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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938025/the-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-kshv-non-structural-membrane-protein-k15-is-required-for-viral-lytic-replication-and-may-represent-a-therapeutic-target
#1
Bizunesh Abere, Tamrat M Mamo, Silke Hartmann, Naira Samarina, Elias Hage, Jessica Rückert, Sven-Kevin Hotop, Guntram Büsche, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious cause of the highly vascularized tumor Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which is characterized by proliferating spindle cells of endothelial origin, extensive neo-angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrates. The KSHV K15 protein contributes to the angiogenic and invasive properties of KSHV-infected endothelial cells. Here, we asked whether K15 could also play a role in KSHV lytic replication. Deletion of the K15 gene from the viral genome or its depletion by siRNA lead to reduced virus reactivation, as evidenced by the decreased expression levels of KSHV lytic proteins RTA, K-bZIP, ORF 45 and K8...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932365/causal-role-of-infectious-agents-in-cancer-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Jila Masrour-Roudsari, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Cancer is a complex group of diseases with multiple eventual causes. The underlying causes are not fully known. Thus, learning more about the known causes of cancer is an important issue. Moreover, among these factors, infection and its association to cancers is controversial. Although, it seems that the genome instability of the cells can initiate cancer development. The purpose of this review was to present the role of infection in the development of cancer. Infectious agents, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922425/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#3
Prabha Shrestha, David A Davis, Ravindra P Veeranna, Robert F Carey, Coralie Viollet, Robert Yarchoan
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Previous studies have revealed that HIF-1α, which mediates much of the cellular response to hypoxia, plays an important role in life cycle of KSHV. KSHV infection promotes HIF-1α activity, and several KSHV genes are in turn activated by HIF-1α. In this study, we investigated the effects of knocking down HIF-1α in PELs. We observed that HIF-1α knockdown in each of two PEL lines leads to a reduction in both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis as well as lipid biogenesis, indicating that HIF-1α is necessary for maintaining a metabolic state optimal for growth of PEL...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919987/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-influences-the-immune-tolerogenic-microenvironment-in-antiretroviral-therapy-refractory-kaposi-s-sarcoma-a-pilot-study
#4
Salvinia Mletzko, David J Pinato, Rebecca C Robey, Alessia Dalla Pria, Peter Benson, Nesrina Imami, Mark Bower
Upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a mechanism of immune escape utilized by a variety of tumors. PD-L1 expression in tumor cells or in the surrounding infiltrate correlates with clinical responsiveness to novel therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint. In the context of HIV-1 infection, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is largely responsive to restoration of immunity following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but there is a subset that is not. We hypothesized that this subset of cART-refractory KS may utilize the PD-L1 pathway of immune escape...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916317/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-8-hhv-8-dna-sequences-in-patients-with-lymphoproliferative-diseases-and-chronic-blood-disorders
#5
Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Maryam Esghaei, Farah Bokharaei Salim, Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari
OBJECTIVE: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), but it has also been associated with different hematologic malignancies, including plasmablastic lymphoma, Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and various atypical lymphoproliferative disorders. Patients with underlying lymphoproliferative diseases and chronic blood disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for human malignancies. This small study reported the frequency of human herpesvirus -8 in 81 Iranian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders for estimation of possible factors affecting malignancy...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913409/nonepidemic-kaposi-sarcoma-a-recently-proposed-category
#6
Tiffany Hinojosa, Daniel J Lewis, Melinda Liu, Gustavo Garza, Ramya Vangipuram, Elmira Ramos, Julio César Salas-Alanis, Zeena Y Nawas, Stephen K Tyring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: JAAD Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911256/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-patients-with-aids-and-disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Anandit Mu, Thwe Thwe Shein, Priya Jayachandran, Simon Paul
Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, and dissemination is frequent in patients with impaired cellular immunity such as AIDS. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is paradoxical clinical worsening after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a patient with HIV and a simultaneous opportunistic infection (OI). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been well described for a host of mycobacterial, viral, and fungal OIs and malignancies such as Kaposi sarcoma...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911125/differences-in-survival-among-adults-with-hiv-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-during-routine-hiv-treatment-initiation-in-zomba-district-malawi-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#8
Emmanuel Singogo, Thomas J Keegan, Peter J Diggle, Monique van Lettow, Alfred Matengeni, Joep J van Oosterhout, Sumeet Sodhi, Martias Joshua, Benjamin M Taylor
Background: The HIV epidemic is a major public health concern throughout Africa. Malawi is one of the worst affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a 2014 national HIV prevalence currently estimated at 10% (9.3-10.8%) by UNAIDS. Study reports, largely in the African setting comparing outcomes in HIV patients with and without Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) indicate poor prognosis and poor health outcomes amongst HIV+KS patients. Understanding the mortality risk in this patient group could help improve patient management and care...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910389/cross-species-conservation-of-episome-maintenance-provides-a-basis-for-in-vivo-investigation-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-herpesvirus-lana
#9
Aline C Habison, Marta Pires de Miranda, Chantal Beauchemin, Min Tan, Sofia A Cerqueira, Bruno Correia, Rajesh Ponnusamy, Edward J Usherwood, Colin E McVey, J Pedro Simas, Kenneth M Kaye
Many pathogens, including Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), lack tractable small animal models. KSHV persists as a multi-copy, nuclear episome in latently infected cells. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) binds viral terminal repeat (kTR) DNA to mediate episome persistence. Model pathogen murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) mLANA acts analogously on mTR DNA. kLANA and mLANA differ substantially in size and kTR and mTR show little sequence conservation. Here, we find kLANA and mLANA act reciprocally to mediate episome persistence of TR DNA...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904666/detection-of-human-herpes-virus-8-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-tissues-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-lusaka-zambia
#10
Rabecca Tembo, Trevor Kaile, Doris Kafita, Chrispin Chisanga, Annie Kalonda, Ephraim Zulu, Mulemba Samutela, Pascal Polepole, Geoffrey Kwenda
INTRODUCTION: Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904200/epstein-barr-virus-bkrf4-gene-product-is-required-for-efficient-progeny-production
#11
H M Abdullah Al Masud, Takahiro Watanabe, Masahiro Yoshida, Yoshitaka Sato, Fumi Goshima, Hiroshi Kimura, Takayuki Murata
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly B cells. EBV has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. To combat EBV-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV lytic replication cycle is also important. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic gene, BKRF4. Using our anti-BKRF4 antibody, we revealed that the BKRF4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle with late kinetics...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900786/the-pattern-of-secondary-cancers-in-patients-with-kaposi-sarcoma-in-the-united-states
#12
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Parita Soni, Charalampos S Floudas, Chiemeziem Nwanyanwu, Abhinav Chandra
PURPOSE: In the U.S., Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs mostly in HIV-infected patients, who are also at increased risk of developing secondary cancers. The trends in secondary cancer risk are unclear in the HAART era. METHODS: We extracted data from the SEER database on patients diagnosed with KS between 1981 and 2013, stratified into the pre-HAART (1981-1995) and HAART (1996-2013) eras. We compared the risk of secondary cancer in KS patients and the general population, and estimated the absolute risk...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900468/cancer-of-childhood-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Stefan, Freddie Bray, Jacques Ferlay, Biying Liu, D Maxwell Parkin
Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898712/inhibition-of-the-lytic-cycle-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-by-cohesin-factors-following-de-novo-infection
#14
Zsolt Toth, Richard J Smindak, Bernadett Papp
Establishment of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency following infection is a multistep process, during which polycomb proteins are recruited onto the KSHV genome, which is crucial for the genome-wide repression of lytic genes during latency. Strikingly, only a subset of lytic genes are expressed transiently in the early phase of infection prior to the binding of polycomb proteins onto the KSHV genome, which raises the question what restricts lytic gene expression in the first hours of infection...
September 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893942/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893934/tumour-viruses-and-innate-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Sharon E Hopcraft, Blossom Damania
Host cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an innate immune response. PRRs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. PRR activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. Human tumour viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and Merkel cell polyomavirus, are detected by several different PRRs...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#17
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886932/human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-giant-conjunctival-kaposi-s-sarcoma-complete-remission-with-antiretroviral-therapy-and-systemic-chemotherapy
#18
Y W Eduardo-Sánchez, D Fernández-Agrafojo
CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male patient with a large unilateral haemorrhagic conjunctival tumour lesion and another contralateral haemorrhagic conjunctival flat lesion associated with violaceous cutaneous macules on the extremities and angiomatous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract as initial clinical manifestation of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Cutaneous, gastric mucosal and conjunctival biopsy was consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma with complete remission after highly active antiretroviral therapy and systemic chemotherapy...
September 5, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881567/restoration-of-immune-surface-molecules-in-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-infected-cells-by-lenalidomide-and-pomalidomide
#19
David A Davis, Suraj Mishra, Holda A Anagho, Ashley I Aisabor, Prabha Shrestha, Victoria Wang, Yuki Takamatsu, Kenji Maeda, Hiroaki Mitsuya, Jerome B Zeldis, Robert Yarchoan
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the cause of several tumors, including Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Most viruses have evolved means of escaping immune recognition. KSHV downregulates MHC-I expression during lytic infection, and expression of ICAM-1 and B7-2 (CD86) during latent infection, allowing evasion of T cell and natural killer immunity respectively. These effects are largely mediated by two KSHV-encoded proteins, K3 and K5. We show here that lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) prevent down-regulation of MHC-I during lytic activation, and restore ICAM-1 and B7-2 surface expression in latently infected PEL cells...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878084/human-herpesvirus-8-interleukin-6-interacts-with-calnexin-cycle-components-and-promotes-protein-folding
#20
Daming Chen, Qiwang Xiang, John Nicholas
Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
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