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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922904/the-body-as-gift-commodity-or-something-in-between-ethical-implications-of-advanced-kidney-donation
#1
Julian J Koplin
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922879/intraparenchymal-cysts-following-deep-brain-stimulation-variable-presentations-and-clinical-courses
#2
Kalman Katlowitz, Michael H Pourfar, Zvi Israel, Alon Y Mogilner
BACKGROUND: The development of cysts at the electrode lead is a rare complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS), with only 3 cases reported in the literature. A better understanding of the variable clinical presentations and courses of these cysts may help increase awareness of this potentially life-threatening complication. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation of patients with intraparenchymal cysts following DBS implantations. METHODS: We report 3 patients who developed a cyst along the course of the DBS lead...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922842/on-faculty-development-of-stem-inclusive-teaching-practices
#3
Bryan M Dewsbury
Faculty development of inclusive teaching practices has become more common in response to significant differences in STEM student retention between underrepresented minorities in the USA and students from other ethnic groups. Approaches to solve this have shifted from focusing on student deficits to changing campus culture, including the mindsets of instructors who teach STEM courses. In this article, I argue that based on the literature informing the conceptual frameworks used for faculty development in inclusive teaching, faculty developers should reframe the message of their workshops to focus participants more on the scope of the journey, and shift the direction of overall efforts some to redevelop pedagogical training at the graduate and postdoc levels...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922824/in-quest-of-the-antique-the-bazaar-exchange-and-mart-and-the-democratization-of-collecting-1926-42
#4
Heidi Egginton
The popularization of antique collecting is typically located in the second half of the twentieth century, with the rise of 'retrochic' and the emergence of new markets and online trading websites for anonymously exchanging second-hand goods. Close study of the printed literature connected with the inter-war second-hand trade, however, challenges conventional chronologies in the history of consumer culture, and can provide a new perspective on the role of collecting in British social and cultural life. This article examines the period, after the late 1920s, during which The Bazaar, Exchange and Mart reinvented itself as a forum for antique and decorative art enthusiasts...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922813/meta-analyses-and-the-evidence-base-for-microbial-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#5
Jotam G Pasipanodya, Deborah Ogbonna, Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the level of funding support and the sputum culture conversion rates in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (P-MAC) disease in adult patients without cystic fibrosis or HIV infection, treated with recommended antibiotic regimens. Methods: We performed a literature search to identify clinical trials, prospective studies and registries that reported outcomes in P-MAC patients. Studies that reported P-MAC diagnosis and treatments based on established guidelines met the inclusion criteria and were examined for bias and quality...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922811/a-programme-to-create-short-course-chemotherapy-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease-based-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-mathematical-forecasting
#6
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Our objective was to develop a programme to design a combination therapy regimen for pulmonary MAC to be administered for 6 months or less with efficacy in > 90% of patients. Methods: We performed a literature search for the following MeSH headings 'Mycobacterium avium' AND 'pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics' in PubMed up to 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922733/assessing-the-ground-vibrations-produced-by-a-heavy-vehicle-traversing-a-traffic-obstacle
#7
Loïc Ducarne, Daniel Ainalis, Georges Kouroussis
Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922719/baicalein-as-a-potent-neuroprotective-agent-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Ponnuvel Deepa, Minju Kim, Se Jin Park, Songmun Kim
In recent times, neurodegenerative diseases are the most challenging global health problems. Neuronal cell death or damage is a key factor for many neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of effective neuroprotective agents, especially from natural sources. In particular, phytochemicals have shown high efficacy with low side effects in various in vitro and in vivo studies. In the various phytoconstituents, flavonoids are important bioactive products and mainly found in various vegetables and fruits...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922704/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#9
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), e.g. sofosbuvir, are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). Sustained virological response (SVR) is used by investigators and regulatory agencies as a surrogate outcome for morbidity and mortality, based solely on observational evidence...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922700/acquired-exostosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Chandrakanta Nayak, Barada Prasanna Samal, Sasmita Pradhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922648/a-theoretical-and-empirical-modeling-of-anxiety-integrated-with-rdoc-and-temporal-dynamics
#11
Brandon Frank, Nicholas C Jacobson, Landon Hurley, Dean McKay
The newly launched Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) emphasize specific mechanisms over diagnostic categories of psychopathology. In our view, RDoC provides a useful heuristic for mental health disorders, but does not capture the complexity of psychological data when proposed mechanisms are viewed as static entities. However, temporal and complex system dynamics may advance RDoC's utility. By investigating temporal patterns within trajectories and the interaction of complex networks, we propose that dynamic modeling provides comprehensive methods with which to investigate the etiopathology and maintenance of mental health disorders...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#12
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922589/higher-baseline-proinflammatory-cytokines-mark-poor-antidepressant-response-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Francesco Benedetti, Sara Poletti, Thomas A Hoogenboezem, Clara Locatelli, Harm de Wit, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Cristina Colombo, Hemmo A Drexhage
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of raised levels of circulating cytokines in bipolar disorder is still unclear. Cytokines influence neurotransmitters, neuroplasticity, and white matter integrity. An inconsistent literature suggests that higher cytokine levels could hamper antidepressant response. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT) prompt a rapid antidepressant response and can provide a model treatment to study predictors of response. METHODS: We studied at baseline 15 immune-regulating compounds in 37 consecutively admitted inpatients with a major depressive episode in the course of bipolar disorder (DSM-5 criteria) and in 24 controls...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922575/the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale-factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-in-older-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Mirko Uljarević, Amanda L Richdale, Helen McConachie, Darren Hedley, Ru Ying Cai, Hannah Merrick, Jeremy R Parr, Ann Le Couteur
Despite the high frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and a significant impact of these comorbidities on both individuals with ASD and their families, research on the validity of anxiety and depression measures in the ASD population is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS; Zigmond & Snaith, ] in a sample of older adolescents and young adults with ASD. One hundred and fifty one participants (UK Transition longitudinal study: N = 106; 75 males, Mage  = 16...
September 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922520/a-review-of-joint-attention-and-social-cognitive-brain-systems-in-typical-development-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Peter Mundy
This article provides a review of the increasingly detailed literature on the neurodevelopment of joint attention. Many findings from this literature support and inform the hypothesis that the neurodevelopment of joint attention contributes to the functional development of neural systems for human social cognition. Joint attention begins to develop by 5 months of age and is tantamount to the ability to adopt a common perspective with another person. It involves a whole-brain system with nodes in the: (a) dorsal and medial frontal cortex, (b) orbital frontal/insula cortex, (c) anterior/ posterior cingulate cortex, (d) superior temporal cortex, (e) precuneus/parietal cortex, and (f) amygdala and striatum...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922459/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-case-report
#16
Tsong-Yih Ou, Cheng-Yen Chuang, Chun-Da Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng
Severe falciparum malaria is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and a high rate of fatal outcome. Malaria is a world-wide disease in tropical areas through the bites of vector mosquitoes. Parasitic protozoans introduced by the mosquito's saliva to the blood travel to the liver then mature and reproduce. In humans, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi, and P. falciparum causes most deaths. Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922457/how-negative-contact-and-positive-contact-with-whites-predict-collective-action-among-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#17
Lydia E Hayward, Linda R Tropp, Matthew J Hornsey, Fiona Kate Barlow
Positive contact with advantaged group members can improve disadvantaged group members' attitudes towards them, yet it may also lower perceptions of group discrimination and consequent collective action. Little is known, however, about how negative contact with the advantaged predicts collective action among members of disadvantaged groups. With samples of Black and Hispanic Americans, we tested positive and negative contact with White Americans as predictors of self-reported collective action behaviour and future intentions...
September 18, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922445/position-paper-on-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-in-romania-2017-part-two
#18
Liana Gheorghe, Ioan Sporea, Speranta Iacob, Roxana Sirli, Anca Trifan, Mircea Diculescu, Carol Stanciu, Oliviu Pascu, Monica Acalovschi, Ciprian Brisc, Cristina Cijevschi, Cristian Gheorghe, Zeno Spârchez, Ion Rogoveanu, Daniela Dobru, Dan L Dumitrascu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common condition with endemic prevalence in some areas of the world. In Romania, the mean prevalence is about 3%. New treatments have become available on the market in recent years and new drugs are in the pipeline. A re-evaluation of HCV therapy was considered mandatory. The Romanian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology undertook this task for the practitioners of this country. METHODOLOGY: A group of recognized experts was created who screened the available literature and the major available guidelines...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922354/reconstructing-promoter-activity-from-lux-bioluminescent-reporters
#19
Mudassar Iqbal, Neil Doherty, Anna M L Page, Saara N A Qazi, Ishan Ajmera, Peter A Lund, Theodore Kypraios, David J Scott, Philip J Hill, Dov J Stekel
The bacterial Lux system is used as a gene expression reporter. It is fast, sensitive and non-destructive, enabling high frequency measurements. Originally developed for bacterial cells, it has also been adapted for eukaryotic cells, and can be used for whole cell biosensors, or in real time with live animals without the need for euthanasia. However, correct interpretation of bioluminescent data is limited: the bioluminescence is different from gene expression because of nonlinear molecular and enzyme dynamics of the Lux system...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922339/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-anaesthesia-related-perioperative-cardiac-arrest-a-6-year-observational-study-from-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital
#20
Andreas Hohn, Jan-Nicolas Machatschek, Jeremy Franklin, Stephan A Padosch
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the incidences of anaesthesia-related perioperative mortality and adverse outcomes have decreased drastically. However, to date, data on perioperative cardiac arrest and risk factors of perioperative cardiac arrest from European countries are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidences of perioperative cardiac arrest and rates of anaesthesia-related and anaesthesia-contributory cardiac arrest. Identification of pre-existing risk factors leading to perioperative cardiac arrest...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
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