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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346771/rapid-turnover-of-cortical-ncam1-regulates-synaptic-reorganization-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#1
Hyoung-Gon Ko, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Dong Ik Park, SukJae Joshua Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Su-Eon Sim, Jaehoon Shim, Ji-Il Kim, Siyong Kim, Tae-Hyeok Choi, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, Pojeong Park, Somi Kim, Jeehaeh Do, Jihye Park, Md Ariful Islam, Hyun Jeong Kim, Christoph W Turck, Graham L Collingridge, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Peripheral nerve injury can induce pathological conditions that lead to persistent sensitized nociception. Although there is evidence that plastic changes in the cortex contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we find that activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) induced by peripheral nerve injury increases the turnover of specific synaptic proteins in a persistent manner. We demonstrate that neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is one of the molecules involved and show that it mediates spine reorganization and contributes to the behavioral sensitization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346769/switching-on-depression-and-potentiation-in-the-cerebellum
#2
Andrew R Gallimore, Taegon Kim, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signaling that determines the direction of plasticity. We show that LTP is the default response to PF stimulation above a well-defined frequency threshold...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#4
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#5
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346589/urban-evolutionary-ecology-and-the-potential-benefits-of-implementing-genomics
#6
Christopher J Schell
Urban habitats are quickly becoming exceptional models to address adaptation under rapid environmental change, given the expansive temporal and spatial scales with which anthropogenic landscape conversion occurs. Urban ecologists in the last 10-15 years have done an extraordinary job of highlighting phenotypic patterns that correspond with urban living, as well as delineating urban population structure using traditional genetic markers. The underpinning genetic mechanisms that govern those phenotypic patterns, however, are less well established...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346160/potential-role-of-microrna-in-the-anabolic-capacity-of-skeletal-muscle-with-aging
#7
Lee M Margolis, Donato A Rivas
Age-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia, may be the result of diminished response to anabolic stimulation. This review will explore the hypothesis that alterations in the expression of microRNA with aging contributes to reduced muscle plasticity resulting in impaired skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise-induced anabolic stimulation.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346102/impedance-measures-during-in-vitro-cochlear-implantation-predict-array-positioning
#8
Christopher Kenneth Giardina, Elliot Samuel Krause, Kanthaiah Koka, Douglas Carl Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE: Improper electrode placement during cochlear implant (CI) insertion can adversely affect speech perception outcomes. However, the intraoperative methods to determine positioning are limited. Because measures of electrode impedance can be made quickly, the goal of this study was to assess the relationship between CI impedance and proximity to adjacent structures. METHODS: An Advanced Bionics CI array was inserted into a clear, plastic cochlea one electrode contact at a time in a saline bath (nine trials)...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346028/biophysics-model-of-heavy-ion-degradation-of-neuron-morphology-in-mouse-hippocampal-granular-cell-layer-neurons
#9
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346013/purification-of-lymphocytes-by-acoustic-separation-in-plastic-microchannels
#10
Charles Lissandrello, Ryan Dubay, Kenneth T Kotz, Jason Fiering
Emerging cell therapies have created new demands for instruments that will increase processing efficiency. Purification of lymphocytes prior to downstream steps of gene transfer currently relies on centrifugal separation, which has drawbacks in output sample purity and process automation. Here, we present an alternative approach to blood cell purification using acoustic forces in plastic microchannels. We provide details regarding the system's ability to purify lymphocytes relative to other blood cell types while maintaining a high overall recovery, testing performance starting from leukapheresis product, buffy coat, and whole blood...
January 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345465/microplastic-abundance-and-composition-in-western-lake-superior-as-determined-via-microscopy-pyr-gc-ms-and-ftir
#11
Erik Hendrickson, Elizabeth C Minor, Kathryn Schreiner
While plastic pollution in marine and freshwater systems is an active area of research, there is not yet an in-depth understanding of the distributions, chemical compositions, and fates of plastics in aquatic environments. In this study, the magnitude, distribution, and common polymers of microplastic pollution in surface waters in western Lake Superior are determined. Analytical methodology, including estimates of ambient contamination during sample collection and processing, are described and employed. Microscopy, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to quantify and identify microplastic particles...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345363/effects-of-il-10-and-th-2-cytokines-on-human-m%C3%AF-phenotype-and-response-to-csf1r-inhibitor
#12
Leon P Pradel, Andreas Franke, Carola H Ries
Tumor-associated Mφs display a plastic phenotype that is regulated by the local tumor milieu. Gene expression analysis and functional characterization of Mφs exposed in vitro to individual cytokines aids to delineate the cross-talk between defined cytokines shaping the complex Mφ phenotype. Human monocyte-derived Mφs can be differentiated in vitro with the T helper cell type 2 response cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 or the immunosuppressive IL-10. Notably, only the latter subset undergoes apoptosis when treated with the CSF 1 receptor (CSF1R) blocking antibody emactuzumab...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345348/roles-of-neutrophils-in-cancer-growth-and-progression
#13
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Alberto Mantovani, Gianni Marone
Chronic inflammation is a well-known tumor-enabling capacity, which allows nascent tumors to acquire all the hallmark capabilities, including the escape from immunosurveillance. Soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators constitute the complex network of the tumor microenvironment, in which tumors grow and with which constantly interact. Myeloid cells (e.g., tumor associated macrophages) are pivotal players of the tumor microenvironment and are characterized by plasticity, which consists of the ability to acquire distinct phenotypes in response to the microenvironment in which they reside...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345312/phylogenetic-patterns-of-trait-and-trait-plasticity-evolution-insights-from-amphibian-embryos
#14
Rick A Relyea, Patrick R Stephens, Lisa N Barrow, Andrew R Blaustein, Paul W Bradley, Julia C Buck, Ann Chang, James P Collins, Brian Crother, Julia Earl, Stephanie S Gervasi, Jason T Hoverman, Oliver Hyman, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas M Luhring, Moses Michelson, Chris Murray, Steven Price, Raymond D Semlitsch, Andrew Sih, Aaron B Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John I Hammond
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues, crushed-egg cues, and predatory crayfish cues...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345200/distinct-niches-within-the-extracellular-matrix-dictate-fibroblast-function-in-cell-free-3d-lung-tissue-cultures
#15
Gerald Burgstaller, Arunima Sengupta, Sarah Vierkotten, Gerhard Preissler, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Melanie Königshoff, Oliver Eickelberg
Instructive cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their functional interplay with cells play pivotal roles for development, tissue repair, and disease. However, the precise nature of this interplay remains elusive. We used an innovative 3D cell culture ECM model by decellularizing ex vivo lung tissue scaffolds (d3D-LTCs) derived from diseased and healthy mouse lungs, which widely mimics the native (patho)physiological in vivo microenvironment. We successfully repopulated all d3D-LTCs with primary human and murine fibroblasts...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345114/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-myelin-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
EDITORIAL
Patrizia Casaccia, Gabriel Corfas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345061/monocyte-subsets-exhibit-transcriptional-plasticity-and-a-shared-response-to-interferon-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#17
Brian T Nowlin, John Wang, Jamie L Schafer, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams
The progression to AIDS is influenced by changes in the biology of heterogeneous monocyte subsets. Classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++) monocytes may represent progressive stages of monocyte maturation or disparate myeloid lineages with different turnover rates and function. To investigate the relationship between monocyte subsets and the response to SIV infection, we performed microarray analysis of monocyte subsets in rhesus macaques at three time points: prior to SIV infection, 26 days postinfection, and necropsy with AIDS...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345010/genetic-variation-in-the-shape-of-cold-survival-curves-in-a-single-fly-population-suggests-potential-for-selection-from-climate-variability
#18
Nicholas M Teets, Daniel A Hahn
Temperature variation is one of the primary challenges facing ectotherms, and the ability to tolerate a range of thermal environments is critical for setting current and future species distributions. Low temperature is particularly challenging for ectotherms because winter conditions have strong latitudinal and temporal variation. Lower lethal temperature (LLT) is a common metric of cold tolerance used in studies of local adaptation and plasticity. Comparisons of LLT across groups typically assume parallel S-shaped survival curves, but genetic variation in the shape of survival vs...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344614/apprehending-otherness-through-wonder-a-facial-plastic-surgeon-s-review-of-the-book-and-movie
#19
Travis T Tollefson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343806/effect-of-light-delignification-on-mechanical-hydrophobic-and-thermal-properties-of-high-strength-molded-fiber-materials
#20
Quanliang Wang, Shengling Xiao, Sheldon Q Shi, Liping Cai
This study developed a high-strength molded fiber material (HMFM) using pulp fibers, which could be a good substitute for plastic and solid wood materials. The surface composition, microstructure and thermal properties of HMFM were investigated by XPS, SEM and DSC, respectively. The SEM observations showed that the obvious adhesive substances and agglomeration appeared among fibers, and the inter-fiber contact area and binding tightness increased after the light-delignification. The XPS examination showed that the oxygen-rich composition on the outer surface of HMFM were reduced, and the outer surface coverage of lignin increased from 70...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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