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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922906/ethical-and-logistical-issues-raised-by-the-advanced-donation-program-pay-it-forward-scheme
#1
Lainie Friedman Ross, James R Rodrigue, Robert M Veatch
The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#2
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922886/intracranial-bypass-of-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-aneurysms-indications-technical-aspects-and-clinical-outcomes
#3
David J Bonda, Mohamad Labib, Jeffrey M Katz, Rafael A Ortiz, David Chalif, Avi Setton, David J Langer, Amir R Dehdashti
BACKGROUND: For some posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms, there is no constructive endovascular or direct surgical clipping option. Intracranial bypass is an alternative to a deconstructive technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features, surgical techniques, and outcome of PICA aneurysms treated with bypass and obliteration of the diseased segment. METHODS: Retrospective review of PICA aneurysms treated via intracranial bypass was performed...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922883/proximal-junctional-kyphosis-prevention-strategies-a-video-technique-guide
#4
Michael M Safaee, Joseph A Osorio, Kushagra Verma, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, Robert Hart, Vedat Deviren, Christopher P Ames
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized complication in patients undergoing posterior instrumented fusion procedures for adult spinal deformity. Strategies that reduce rates of PJK have the potential to improve the safety of these operations and decrease cost by eliminating the need for revision surgery. OBJECTIVE: To present a set of surgical techniques that can decrease rates of PJK in adults undergoing surgery for spinal deformity...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#5
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922875/stent-placement-for-disabling-pulsatile-tinnitus-caused-by-a-lateral-sinus-stenosis-a-retrospective-study
#6
Stéphanie Lenck, Marc-Antoine Labeyrie, Fabrice Vallee, Jean-Pierre Saint-Maurice, Antoine Guillonnet, Anne-Laure Bernat, Pierre Vironneau, Emmanuel Houdart
BACKGROUND: Lateral sinus stenosis is a little-known cause for pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In several small series, stenting has been described as an effective treatment for disabling PT linked with this type of stenosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical, radiological, and manometric characteristics of patients treated for disabling PT by lateral sinus stenosis. Assessment of the efficacy of stenting for this indication. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for isolated PT by stenting of a lateral sinus stenosis in our institution, between 2009 and 2015...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922874/noninvasive-transfontanelle-monitoring-of-the-intracerebral-pressure-in-comparison-with-an-invasive-intradural-intracranial-pressure-device-a-prospective-study
#7
Bedjan Behmanesh, Marco Bartels, Florian Gessler, Natalie Filmann, Volker Seifert, Matthias Setzer, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: We previously introduced a novel noninvasive technique of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in children with open fontanelles. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ICP obtained by our new technique to the ICP derived from an intradurally implanted ICP measurement device (external ventricular drain, subdural ICP device). METHODS: Children with open fontanelles and need of intracranial monitoring were included in this study. A standard ICP probe was placed upon the frontal fontanelle and data were compared with the values recorded by an already invasively implanted subdural ICP technique...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922873/long-term-reduction-of-sacroiliac-joint-pain-with-peripheral-nerve-stimulation
#8
Marin Guentchev, Christian Preuss, Rainer Rink, Levente Peter, Martin H M Sailer, Jochen Tuettenberg
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that 86% of the patients treated with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for therapy-refractory sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain were satisfied with the result after 1 year of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term (up to 4 years) response rate of this novel treatment. METHODS: Sixteen consecutive patients with therapy-refractory SIJ pain were treated with PNS and followed for 4 years in 3 patients, 3 years in 6 patients, and 2 years in 1 patient...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922871/divergence-of-the-venom-exogene-repertoire-in-two-sister-species-of-turriconus
#9
Qing Li, Neda Barghi, Aiping Lu, Alexander E Fedosov, Pradip K Bandyopadhyay, Arturo O Lluisma, Gisela P Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Baldomero M Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami
The genus Conus comprises approximately 700 species of venomous marine cone snails that are highly efficient predators of worms, snails, and fish. In evolutionary terms, cone snails are relatively young with the earliest fossil records occurring in the Lower Eocene, 55 Ma. The rapid radiation of cone snail species has been accompanied by remarkably high rates of toxin diversification. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that accompany speciation, we investigated the toxin repertoire of two sister species, Conus andremenezi and Conus praecellens, that were until recently considered a single variable species...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922858/contributions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-to-social-influence-in-economic-decision-making
#10
M A J Apps, N Ramnani
Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. The dorsomedial and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (dmPFC/vmPFC) are putatively key regions for processing social and economic information respectively. However, the contribution of these regions to economic decisions guided by social norms is unclear...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922850/comparative-ultrastructural-and-stereological-analyses-of-unruptured-and-ruptured-saccular-intracranial-aneurysms
#11
Emine Korkmaz, Rachel Kleinloog, Bon H Verweij, Iris E Allijn, Liesbeth H P Hekking, Luca Regli, Gabriel J E Rinkel, Ynte M Ruigrok, Jan Andries Post
Insight into processes leading to rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) may identify biomarkers for rupture or lead to management strategies reducing the risk of rupture. We characterized and quantified (ultra)structural differences between unruptured and ruptured aneurysmal walls. Six unruptured and 6 ruptured IA fundi were resected after microsurgical clipping and analyzed by correlative light microscopy for quantitative analysis (proportion of the vessel wall area) and transmission electron microscopy for qualitative ultrastructural analysis...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922849/medullary-serotonin-neuron-abnormalities-in-an-australian-cohort-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#12
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to key autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord regulating critical homeostatic functions. Multiple abnormalities in markers of 5-HT function in the medulla in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been reported, informing the hypothesis that at least a subset of SIDS cases is caused by deficits in 5-HT function resulting in impaired homeostatic responses to potentially life-threatening events during sleep...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922848/aggressive-behavior-in-silent-subtype-iii-pituitary-adenomas-may-depend-on-suppression-of-local-immune-response-a-whole-transcriptome-analysis
#13
Timothy E Richardson, Zhong-Jian Shen, Mohammed Kanchwala, Chao Xing, Alexander Filatenkov, Ping Shang, Samuel Barnett, Zahidur Abedin, James S Malter, Jack M Raisanen, Dennis K Burns, Charles L White, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Silent subtype III pituitary adenomas (SS-3) are clinically nonfunctional adenomas that are more aggressive in terms of invasion and risk of recurrence than their conventional null cell counterparts. We previously showed that these tumors can be distinguished by immunohistochemistry based on the identification of a markedly enlarged and fragmented Golgi apparatus. To understand the molecular correlates of differential aggressiveness, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) on 4 SS-3 and 4 conventional null cell adenomas...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922847/germline-msh6-mutation-in-a-patient-with-two-independent-primary-glioblastomas
#14
Linda M Forsström, Koichiro Sumi, Markus J Mäkinen, Ji Eun Oh, Riitta Herva, Paul Kleihues, Hiroko Ohgaki, Lauri A Aaltonen
We previously reported a patient who had developed 2 glioblastomas at the age of 54 and 64 years, respectively. The first glioblastoma in the right frontal lobe was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Ten years later, the patient developed a second, left frontal glioblastoma. Discordant patterns of TP53 and PTEN mutations suggested that the second tumor was not a recurrence but an independently developed glioblastoma. To determine the molecular mechanism underlying this enigmatic case with 10-year survival, we performed whole-exome sequencing...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922842/on-faculty-development-of-stem-inclusive-teaching-practices
#15
Bryan M Dewsbury
Faculty development of inclusive teaching practices has become more common in response to significant differences in STEM student retention between underrepresented minorities in the USA and students from other ethnic groups. Approaches to solve this have shifted from focusing on student deficits to changing campus culture, including the mindsets of instructors who teach STEM courses. In this article, I argue that based on the literature informing the conceptual frameworks used for faculty development in inclusive teaching, faculty developers should reframe the message of their workshops to focus participants more on the scope of the journey, and shift the direction of overall efforts some to redevelop pedagogical training at the graduate and postdoc levels...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#16
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922823/de-novo-genome-assembly-of-camptotheca-acuminata-a-natural-source-of-the-anti-cancer-compound-camptothecin
#17
Dongyan Zhao, John P Hamilton, Gina M Pham, Emily Crisovan, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Dean DellaPenna, C Robin Buell
Camptotheca acuminata is 1 of a limited number of species that produce camptothecin, a pentacyclic quinoline alkaloid with anti-cancer activity due to its ability to inhibit DNA topoisomerase. While transcriptome studies have been performed previously with various camptothecin-producing species, no genome sequence for a camptothecin-producing species is available to date. We generated a high-quality de novo genome assembly for C. acuminata representing 403 174 860 bp on 1394 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 1752 kbp...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922819/archive-review-the-black-cultural-archives-brixton
#18
Hannah J M Ishmael, Rob Waters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922810/a-shock-and-awe-thioridazine-and-moxifloxacin-combination-based-regimen-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#19
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Carleton M Sherman, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To develop a thioridazine/moxifloxacin-based combination regimen for treatment of pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) that kills bacteria faster than the standard treatment regimen. Methods: Monocytes were infected with MAC and inoculated into the hollow-fibre system model for pulmonary MAC disease (HFS-MAC). We co-administered ethambutol plus azithromycin daily for 28 days, to achieve the same human concentration-time profiles that result from standard doses, in three HFS-MAC systems...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922800/changes-in-fibre-adherent-and-fluid-associated-microbial-communities-and-fermentation-profiles-in-the-rumen-of-cattle-fed-diets-differing-in-hay-quality-and-concentrate-amount
#20
Fenja Klevenhusen, Renee M Petri, Maria-Theresia Kleefisch, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-Ard, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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