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Seung Jae Lee, Eun-Mi Jeong, Ah Young Ki, Kyung-Seo Oh, Joseph Kwon, Jae-Hyuk Jeong, Nam-Jin Chung
High salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects the growth and development of plants. This type of stress can influence flowering, the production of crops, defense mechanisms and other physiological processes. Previous studies have attempted to elucidate salt-tolerance mechanisms to improve plant growth and productivity in the presence of sodium chloride. One such plant that has been studied in detail is Salicornia, a well-known halophyte, which has adapted to grow in the presence of high salt. To further the understanding of how Salicornia grows and develops under high saline conditions, Salicornia herbacea (S...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Priya Mishra, Updesh Dixit, Ashutosh K Pandey, Alok Upadhyay, Virendra N Pandey
We recently identified a cell-factor, ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp-1), which specifically interacts with the viral RNA genome and modulates HCV replication and translation. Ebp1 has two isoforms, p48, and p42, that result from differential splicing. We found that both isoforms interact with HCV proteins NS5A and NS5B, as well as cell-factor PKR. The p48 isoform, which localizes in the cytoplasm and nuclei, promoted HCV replication, whereas the shorter p42 isoform, which resides exclusively in the cytoplasm, strongly inhibited HCV replication...
October 19, 2016: Virology
K Holstein, A Batorova, M Carvalho, K Fijnvandraat, P Holme, K Kavakli, T Lambert, A Rocino, V Jiménez-Yuste, J Astermark
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitor development in people with haemophilia is a serious complication that may require intensive and costly interventions. The goal of inhibitor management should be permanent inhibitor eradication through immune tolerance induction (ITI), but well-designed studies are lacking and the management of patients is therefore defined by the experience and views of the clinician. OBJECTIVES: To explore the current clinical practice and outcome of ITI therapy in Europe and how this may have changed over the last decade, as well as to provide consensus recommendations to guide clinicians in their clinical practice...
October 15, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Carol Chu, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Fallon B Ringer-Moberg, Matthew C Podlogar, Jameson K Hirsch, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a robust correlate of suicidal ideation and behavior. Preliminary research has identified thwarted belongingness (c.f. social disconnection) as an explanatory link between insomnia and suicidal ideation. OBJECTIVES: This study replicates and extends previous findings using both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs in four demographically diverse samples. Additionally, the specificity of thwarted belongingness was evaluated by testing anxiety as a rival mediator...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jesse Mez, Jaeyoon Chung, Gyungah Jun, Joshua Kriegel, Alexandra P Bourlas, Richard Sherva, Mark W Logue, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Joseph D Buxbaum, Goldie S Byrd, Paul K Crane, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Denis Evans, M Daniele Fallin, Tatiana Foroud, Alison Goate, Neill R Graff-Radford, Kathleen S Hall, M Ilyas Kamboh, Walter A Kukull, Eric B Larson, Jennifer J Manly, Jonathan L Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Gerard D Schellenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lindsay A Farrer
INTRODUCTION: African Americans' (AAs) late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) genetic risk profile is incompletely understood. Including clinical covariates in genetic analyses using informed conditioning might improve study power. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs employing informed conditioning in 1825 LOAD cases and 3784 cognitively normal controls. We derived a posterior liability conditioned on age, sex, diabetes status, current smoking status, educational attainment, and affection status, with parameters informed by external prevalence information...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Anastasia K Atabekova, Anna V Pankratenko, Svetlana S Makarova, Ekaterina A Lazareva, Robert A Owens, Andrey G Solovyev, Sergey Y Morozov
Human B-cell receptor-associated protein BAP31 (HsBAP31) is the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein involved in protein sorting and transport as well as pro-apoptotic signaling. Plant orthologs of HsBAP31 termed 'plant BAP-like proteins' (PBL proteins) have thus far remained unstudied. Recently, the PBL protein from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPBL) was identified as an interactor of Nt-4/1, a plant protein known to interact with plant virus movement proteins and affect the long-distance transport of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) via the phloem...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
D Lecca, D K Nevin, G Mulas, M A Casu, A Diana, D Rossi, G Sacchetti, A R Carta, D Fayne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
BanuPriya Sridharan, Amy D Laflin, Michael A Holtz, Donna M Pacicca, Nicholas K Wischmeier, Michael S Detamore
To date, many osteochondral regenerative approaches have utilized varied combinations of biocompatible materials and cells to engineer cartilage. Even in cell-based approaches, to date, no study has utilized stem cell aggregates alone for regenerating articular cartilage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel stem cell-based aggregate approach in a fibrin carrier to regenerate osteochondral defects in the Sprague-Dawley rat trochlear groove model. Two different densities of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC) aggregates were fabricated by the hanging drop technique...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
A Tiwari, H Luo, X Chen, P Singh, I Bhattacharya, P Jasper, J E Tolsma, H M Jones, A Zutshi, A K Abraham
Understanding pharmacological target coverage is fundamental in drug discovery and development as it helps establish a sequence of research activities, from laboratory objectives to clinical doses. To this end, we evaluated the impact of tissue target concentration data on the level of confidence in tissue coverage predictions using a site of action (SoA) model for antibodies. By fitting the model to increasing amounts of synthetic tissue data and comparing the uncertainty in SoA coverage predictions, we confirmed that, in general, uncertainty decreases with longitudinal tissue data...
October 22, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
K S Weber, K Strassburger, G Pacini, B Nowotny, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, C Herder, M Roden
AIMS: To examine the hypothesis that changes in serum adiponectin concentration inversely relate to changes in glucose tolerance and β-cell function already during the early stage of disease progression in recently diagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants in the prospective observational German Diabetes Study (Type 2 diabetes, n = 94; Type 1 diabetes, n =42) underwent i.v. glucose tolerance and glucagon stimulation testing to assess pre-hepatic β-cell function, glucose tolerance index and C-peptide secretion within the first year of diabetes diagnosis and 2 years later...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Arash Momeni, Suhail K Kanchwala
BACKGROUND: Autologous breast reconstruction is associated with long-term patient satisfaction that is superior to implant-based approaches. Occasionally, however, patients who desire autologous reconstruction present with inadequate donor-site volume. A hybrid approach, combining free flap reconstruction with simultaneous implant placement, is a solution. We present our experience with the use of mesh for improved pocket control using this reconstructive modality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction was performed...
October 22, 2016: Microsurgery
Daniel A Patten, Garrick K Wilson, Dalan Bailey, Robert K Shaw, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, Antal Rot, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Shishir Shetty
: The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Joanne E Brady, Danielle K Liffmann, Anthony Yartel, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, Joseph Kannry, Cynthia Jordan, Omar I Massoud, David R Nerenz, Kimberly A Brown, Bryce D Smith, Claudia Vellozzi, David B Rein
BACKGROUND: From December 2012-March 2014, three randomized trials, each implementing a unique intervention in primary care settings (mail recruitment [repeated-mailing], an electronic health record best practice alert [BPA], and patient-solicitation [patient-solicitation]), evaluated HCV antibody testing, diagnosis, and costs for each of the interventions compared to standard-of-care testing. Multilevel multivariable models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and costs were estimated using activity-based costing...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
G Kamkamidze, M Butsashvili, K Gendzekhadze
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Kajaia, M Butsashvili, L Gulbiani, Kh Khatiashvili, K Mindeli, N Osepaishvili, K Gordeladze, A Kobaek, G Kamkamidze
In 2014-2016, the Georgia Red Cross Society (GRCS) implemented a project to improve diabetes prevention, detection and care in rural Georgia, namely in the Gardabani district. The KAP survey was conducted to determine current levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diabetes among the general population in the Gardabani district. We compared current findings with baseline results from a 2014 survey to identify trends. A cross sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to select participants...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
X Yao, E A Stewart, S K Laughlin-Tommaso, H C Heien, B J Borah
OBJECTIVES: To report patterns and patient characteristics associated with initiation of and persistence with medical therapies for uterine fibroid-related heavy menstrual bleeding. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: US commercial insurance claims database. POPULATION: 41 561 women aged 18-54 years with uterine fibroids and heavy menstrual bleeding who initiated medical therapies from January 2000 through December 2013...
October 21, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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