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Tamsin J Garrod, Wendy J Babidge, Susan Pleass, Ian C Bennett, David F Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
A A Salifu, C Lekakou, F Labeed
Multilayer cellular stacks of crosslinked, electrospun 25 wt% hydroxyapatite (HA)-gelatin and pure gelatin fiber scaffolds, seeded with human foetal osteoblasts (hFOBs), were studied for up to 18 days in static and dynamic cell culture. Two types of stack models were investigated: a four-layer stack with cells seeded at the bottom surface of the first/top layer and the top surface of the fourth/bottom layer, so that the two middle layers were not seeded with cells with the aim to act as continuing conduits of culture medium and nutrients supply to the adjacent cell-populated zones; a three-layer stack with cells seeded at the bottom surface of each layer...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
B K Singleton, M Ahmed, C A Green, H Heimpel, M J Woźniak, L Ranjha, F Seeney, A Bomford, P Mehta, A Guest, R Mushens, M-J King
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow examination has been the confirmatory test for congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII). Occasional spherocytes on peripheral blood smear can confound the diagnosis. Since a screening test is still unavailable, we explored the feasibility of using flow cytometry as a preliminary screening method. METHODS: Thirteen monoclonal antibodies with specificities for eight erythrocyte membrane proteins were used in FACS analysis to probe the cellular features of red cells from CDAII, normal adults, hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and cord red cells...
October 26, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Takamichi Kanbayashi, Takaharu Yamauchi, Yosuke Miyaji, Masahiro Sonoo
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that stimulation occurs at the anode of stimulating electrodes instead of anodal block. This phenomenon may become a pitfall in F-wave examinations. METHODS: Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers. Their ulnar nerve was stimulated at the wrist with the cathode placed distally. Antidromic impulses were evaluated using the mixed nerve action potential (MNAP) at the elbow. RESULTS: Anodal stimulation occurred for both sensory and motor fibers at 22 mm proximal to the anode on average, which may theoretically shorten the F-wave latency by about 0...
October 26, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
D Kreye, B John, J-F Chenot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
J B Hinrichs, T Werncke, T Kaireit, M M Hoeper, K M Olsson, J C Kamp, F K Wacker, F Bengel, C von Falck, I Schatka, B C Meyer
Purpose: To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). Materials and Methods: 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62 ± 18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT)...
October 26, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Ji Yi, Zhen Puyang, Liang Feng, Lian Duan, Peiji Liang, Vadim Backman, Xiaorong Liu, Hao F Zhang
Purpose: Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy (ELBS) has exquisite sensitivity to the ultrastructural properties of tissue and thus has been applied to detect various diseases associated with ultrastructural alterations in their early stages. This study aims to test whether ELBS can detect early damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods: We used a mouse model of partial optic nerve crush (pONC) to induce rapid RGC death. We confirmed RGC loss by axon counting and characterized the changes in retinal morphology by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and in retinal function by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jarrod D Frizzell, Li Liang, Phillip J Schulte, Clyde W Yancy, Paul A Heidenreich, Adrian F Hernandez, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg C Fonarow, Warren K Laskey
Importance: Several attempts have been made at developing models to predict 30-day readmissions in patients with heart failure, but none have sufficient discriminatory capacity for clinical use. Machine-learning (ML) algorithms represent a novel approach and may have potential advantages over traditional statistical modeling. Objective: To develop models using a ML approach to predict all-cause readmissions 30 days after discharge from a heart failure hospitalization and to compare ML model performance with models developed using "conventional" statistically based methods...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Cinthia C Stempin, Claudia C Motrán, María P Aoki, Cristian R Falcón, Fabio M Cerbán, Laura Cervi
Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Timothy J Ritchie, Simon J F Macdonald
The impact of replacing a mono-substituted benzene (phenyl) ring with thirty three aromatic and nine aliphatic heterocycles on nine ADME-related screens (solubility, lipophilicity, permeability, protein binding CYP450 inhibition and metabolic clearance) was assessed using matched molecular pair analysis. The results indicate that the influence on the ADME profile can differ significantly depending on the ring identity and importantly on the individual regioisomers that are possible for some rings. This information enables the medicinal chemist to make an informed choice about which rings and regioisomers to employ as mono-substituted benzene replacements, based upon the knowledge of how such replacements are likely to influence ADME-related parameters, for example to target higher solubility whilst avoiding CYP450 liabilities...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Judd F Hultquist, Kathrin Schumann, Jonathan M Woo, Lara Manganaro, Michael J McGregor, Jennifer Doudna, Viviana Simon, Nevan J Krogan, Alexander Marson
New genetic tools are needed to understand the functional interactions between HIV and human host factors in primary cells. We recently developed a method to edit the genome of primary CD4(+) T cells by electroporation of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Here, we adapted this methodology to a high-throughput platform for the efficient, arrayed editing of candidate host factors. CXCR4 or CCR5 knockout cells generated with this method are resistant to HIV infection in a tropism-dependent manner, whereas knockout of LEDGF or TNPO3 results in a tropism-independent reduction in infection...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Eloi R Verrier, Che C Colpitts, Charlotte Bach, Laura Heydmann, Laetitia Zona, Fei Xiao, Christine Thumann, Emilie Crouchet, Raphaël Gaudin, Camille Sureau, François-Loïc Cosset, Jane A McKeating, Patrick Pessaux, Yujin Hoshida, Catherine Schuster, Mirjam B Zeisel, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Katarzyna Modzelewska, Elena F Boer, Timothy L Mosbruger, Daniel Picard, Daniela Anderson, Rodney R Miles, Mitchell Kroll, William Oslund, Theodore J Pysher, Joshua D Schiffman, Randy Jensen, Cicely A Jette, Annie Huang, Rodney A Stewart
Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the CNS (CNS-PNETs) are particularly aggressive embryonal tumors of unknown cellular origin. Recent genomic studies have classified CNS-PNETs into molecularly distinct subgroups that promise to improve diagnosis and treatment; however, the lack of cell- or animal-based models for these subgroups prevents testing of rationally designed therapies. Here, we show that a subset of CNS-PNETs co-express oligoneural precursor cell (OPC) markers OLIG2 and SOX10 with coincident activation of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
C Buratti, F Fantozzi, M Barbanera, E Lascaro, M Chiorri, L Cecchini
Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Karolina A Majorek, Tomasz Osinski, David T Tran, Alina Revilla, Wayne F Anderson, Wladek Minor, Misty L Kuhn
Members of Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily catalyze the acetylation of a wide range of small molecule and protein substrates. Due to their abundance in all kingdoms of life and diversity of their functions, they are implicated in many aspects of eukaryotic and prokaryotic physiology. Although numerous GNATs have been identified thus far, many remain structurally and functionally uncharacterized. The elucidation of their structures and functions is critical for broadening our knowledge of this diverse and important superfamily...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eelco F M Wijdicks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
F Pelin Kinik, Cigdem Altintas, Volkan Balci, Burak Koyuturk, Alper Uzun, Seda Keskin
Experiments were combined with atomically-detailed simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the effect of incorporation of an ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), into a metal organic framework (MOF with a zeolitic imidazolate framework), ZIF-8, on the CO2 separation performance. The interactions between [BMIM][PF6] and ZIF-8 were examined in deep detail and their consequences on CO2/CH4, CO2/N2, and CH4/N2 separation have been elucidated by using experimental measurements complemented by DFT calculations and atomically-detailed simulations...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lauren B Cooper, Xiaojuan Mi, Robert J Mentz, Jennifer B Green, Kevin J Anstrom, Adrian F Hernandez, Lesley H Curtis
BACKGROUND: Several diabetes mellitus (DM) therapies are associated with worse heart failure (HF) outcomes, yet limited data exist characterizing routine DM management based on HF status. HYPOTHESIS: DM medications prescribed for patients with HF will differ in meaningful ways from patients without HF, and co-morbidities will impact the choice of medications prescribed. METHODS: Using Medicare fee-for-service claims data, we identified patients with newly treated DM between 2008 and 2011 and used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between baseline HF status and DM medication use...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
G F Gebhart, Klaus Bielefeldt
Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Peripheral nerve injury can have a potentially devastating impact on a patient's quality of life, resulting in severe disability with substantial social and personal cost. Refined microsurgical techniques, advances in peripheral nerve topography, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular basis of nerve injury have all led to a decisive leap forward in the field of translational neurophysiology. Nerve repair, nerve grafting, and nerve transfers have improved significantly with consistently better functional outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
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