoses and accompanying functional disability) on the Test of Grocery Shopping Skills (TOGSS), a performance-based naturalistic task...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#7
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793041/-selenoproteins-in-colon-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Kristin M Peters, Bradley A Carlson, Vadim N Gladyshev, Petra A Tsuji
Selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) have been implicated in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways, many of which are linked to colorectal malignancies. In this in-depth excurse into the selenoprotein literature, we review possible roles for human selenoproteins in colorectal cancer, focusing on the typical hallmarks of cancer cells and their tumor-enabling characteristics. Human genome studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in various genes coding for selenoproteins have revealed potential involvement of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other proteins...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793036/breast-cancer-and-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Audrey Fleury, Olivier Pirello, Christine Maugard, Carole Mathelin, Christelle Linck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793034/a-case-control-study-about-foetal-trauma-during-cesarean-delivery
#10
Enora Dolivet, Cécile Delesalle, Rémi Morello, Marie Blouet, Corinne Bronfen, Michel Dreyfus, Guillaume Benoist
OBJECTIVE: The caesarean section rate is gradually increasing in most countries. The frequency of occurrence of foetal injury per birth is estimated to 1%. The majority of these injuries presents a low functional impact, but remains responsible for a significant neonatal morbidity. Even though the foetal risk factors are well documented in cases of vaginal birth, they have not been accurately identified for cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for neonatal fracture during caesarean section...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793001/health-literacy-in-chronic-disease-management-a-matter-of-interaction
#11
Iris van der Heide, Iraj Poureslami, Wayne Mitic, Jessica Shum, Irving Rootman, J Mark FitzGerald
Health literacy plays a crucial role in chronic disease management. To comprehensively manage chronic conditions on a daily basis, individuals must be able to assess, understand, evaluate and use health information. Several key publications emphasise that health literacy is not merely a matter of individual skills, but that it is highly dependent on the accessibility of healthcare systems, the communication skills of healthcare professionals, and the level of complexity of health information. However, the literature indicates that health literacy is mainly framed and measured as an individual attribute in research...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792998/bmi-and-gender-increase-risk-for-sacral-fractures-after-multilevel-instrumented-spinal-fusion-compared-to-bone-mineral-density-and-pelvic-parameters
#12
Stephan N Salzmann, Courtney Ortiz Miller, John A Carrino, Jingyan Yang, Jennifer Shue, Andrew A Sama, Frank P Cammisa, Federico P Girardi, Alexander P Hughes
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Sacral fractures are a rare but potentially devastating complication. Long-fusion constructs including the sacrum that do not extend to the pelvis may result in sacral fractures. Besides established risk factors including gender, age and number of levels fused, body mass index (BMI), pelvic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) have also been proposed as potential risk factors for postoperative sacral fractures. The literature supporting this, however, is limited...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792997/risk-factors-for-low-back-pain-and-sciatica-an-umbrella-review
#13
REVIEW
P Parreira, C Maher, D Steffens, M Hancock, M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a highly prevalent condition and it is associated with significant disability and work absenteeism worldwide. A variety of environmental and individual characteristics have been reported to increase the risk of low back pain (LBP). To our knowledge, there has been no previous attempt to summarise the evidence from existing systematic reviews of risk factors for LBP and/or sciatica PURPOSE: to provide an overview of risk factors for LBP, we completed an umbrella review of the evidence from existing systematic reviews...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792996/cervical-bracing-practices-after-degenerative-cervical-surgery-a-survey-of-cervical-spine-research-society-members
#14
David J Lunardini, Martin H Krag, Nathan S Mauser, Joon Y Lee, William H Donaldson, James D Kang
BACKGROUND: Context: Prior studies have shown common use of post-operative bracing, despite advances in modern day instrumentation rigidity and little evidence of brace effectiveness. PURPOSE: To document current practice patterns of brace use after degenerative cervical spine surgeries among members of the Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS), to evaluate trends, and to identify areas of further study. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire survey METHODS: A 10 question survey was sent to members of the Cervical Spine Research Society to document current routine bracing practices after various common degenerative cervical spine surgical scenarios, including fusion and non-fusion procedures...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792890/the-visual-cortex-and-visual-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-an-overview-of-current-literature
#15
REVIEW
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792838/systemic-solutions-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#16
Darius M Moshfeghi
PURPOSE: To describe a framework for screening and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity using telemedicine screening with laser and/or vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor treatment strategies. DESIGN: Literature review and perspective METHODS: Review of the literature and the author's experience RESULTS: Undetermined CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine can be deployed on a national basis to provide quaternary level screening for ROP. At-risk patients for treatment could then be directed to receive either laser photocoagulation or vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor intravitreal injections followed at a later time point by examination under anesthesia, fluorescein angiography, and diode laser photocoagulation as indicated...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792837/total-avulsed-ear-management-with-radial-forearm-free-flap
#17
Uzair Luqman, Zahid Qayyum, Zahid Furqan, Kaleem Ullah
Avulsive injuries to the ear are extremely challenging to treat. The literature documents numerous ways to manage such injuries. This report describes a case of total auricular cartilaginous avulsion that occurred during a motor vehicle accident. The avulsed segment had an ischemia time longer than 8 hours by the time of presentation at the authors' tertiary care facility. The avulsed segment was de-epithelialized and embedded into the volar forearm. After a healing period of 6 months, a radial forearm free flap was harvested and the ear was reconstructed...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792817/macroscopic-theory-for-evolving-biological-systems-akin-to-thermodynamics
#18
Kunihiko Kaneko, Chikara Furusawa
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792800/effects-of-enhanced-flexibility-and-pore-size-distribution-on-adsorption-induced-deformation-of-mesoporous-materials
#19
Andrei Kolesnikov, Nikolaj Georgi, Yury A Budkov, Jens Möllmer, Jorg Hofmann, Juergen Adolphs, Roger Gläser
We present a new model of adsorption-induced deformation of mesoporous solids. The model is based on a simplified version of Local Density Functional Theory in the framework of solvation free energy. Instead of density, which is treated as constant here, we used the film thickness and pore radius as order parameters. This allows us to obtain a self-consistent system of equations describing simultaneously the processes of gas adsorption and adsorbent deformation, as well as conditions for capillary condensation and evaporation...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792785/two-cases-of-combined-patellar-tendon-avulsion-from-the-tibia-and-patella
#20
Viachaslau Bradko, William T Stoll, Lee S Haruno, Scott B Rosenfeld, Scott D McKay
Avulsion fractures of the inferior pole of the patella and proximal tibial apophysis are independently rare injuries. They occur in children due to the relative weakness of the apophyseal cartilage compared to the ligaments and tendons. The combination of these two fractures, is exceedingly rare, with only a few previously described cases in the literature. Due to the infrequent presentation of this injury, careful examination and consideration of advanced imaging is important for diagnosis and preoperative planning...
2018: SICOT-J
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