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Mahesh K B Parmar, John Strang, Louise Choo, Angela M Meade, Sheila M Bird
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used for emergency resuscitation following opioid overdose. Prisoners with a history of heroin injection have a high risk of drug-related death soon after release from prison. The N-ALIVE pilot trial (ISRCTN34044390) tested feasibility measures for randomized provision of naloxone-on-release (NOR) to eligible prisoners in England. DESIGN: Parallel group randomized controlled pilot trial. SETTING: English prisons...
October 24, 2016: Addiction
Simon Bordage, Thanh-Nhat Pham, Andy Zedet, Anne-Sophie Gugglielmetti, Maude Nappey, Céline Demougeot, Corine Girard-Thernier
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites which possess many positive effects on human health. Although these beneficial effects could be mediated through an increase in nitric oxide synthase activity, little is known regarding the inhibitory effect of polyphenols on mammal arginase, an enzyme which competes with nitric oxide synthase for their common substrate, L-arginine. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential of a series of polyphenols as mammalian arginase inhibitors and to identify some structure-activity relationships...
October 24, 2016: Planta Medica
Shaoyun Zhang, Bin Xu, Qiang Huang, Huan Yao, Jinwei Xie, Fuxing Pei
There is no consensus as to whether drainage tube should be used and how long it should remain in use after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As fast-track (FT) program has been implemented in TKA, whether drainage tube could be removed early, and the ideal timing for removal after FT primary TKA has been a new topic. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of early removal of drainage tube when FT program was implemented in primary TKA. A total of 101 patients undergoing FT primary TKA were prospectively allocated into three groups...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Joon Oh Park, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Chia-Jui Yen, Masatoshi Kudo, Ling Yang, Paolo B Abada, Rebecca Cheng, Mauro Orlando, Andrew X Zhu, Takuji Okusaka
PURPOSE: REACH investigated second-line ramucirumab therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: Median overall survival was 8.2 months for ramucirumab and 6.9 months for placebo (HR, 0.835; 95% CI, 0.634-1.100; p = 0.2046) for East Asians, and 10.1 months for ramucirumab and 8.0 months for placebo (HR, 0.895; 95% CI, 0.690-1.161; p = 0.4023) for non-East Asians. Median overall survival in patients with baseline alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL was 7.8 months for ramucirumab and 4...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Kun-Ling Tsai, Ching-Hsia Hung, Shih-Hung Chan, Jhih-Yuan Shih, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Yi-Ju Tsai, Huei-Chen Lin, Pei-Ming Chu
Atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Oxidative transformations in the lipid and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) constituent of low density lipoprotein drive the initial step in atherogenesis due to macrophage scavenger receptors identify oxidized LDL (oxLDL) but non-oxidized LDL. The human vascular endothelial cells fact a critical role in vasodilation, provides a nonadhesive surface for circulation, reduces vascular smooth muscle proliferation, inflammation, thrombus formation and platelet aggregation...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Lorenz Jahn, Dirk M van der Steen, Renate S Hagedoorn, Pleun Hombrink, Michel G D Kester, Marjolein P Schoonakker, Daniëlle de Ridder, Peter A van Veelen, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Mirjam H M Heemskerk
Immunotherapy of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma with CD20-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated clinical efficacy. However, the emergence of unresponsive disease due to low or absent cell surface CD20 urges the need to develop additional strategies. In contrast to mAbs, T-cells via their T-cell receptor (TCR) can recognize not only extracellular but also intracellular antigens in the context of HLA molecules. We hypothesized that T-cells equipped with high affinity CD20-targeting TCRs would be able to recognize B-cell malignancies even in the absence of extracellular CD20...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Varsha B Gujar, Divya Ottoor
Behavior of Amiloride (AMI) as a metal ion sensor in anionic surfactant assemblies of varying concentrations at different pH is depicted in this work. From a non-sensor fluorophore, AMI has been transformed in to a tunable fluorosensor for Cu(2+) ions in various SDS concentrations. At premicellar concentration of SDS, ion-pair complex is expected to be formed between AMI and SDS due to electrostatic interactions between them. However at CMC concentrations of SDS, fluorescence intensity of AMI is greatly enhanced with red shift in emission, due to the incorporation of AMI molecule in the hydrophobic micellar interface...
October 18, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Chang-Gui Pan, You-Sheng Liu, Guang-Guo Ying
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
E Sawicki, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, B Nuijen
Dissolution from the pharmaceutical formulation is a prerequisite for complete and consistent absorption of any orally administered drug, including anticancer agents (oncolytics). Poor dissolution of an oncolytic can result in low oral bioavailability, high variability in blood concentrations and with that suboptimal or even failing therapy. This review discusses pharmaceutical formulation aspects and absorption pharmacokinetics of currently licensed orally administered oncolytics. In nearly half of orally dosed oncolytics poor dissolution is likely to play a major role in low and unpredictable absorption...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Emily Morgan, Roger Levy
We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
E J Bluett, E B Lee, M Simone, G Lockhart, M P Twohig, Tera Lensegrav-Benson, Benita Quakenbush-Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether pre-treatment levels of psychological flexibility would longitudinally predict quality of life and eating disorder risk in patients at a residential treatment facility for eating disorders. METHOD: Data on body image psychological flexibility, quality of life, and eating disorder risk were collected from 63 adolescent and 50 adult, female, residential patients (N=113) diagnosed with an eating disorder. These same measures were again collected at post-treatment...
October 19, 2016: Eating Behaviors
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
K Anand, C Tiloke, A Phulukdaree, B Ranjan, A Chuturgoon, S Singh, R M Gengan
The biosynthesis of nanostructured biopalladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) from an aqueous solution of crystalline palladium acetate is reported. For the synthesised PdNPs in solution, an agroforest biomass waste petal of Moringa oleifera derived bis-phthalate was used as natural reducing and biocapping agents. Continuous absorption in the UV region and subsequent brown colour change confirmed the formation of PdNPs. A strong surface plasmon peak for PdNPs occurred at 460nm. PdNPs were characterized by SEM with EDX, FTIR, TEM and DLS...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Ji-Yuan Liang, Jun-Yun Wu, Ming-Yeh Yang, Anren Hu, Liang-Yü Chen
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechin is a flavan-3-ol with five phenolic hydroxyl groups. After blue light illumination, the transparent solution of catechin became yellowish. The effects of visible light illumination (400-800nm) were investigated on molecular structures and antioxidant capacities of catechin. Under the neutral or alkaline aqueous with the illumination of blue light, the photolysis and polymerization of catechin were observed in this study. A chromogenic catechin dimer was separated and identified as a proanthocyanidin by the chromatographic technique and mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Money Gupta, Rashi Chauhan, Yamuna Prasad, Gulshan Wadhwa, Chakresh Kumar Jain
The lack of complete treatments and appearance of multiple drug-resistance strains of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are causing an increased risk of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc infection is a big risk to human health and demands an urgent need to identify new therapeutics against these bacteria. Network biology has emerged as one of the prospective hope in identifying novel drug targets and hits. We have applied protein-protein interaction methodology to identify new drug-target candidates (orthologs) in Burkhloderia cepacia GG4, which is an important strain for studying the quorum-sensing phenomena...
October 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Sterling L Karakula, Roger D Weiss, Margaret L Griffin, Allison M Borges, Allen J Bailey, R Kathryn McHugh
BACKGROUND: Among those with opioid use disorder, heroin use is associated with poorer prognosis relative to use of prescription opioids alone. However, relatively little is known about distinguishing features between those who use heroin relative to those who use prescription opioids. In the present study we evaluated differences in delay discounting in those with opioid use disorder based on primary opioid of use. Delay discounting is associated with a range of negative outcomes and is an important therapeutic target in this population...
October 17, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Insiya B Poonawalla, David S Balis, Michael S Businelle
INTRODUCTION: Individuals who use the nicotine patch are more likely to quit smoking than those who receive placebo or no medication. However, studies have not yet examined the association between actual daily nicotine patch wear time during the early phase of a smoking cessation attempt and later smoking abstinence. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: Participants who enrolled in a safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed for 13 weeks (i...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Xia Song, Yuting Wen, Jing-Ling Zhu, Feng Zhao, Zhongxing Zhang, Jun Li
Paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, is facing several clinical limitations such as low bioavailability and drug resistance. To solve the problems, a well-defined b-cyclodextrin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) star polymer was synthesized and used as a nanocarrier to improve the water solubility and aim to thermoresponsive delivery of PTX to cancer cells. The star polymer was able to form supramolecular self-assembled inclusion complex with PTX via host-guest interaction at room temperature, which is below the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of the star polymer, significantly improving the solubilization of PTX...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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