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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645186/igf-i-gene-therapy-in-aging-rats-modulates-hippocampal-genes-relevant-to-memory-function
#1
Joaquín Pardo, Martin C Abba, Ezequiel Lacunza, Olalekan M Ogundele, Isabel Paiva, Gustavo R Morel, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome...
June 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645086/toddler-exposure-to-flame-retardant-chemicals-magnitude-health-concern-and-potential-risk-or-protective-factors-of-exposure-observational-studies-summarized-in-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor
Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644993/long-term-toxicity-of-surface-charged-polystyrene-nanoplastics-to-marine-planktonic-species-dunaliella-tertiolecta-and-artemia-franciscana
#3
E Bergami, S Pugnalini, M L Vannuccini, L Manfra, C Faleri, F Savorelli, K A Dawson, I Corsi
Plastic pollution has been globally recognized as a critical issue for marine ecosystems and nanoplastics constitute one of the last unexplored areas to understand the magnitude of this threat. However, current difficulties in sampling and identifying nano-sized debris make hard to assess their occurrence in marine environment. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) are largely used as nanoplastics in ecotoxicological studies and although acute exposures have been already investigated, long-term toxicity on marine organisms is unknown...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644960/improved-simulation-based-hr-ebsd-procedure-using-image-gradient-based-dic-techniques
#4
Jon Alkorta, Matthieu Marteleur, Pascal J Jacques
Conventional HR-EBSD is attracting much interest due to its ability of measuring relative crystal misorientations and microstresses with great accuracy. However, this technique needs the use of simulated patterns in order to get absolute values of crystal orientation and stresses and thus expand its use to intergranular analyses. Simulation-based approaches have shown many limitations due to the poor correlation with the real patterns specially when Bragg simulations are considered. This paper presents an improved algorithm based on gradient-based correlation techniques that makes simulation-based HR-EBSD possible...
June 14, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644926/gangnam-style-plastic-surgery-the-science-of-westernized-beauty-in-south-korea
#5
So Yeon Leem
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery...
June 23, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#6
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#7
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#8
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644872/helicobacter-pylori-gene-silencing-in-vivo-demonstrates-urease-is-essential-for-chronic-infection
#9
Aleksandra W Debowski, Senta M Walton, Eng-Guan Chua, Alfred Chin-Yen Tay, Tingting Liao, Binit Lamichhane, Robyn Himbeck, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644824/mechanism-underlying-acupuncture-ameliorated-depressive-behaviors-by-enhancing-glial-glutamate-transporter-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-cums-rats
#10
Ding Luo, Rui Ma, Yanan Wu, Xuechun Zhang, Yue Liu, Lin Wang, Wenbin Fu
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mental illness worldwide. The glutamatergic neurotransmission system is now a target for antidepressant therapy because it takes part in synaptic plasticity and cognition in physical condition and has a potential excitatory neurotoxicity in pathological conditions. Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 performs 90% of Glu neurotransmission. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on depressive behaviors and EAAT2 in CUMS...
June 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644589/when-do-we-think-it-is-safe-to-drive-after-hand-surgery-current-practice-and-legal-perspective
#11
S F Murphy, J D Martin-Smith, W Martin-Smith, E O'Broin, A J P Clover
Patients recovering from hand surgery frequently ask when it is safe to drive and it is unclear where the responsibility lies; the surgeon, the patient or the insurance company. An eight-question survey looking at various aspects of clinical practice was circulated to consultant and trainee plastic and orthopaedic surgeons in Ireland and the UK. Of the 89 surgeons who replied, (53%) felt the decision when to drive was the patient's compared with the insurance company (40%) and the surgeon (7%). 80% advised patients to contact their insurance company...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644437/more-alive-than-dead-non-apoptotic-roles-for-caspases-in-neuronal-development-plasticity-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Darren W Williams
Nervous systems are arguably the most fascinating and complex structures in the known universe. How they are built, changed by experience and then degenerate are some of the biggest questions in biology. Regressive phenomena, such as neuron pruning and programmed cell death, have a key role in the building and maintenance of the nervous systems. Both of these cellular mechanisms deploy the caspase family of protease enzymes. In this review, we highlight the non-apoptotic function of caspases during nervous system development, plasticity and disease, particularly focussing on their role in structural remodelling...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644260/intravenous-alteplase-for-acute-stroke-and-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-with-recent-abdominoplasty
#13
Michael E Christiansen, Gyanendra Kumar, Raman C Mahabir, Richard A Helmers, Bernard R Bendok, Cumara B O'Carroll
INTRODUCTION: Major surgery in the past 14 days is a relative contraindication to treatment of acute stroke with intravenous (IV) alteplase. The 2016 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific statement discussing inclusion and exclusion criteria for alteplase in acute stroke allows for provider judgment citing a lack of evidence to support surgery as an absolute contraindication. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old woman presented with acute left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and acute respiratory failure...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644111/visual-dot-interaction-with-short-term-memory
#14
Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso
AIM: Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. MATERIALS & METHODS: Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. RESULTS: A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning...
June 23, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643848/the-impact-of-alternative-trait-scaling-hypotheses-for-the-maximum-photosynthetic-carboxylation-rate-vcmax-on-global-gross-primary-production
#15
Anthony P Walker, Tristan Quaife, Peter M van Bodegom, Martin G De Kauwe, Trevor F Keenan, Joanna Joiner, Mark R Lomas, Natasha MacBean, Chongang Xu, Xiaojuan Yang, F Ian Woodward
The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global Vcmax distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM)...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643166/structural-disorder-in-plant-proteins-where-plasticity-meets-sessility
#16
REVIEW
Alejandra A Covarrubias, Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, David F Rendón-Luna, Caspar C C Chater
Plants are sessile organisms. This intriguing nature provokes the question of how they survive despite the continual perturbations caused by their constantly changing environment. The large amount of knowledge accumulated to date demonstrates the fascinating dynamic and plastic mechanisms, which underpin the diverse strategies selected in plants in response to the fluctuating environment. This phenotypic plasticity requires an efficient integration of external cues to their growth and developmental programs that can only be achieved through the dynamic and interactive coordination of various signaling networks...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643141/estimation-of-the-effective-yield-properties-of-human-trabecular-bone-using-nonlinear-micro-finite-element-analyses
#17
Patrik Wili, Ghislain Maquer, Jarunan Panyasantisuk, Philippe K Zysset
Micro-finite element ([Formula: see text]FE) analyses are often used to determine the apparent mechanical properties of trabecular bone volumes. Yet, these apparent properties depend strongly on the applied boundary conditions (BCs) for the limited size of volumes that can be obtained from human bones. To attenuate the influence of the BCs, we computed the yield properties of samples loaded via a surrounding layer of trabecular bone ("embedded configuration"). Thirteen cubic volumes (10.6 mm side length) were collected from [Formula: see text]CT reconstructions of human vertebrae and femora and converted into [Formula: see text]FE models...
June 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643071/forgotten-biliary-stents-ignorance-is-not-bliss
#18
Saket Kumar, Abhijit Chandra, Rugved Kulkarni, Ajeet Pratap Maurya, Vishal Gupta
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic biliary stenting is a common procedure in routine gastroenterology practice. Plastic stents are the most common type of stents used and are indicated mainly for short-term biliary drainage. Prolonged indwelling plastic stents can result in disastrous complications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with complications of forgotten biliary stents in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to October 2016...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642998/plastic-bronchitis-a-rare-complication-of-long-term-haemodialysis-catheter-placement-in-a-child
#19
Simon Carter, Dayna van de Hoef, Michael Temple, Elizabeth Harvey, Suhail Al-Saleh, Christoph Licht, Damien Noone
BACKGROUND: Despite peritoneal dialysis being the preferred mode of renal replacement therapy in neonates and infants, long-term haemodialysis may be necessary in a minority of patients with its attendant risks. CASE DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: This case identifies plastic bronchitis as a rare yet serious complication of long-term large bore vascular access when a vessel-sparing approach is not possible. CONCLUSIONS: An appropriately sized catheter should be used for the dialytic therapy required and to optimize access survival...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642910/influence-of-abutment-design-on-retention-of-metal-copings-cemented-to-implants
#20
Albano Porto da Cunha, Glauco Pereira Moysés, Ana Christina Claro Neves, Rafael Pino Vitti, Flávia Cardoso da Rosa Goulart, Laís Regiane da Siva-Concílio
Objective The study evaluated the influence of abutment design on the retention of implant-cemented metal copings. Material and methods Two abutments of the same system with the same indications, height and the total occlusal convergence, but of different designs were evaluated. Ten RN synOcta abutments (Straumann, Waltham, MA) and ten RN titanium solid abutments (Straumann, Waltham, MA) were tightened to 35 Ncm on 20 implant analogs previously placed in resin blocks. Twenty plastic burnout copings were waxed, included, cast and machined by a single operator...
December 2016: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
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