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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151280/oral-nutritional-supplementation-in-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis-a-randomised-crossover-pilot-study
#1
Karen M Salamon, Kelly Lambert
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a significant problem in those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Factors such as gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the need for a fluid reduced diet can limit tolerance and thereby the efficacy of oral nutritional supplements to treat malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acceptability and impact of two different forms of oral nutrition supplementation for 16 weeks on nutritional markers and quality of life of malnourished patients undergoing PD...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151277/mammalian-mitophagy-from-in-vitro-molecules-to-in-vivo-models
#2
REVIEW
Catherine E Rodger, Thomas G McWilliams, Ian G Ganley
The autophagic turnover of mitochondria, termed mitophagy, is thought to play an essential role in not only maintaining the health of the mitochondrial network, but also that of the cell and organism as a whole. We have come a long way in identifying the molecular components required for mitophagy through extensive in vitro work and cell line characterisation, yet the physiological significance and context of these pathways remains largely unexplored. This is highlighted by the recent development of new mouse models that have revealed a striking level of variation in mitophagy, even under normal conditions...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151266/crystal-structure-and-catalytic-characterization-of-the-dehydrogenase-reductase-sdr-family-member-4-dhrs4-from-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Michael Kisiela, Annette Faust, Bettina Ebert, Edmund Maser, Axel J Scheidig
The human dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 (DHRS4) is a tetrameric protein that is involved in the metabolism of several aromatic carbonyl compounds, steroids and bile acids. The only invertebrate DHRS4 that has been characterized to date is that from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We have previously cloned and initially characterized this protein that was recently annotated as DHRS4_CAEEL in the UniProtKB database. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of the full-length DHRS4_CAEEL protein in complex with diacetyl revealed its tetrameric structure and showed that two subunits are connected via an intermolecular disulfide bridge that is formed by N-terminal cysteine residues (Cys5) of each protein chain, which increases the enzymatic activity...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151263/a-reference-free-stockholder-partitioning-method-based-on-the-force-on-electrons
#4
Stijn Fias, Farnaz Heidar-Zadeh, James S M Anderson, Paul W Ayers, Robert G Parr
We argue that when one divides a molecular property into atom-in-a-molecule contributions, one should perform the division based on the property density of the quantity being partitioned. This is opposition to the normal approach, where the electron density is given a privileged role in defining the properties of atoms-in-a-molecule. Because partitioning each molecular property based on its own property density is inconvenient, we design a reference-free approach that does not (directly) refer atomic property densities...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151259/exat-excitonic-analysis-tool
#5
Sandro Jurinovich, Lorenzo Cupellini, Ciro A Guido, Benedetta Mennucci
We introduce EXcitonic Analysis Tool (EXAT), a program able to compute optical spectra of large excitonic systems directly from the output of quantum mechanical calculations performed with the popular Gaussian 16 package. The software is able to combine in an excitonic scheme the single-chromophore properties and exciton couplings to simulate energies, coefficients, and excitonic spectra (UV-vis, CD, and LD). The effect of the environment can also be included using a Polarizable Continuum Model. EXAT also presents a simple graphical user interface, which shows on-screen both site and exciton properties...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151250/mudskipper-boleophthalmus-pectinirostris-hepcidin-1-and-hepcidin-2-present-different-gene-expression-profile-and-antibacterial-activity-and-possess-distinct-protective-effect-against-edwardsiella-tarda-infection
#6
Jie Chen, Li Nie, Jiong Chen
Hepcidins are small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in fish immunity against pathogens. Most fish species have two or more hepcidin homologs that have distinct functions. This study investigated the immune functions of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) hepcidin-1 (BpHep-1) and hepcidin-2 (BpHep-2) in vitro and in vivo. Upon infection with Edwardsiella tarda, the expression of BpHep-1 and BpHep-2 mRNA in immune tissues was significantly upregulated, but the expression profiles were different...
November 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151244/identification-of-rare-noncoding-sequence-variants-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptor-alpha-4-subunit-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Anthony J Griswold, Derek Van Booven, Michael L Cuccaro, Jonathan L Haines, John R Gilbert, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
Alterations of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system has been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genetic associations of common variants in GABA receptor subunits, in particular GABRA4 on chromosome 4p12, with ASD have been replicated by several studies. Moreover, molecular investigations have identified altered transcriptional and translational levels of this gene and protein in brains of ASD individuals. Since the genotyped common variants are likely not the functional variants contributing to the molecular consequences or underlying ASD phenotype, this study aims to examine rare sequence variants in GABRA4, including those outside the protein coding regions of the gene...
November 18, 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151220/high-efficiency-expression-of-yeast-derived-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-19-f-labeling-for-dynamical-studies
#8
Libin Ye, Alexander P Orazietti, Aditya Pandey, R Scott Prosser
We describe a detailed protocol for heterologous expression of the human adenosine A2A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), using Pichia pastoris. Details are also provided for the reconstitution and functional purification steps. Yields of 2-6 mg/g membrane were obtained prior to functional purification (ligand column purification). Typically, functional purification reduced overall yields by a factor of 2-4, resulting in final functional production of 0.5-3 mg/L membrane. Yeast is an excellent protein expression system for NMR given its high tolerance for isotope-enriched solvents and its ability to grow in minimal media...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151219/implementation-of-the-nmr-chemical-shift-covariance-analysis-chesca-a-chemical-biologist-s-approach-to-allostery
#9
Stephen Boulton, Rajeevan Selvaratnam, Rashik Ahmed, Giuseppe Melacini
Mapping allosteric sites is emerging as one of the central challenges in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is ideally suited to map allosteric sites, given its ability to sense at atomic resolution the dynamics underlying allostery. Here, we focus specifically on the NMR CHEmical Shift Covariance Analysis (CHESCA), in which allosteric systems are interrogated through a targeted library of perturbations (e.g., mutations and/or analogs of the allosteric effector ligand)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151215/protein-structure-elucidation-from-nmr-data-with-the-program-xplor-nih
#10
Guillermo A Bermejo, Charles D Schwieters
Xplor-NIH is a popular software package for biomolecular structure determination from NMR (and other) experimental data. This chapter illustrates its use with the de novo structure determination of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1), based on distances from nuclear Overhauser effects, torsion angles from scalar couplings, and bond-vector orientations from residual dipolar couplings. Including Xplor-NIH's latest developments, a complete structure calculation script is discussed in detail, and is intended to serve as a basis for other applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151205/filamentous-bacteriophage-viruses-preparation-magic-angle-spinning-solid-state-nmr-experiments-and-structure-determination
#11
Omry Morag, Nikolaos G Sgourakis, Gili Abramov, Amir Goldbourt
Filamentous bacteriophages are elongated semi-flexible viruses that infect bacteria. They consist of a circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) wrapped by a capsid consisting of thousands of copies of a major coat protein subunit. Given the increasing number of discovered phages and the existence of only a handful of structures, the development of methods for phage structure determination is valuable for biophysics and structural virology. In recent years, we developed and applied techniques to elucidate the 3D atomic-resolution structures of intact bacteriophages using experimental magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR data...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151196/oral-cancer-radiotherapy-affects-enamel-microhardness-and-associated-indentation-pattern-morphology
#12
R Seyedmahmoud, Y Wang, G Thiagarajan, J P Gorski, R Reed Edwards, J D McGuire, M P Walker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of in vitro and in vivo high-dose radiotherapy on microhardness and associated indentation pattern morphology of enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inner, middle, and outer microhardness of enamel was evaluated using three experimental groups: control (non-radiated); in vitro irradiated; in vivo irradiated. In vitro specimens were exposed to simulated radiotherapy, and in vivo specimens were extracted teeth from oral cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151195/risk-factors-in-preschool-children-for-predicting-asthma-during-the-preschool-age-and-the-early-school-age-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Yixia Bao, Zhimin Chen, Enmei Liu, Li Xiang, Deyu Zhao, Jianguo Hong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children < 6 years old (preschool age) for predicting asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). METHOD OF THE STUDY: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age...
November 18, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151187/spatial-distributions-of-hexachlorobutadiene-in-agricultural-soils-from-the-yangtze-river-delta-region-of-china
#14
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Yu Zhan, Lizhong Zhu
Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention and poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. To reveal the regional-scale pollution status of HCBD in agricultural soils from fast-developing areas, an extensive investigation was conducted in the core Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. The detectable concentrations of HCBD in 241 soil samples ranged from 0.07 to 8.47 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 0.32 ng g(-1) and a detection rate of 59...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151185/mercury-in-organs-of-pacific-walruses-odobenus-rosmarus-divergens-from-the-bering-sea
#15
Alexey M Trukhin, Mikhail V Simokon
The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) is still used as an important source of protein-rich food by indigenous peoples of Chukotka, Alaska, and other Arctic regions. Total mercury (THg) concentration was measured in eight internal organs of walruses. Samples were taken from 22 individuals (11 males and 11 females). Age of the animals ranged from 1 to 30 years. All the walruses were harvested by local hunters from the coastal waters off the Chukchi Peninsula (Russia) during the autumn of 2011. Total mercury concentration in the samples was determined by atomic absorption method...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151182/electrical-cardioversion-of-patients-with-implanted-pacemaker-or-cardioverter-defibrillator-results-of-a-survey-of-german-centers-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
J Lüker, A Sultan, T Plenge, J van den Bruck, C-H Heeger, S Meyer, K Mischke, R R Tilz, D Vollmann, G Nölker, B Schäffer, S Willems, D Steven
AIMS: A relevant number of patients presenting for electrical cardioversion carry a pacemaker (PM) or ICD. Case reports suggest a potential hazard of external cardioversion/defibrillation. The incidence of shock related device complications is unknown. No guidelines or recommendations by international medical societies for a cardioversion protocol of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) patients exist. We conducted a nationwide survey to gather real-world clinical data on the current clinical approach towards these patients during electrical cardioversion and to estimate the incidence of shock-related complications...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151160/tolerance-improvement-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-on-lignocellulose-derived-inhibitors-by-adaptive-evolution
#17
Xia Wang, Imrana Khushk, Yanqiu Xiao, Qiuqiang Gao, Jie Bao
Robustness of fermenting strains to lignocellulose derived inhibitors is critical for efficient biofuel and biochemical productions. In this study, the industrial fermenting strain Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114 was evolved for improved inhibitor tolerance using long-term adaptive evolution by continuously transferring into the inhibitors containing corn stover hydrolysate every 24 h, and finally a stably evolved C. glutamicum was obtained after 128 days of serial transfers. The evolved strain exhibited the highly increased conversion rate to the typical lignocellulose derived inhibitors including furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and acetic acid...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151159/enhanced-catalytic-efficiency-and-enantioselectivity-of-epoxide-hydrolase-from-agrobacterium-radiobacter-ad1-by-iterative-saturation-mutagenesis-for-r-epichlorohydrin-synthesis
#18
Shu-Ping Zou, Yu-Guo Zheng, Qun Wu, Zhi-Cai Wang, Ya-Ping Xue, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Enantioselective hydrolysis of epoxides by epoxide hydrolase (EH) is one of the most attractive approaches for the synthesis of chiral epoxides. So far, attempts to develop an efficient epoxide hydrolase -mediated biotransformation have been limited by either the low activity or insufficient enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolase. In this study, iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) of epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (ArEH) was performed for efficient production of (R)-epichlorohydrin...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151153/-2e-6z-9z-2-6-9-pentadecatrienal-as-a-male-produced-aggregation-sex-pheromone-of-the-cerambycid-beetle-elaphidion-mucronatum
#19
Jocelyn G Millar, Robert F Mitchell, Linnea R Meier, Todd D Johnson, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the volatile pheromones of cerambycid beetles are much more diverse in structure than previously hypothesized. Here, we describe the identification, synthesis, and field testing of (2E,6Z,9Z)-2,6,9-pentadecatrienal as a male-produced aggregation-sex pheromone of the cerambycid Elaphidion mucronatum (Say) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Elaphidiini). This novel structure is unlike any previously described cerambycid pheromone, and in field bioassays attracted only this species...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151145/pendimethalin-induces-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-trigger-apoptosis-in-human-lymphocytes-and-rat-bone-marrow-cells
#20
Sabiha M Ansari, Quaiser Saquib, Sabry M Attia, Eslam M Abdel-Salam, Hend A Alwathnani, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Javed Musarrat
Pendimethalin (PM) is a dinitroaniline herbicide extensively applied against the annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. There is no report available on PM-induced low-dose genotoxicity in human primary cells and in vivo test models. Such data gap has prompted us to evaluate the genotoxic potential of PM in human lymphocytes and rats. PM selectively binds in the minor groove of DNA by forming covalent bonds with G and C nitrogenous bases, as well as with the ribose sugar. PM induces micronucleus formation (MN) in human lymphocytes, indicating its clastogenic potential...
November 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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