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Adolescent anxiety

Estee M Hausman, Roman Kotov, Greg Perlman, Greg Hajcak, Ellen M Kessel, Daniel N Klein
BACKGROUND: Anxious youth are at increased risk for later depressive disorders, but not all anxious youth develop depression. Sequential comorbidity models emphasize shared risk factors and anxiety sequelae, but some anxious youth who later develop depression may have risk factors that are relatively specific to depression, in addition to a liability to anxiety. We examined several variables that appear relatively specific to risk for depression-the personality traits of low positive affectivity and high sadness, and an electrophysiological measure of blunted response to reward - in predicting first-onset depressive disorders and depressive symptoms in clinically anxious adolescent girls...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ran Barzilay, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, J Cobb Scott, Jason D Jones, Tami D Benton, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample. METHODS: The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8-21)...
April 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Altuğ Duramaz, Semra Yilmaz, Nezih Ziroğlu, Burcu Bursal Duramaz, Berhan Bayram, Tayfun Kara
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression with pediatric extremity fractures. METHODS: Between November 2014 and November 2016, consecutive 138 patients with pediatric extremity fractures were prospectively investigated in terms of the tendency to anxiety, depression, or ADHD in the study group. Consecutive 168 non-trauma patients who were admitted to general pediatrics outpatient clinic were included the control group...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Angélica M González-Echevarría, Ernesto Rosario, Summer Acevedo, Idhaliz Flores
PURPOSE: Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent, inflammatory, painful condition affecting 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years. The symptoms of endometriosis-dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility-negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of the affected women. Few studies have been conducted on mental health and QoL impact in a younger endometriosis patient population (adolescents and young women). This study quantitative, cross-sectional study was designed to address this gap by ascertaining whether coping strategies may impact the QoL of this patient population...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kristina Geue, Elmar Brähler, Hermann Faller, Martin Härter, Holger Schulz, Joachim Weis, Uwe Koch, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Anja Mehnert
OBJECTIVE: This study provides prevalence data of mental disorders (four-week, one-year, lifetime) and psychological distress in AYAs with cancer. METHODS: We included an AYA-subsample (15 to 39 year olds; diagnosed within the last 5 years) extracted from a larger sample (4.020 cancer patients) who had been recruited for an epidemiological study across all major tumor entities. Participants were assessed with a depression screener (PHQ-9). Following that, 50% of the participants who scored below the cutoff of 9 and all patients who scored above were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology (CIDI-O)...
April 12, 2018: Psycho-oncology
L W Wesseldijk, G C Dieleman, F J A van Steensel, M Bartels, J J Hudziak, R J L Lindauer, S M Bögels, C M Middeldorp
The parents of children with psychopathology are at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. To investigate which parents are mostly at risk, we assessed in a clinical sample of families with children with psychopathology, whether parental symptom scores can be predicted by offspring psychiatric diagnoses and other child, parent and family characteristics. Parental depressive, anxiety, avoidant personality, attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and antisocial personality symptoms were measured with the Adult Self Report in 1805 mothers and 1361 fathers of 1866 children with a psychiatric diagnosis as assessed in a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Tom J Barry, Helen M Baker, Christine H M Chiu, Barbara C Y Lo, Jennifer Y F Lau
Difficulties with inhibiting fear have been associated with the emergence of anxiety problems and poor response to cognitive-behavioural treatment. Fear inhibition problems measured using experimental paradigms involving aversive stimuli may be inappropriate for vulnerable samples and may not capture fear inhibition problems evident in everyday life. We present the Fear Inhibition Questionnaire (FIQ), a self-report measure of fear inhibition abilities. We assess the FIQ's factor structure across two cultures and how well it correlates with fear inhibition indices derived experimentally...
April 9, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Vidya Raj, Morwenna Opie, Amy C Arnold
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the most common forms of chronic orthostatic intolerance. In addition to orthostatic symptoms, many POTS patients report incapacitating cognitive dysfunction or "brain fog" even while lying down or seated. Consistent with these subjective reports, there is accruing objective evidence of specific cognitive difficulties in POTS, with studies showing mild to moderate cognitive impairment using standardized neuropsychological assessment batteries. The precise profile of cognitive dysfunction in POTS patients has been shown to vary among these studies potentially due to the neuropsychological tests used, postural position, comorbidities and length of illness, inclusion of adolescent versus adult patients, and sites of recruitment...
March 27, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Brenda Leung, Wendy Takeda, Victoria Holec
AIM: This pilot study investigated the use of acupuncture in the treatment of paediatric anxiety. METHODS: Children with anxiety, aged 8-16, were randomised to either the acupuncture or waitlist control groups. Anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) for children and adolescents with generalised anxiety disorder and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children 2nd Edition (MASC-2) self-rated and parent-rated forms. RESULTS: Twenty participants were enrolled in the study and 19 completed all the questionnaires to be included in the analysis...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Maddalena Ugolini, Margaret F Keil, Enrica Paradiso, John Wu, Constantine A Stratakis
Anxiety disorders are associated with abnormalities in fear-learning and bias to threat; early life experiences are influential to the development of an anxiety-like phenotype in adulthood. We recently reported that adult mice (Prkar1a+/-) with haploinsufficiency for the main regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A (PKA) exhibit an anxiety-like phenotype associated with increased PKA activity in the amygdala. PKA is the main effector of cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate signaling, a key pathway involved in the regulation of fear learning...
April 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Bridget B Weymouth, Cheryl Buehler
Previous research on social anxiety has clearly identified interpersonal relationships as important for social anxiety symptoms. Few studies, however, have utilized longitudinal designs and have examined mechanisms that might explain links between negative interpersonal relationships and changes in youths' social anxiety over time. Recent models of social anxiety suggest that negative interpersonal relationships are linked to social anxiety through effects on social skills and behaviors. Using an autoregressive design and a sample of 416 two-parent families (51% female, 91% White), this study examined whether connections among parent-adolescent hostility, teacher support (6th grade), and changes in early adolescent social anxiety symptoms (6th to 8th grades) are mediated by youths' compliance with peers (7th grade)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Özlem Kahraman, Esra Özdemir Demirci
AIM: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Behavioral disinhibition, poor neurocognitive skills and immediate reward preference in childrenwith ADHD have been suggested as risk factors for internet addiction. In our study, we aimed to determine relationship between internet addiction with depression, anxiety, self-esteem in adolescents with ADHD and the features of internet use that predicts internet addiction...
April 4, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Qinli Zhang, Yong Ding, Kaihong He, Huan Li, Fuping Gao, Taylor J Moehling, Xiaohong Wu, Jeremy Duncan, Qiao Niu
Alumina nanoparticles (AlNP) have been shown to accumulate in organs and penetrate biological barriers which lead to toxic effects in many organ systems. However, it is not known whether AlNP exposure to female mice during pregnancy can affect the development of the central nervous system or induce neurodevelopmental toxicity in the offspring. The present study aims to examine the effect of AlNP on neurodevelopment and associated underlying mechanism. ICR strain adult female mice were randomly divided into four groups, which were treated with normal saline (control), 10 μm particle size of alumina (bulk-Al), and 50 and 13 nm AlNP during entire pregnancy period...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Joanna Yang, Roberto Lopez Cervera, Susannah J Tye, Stephen C Ekker, Chris Pierret
BACKGROUND: Mental illness contributes substantially to global disease burden, particularly when illness onset occurs during youth and help-seeking is delayed and/or limited. Yet, few mental health promotion interventions target youth, particularly those with or at high risk of developing mental illness ("at-risk" youth). Community-based translational research has the capacity to identify and intervene upon barriers to positive health outcomes. This is especially important for integrated care in at-risk youth populations...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jacob Young, Calan Savoy, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Michael H Boyle, Ryan J Van Lieshout
OBJECTIVE: To examine the link between suicidal ideation in adolescence (age 12-16) and symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood (age 22-26) in a birth cohort of extremely low birth weight (ELBW; < 1000 g) survivors and matched normal birth weight (NBW; > 2500 g) control participants. METHODS: This study utilized data from a longitudinally followed cohort of 129 ELBW survivors and 116 NBW individuals born in Ontario, Canada between the years 1977 and 1982...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
M Srividya, S Mohanavalli, N Bhalaji
Mental health is an indicator of emotional, psychological and social well-being of an individual. It determines how an individual thinks, feels and handle situations. Positive mental health helps one to work productively and realize their full potential. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood. Many factors contribute to mental health problems which lead to mental illness like stress, social anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, drug addiction, and personality disorders...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Gema Fuentes-Rodriguez, Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez, Veronica Garcia-Trujillo
The DSM-5 social anxiety disorder section has recently added the performance-only specifier for individuals whose anxiety is limited to speaking or performing in public. The impact of the DSM-5 performance-only specifier remains a neglected area. The sample comprised 44 healthy controls and 50 adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of SAD (20% met criteria for the performance-only specifier). Findings revealed that adolescents with the specifier had a later age of onset; lower levels of depression, social anxiety symptomatology and clinical severity; and a lesser degree of comorbidity relative to adolescents with SAD but excluding the performance-only specifier...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Ainhoa Izaguirre, Esther Calvete
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Hanan E Badr, Jumana Naser, Abdullah Al-Zaabi, Anfal Al-Saeedi, Khalifa Al-Munefi, Shaikha Al-Houli, Dana Al-Rashidi
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for detrimental effects on mental health that may extend to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to childhood maltreatment, socio-demographic factors, and students' mental health status and self-esteem. A cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample of 1270 students from Kuwait University. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire included students' socio-demographic characteristics, history of exposure to childhood physical and/or emotional maltreatment, DASS-21 to assess mental health status, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used...
March 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam, Henk van Steenbergen, Nic J A van der Wee, P Michiel Westenberg
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with altered social norm (SN) processing: SAD-patients rate stories on SN violations as more inappropriate and more embarrassing than healthy participants, with the most prominent effect for stories on unintentional SN violations (i.e. committing a blunder). Until now it's unknown how levels of social anxiety (SA) are related to ratings of SN violations in the general population, in which SA-symptoms are present at a continuum. More insight in this relationship could improve our understanding of the symptom profile of SAD...
March 30, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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