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So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Maryam Ardalan, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard, Gregers Wegener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Astroglia contributes to the pathophysiology of major depression and the action of antidepressant drugs through modulating synaptic plasticity; therefore, present study investigated whether fast antidepressant action of ketamine is reflected in the rapid alteration of the astrocytes morphology in a genetic animal model of depression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: S-Ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline was administered as a single injection to Flinders Line (FSL/FRL) rats...
January 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
Patricia Saiz-Lopez, Kavitha Chinnaiya, Matthew Towers, Maria A Ros
An intrinsic timing mechanism specifies the positional values of the zeugopod (i.e. radius/ulna) and then autopod (i.e. wrist/digits) segments during limb development. Here we have addressed if this timing mechanism ensures that patterning events occur only once by grafting GFP-expressing autopod progenitor cells to the earlier host signaling environment of zeugopod progenitor cells. We show that early and late autopod progenitors fated for the wrist and phalanges, respectively, both contribute to the entire host autopod indicating that the autopod positional value is irreversibly determined as revealed by Hoxa13 expression...
January 13, 2017: Development
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
Jianjun Hu, Jin Zhang, Xingling Chen, Jinhui Lv, Huixia Jia, Shutang Zhao, Mengzhu Lu
To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar) and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0%) compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C...
2017: PloS One
Edoardo Rubino, Tindaro Ioppolo
This paper describes a non-contact transduction mechanism for the measurement of linear displacements that is based on the electrostrictive properties of a polymeric optical resonator. The spherical resonators, with a diameter of ∼1  mm and an average optical quality factor of ∼10<sup>6</sup>, are made using a commercially available polymer (Super Soft Plastic-Manufacturing Company). The spherical resonator is immersed in a homogeneous electric field that is generated by applying a voltage difference between two metallic plates...
January 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Euna Hwang, You Seong Song
The hyaluronic acid-based filler (HA filler) is used worldwide in various applications. In particular, the HA filler is used in the plastics and cosmetic medical field for facial rejuvenation and contouring. In this setting, it is injected into the skin or underlying tissue. Complications of HA filler injection have been relieved using hyaluronidase. However, there is no standard dose to adjust for undesirable HA filler lumpness. In this study, the authors tried to analyze any quantitative correlation between HA filler and hyaluronidase...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
M Houssais, C P Ortiz, D J Durian, D J Jerolmack
Understanding the dynamics of fluid-driven sediment transport remains challenging, as it occurs at the interface between a granular material and a fluid flow. Boyer, Guazzelli, and Pouliquen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 188301 (2011)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.188301 proposed a local rheology unifying dense dry-granular and viscous-suspension flows, but it has been validated only for neutrally buoyant particles in a confined and homogeneous system. Here we generalize the Boyer, Guazzelli, and Pouliquen model to account for the weight of a particle by addition of a pressure P_{0} and test the ability of this model to describe sediment transport in an idealized laboratory river...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Pahini Pandya, Jose L Orgaz, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
Cancer cell migration and invasion underlie metastatic dissemination, one of the major problems in cancer. Tumour cells exhibit a striking variety of invasion strategies. Importantly, cancer cells can switch between invasion modes in order to cope with challenging environments. This ability to switch migratory modes or plasticity highlights the challenges behind antimetastasis therapy design. In this Review, we present current knowledge on different tumour invasion strategies, the determinants controlling plasticity and arising therapeutic opportunities...
January 2017: Molecular Oncology
Emerson R Pereira, Marcelo T DE Andrade, Thiago T Mendes, Guilherme P Ramos, André Maia-Lima, Eliney S Melo, Moisés V Carvalho, Carolina F Wilke, Luciano S Prado, Emerson Silami-Garcia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to verify the agreement of urine, body mass variations and plasma parameters to determine the hydration status of 14 male runners (29 ± 4 years and 54.3 ± 5.5 in an official 21.1 km road race. METHODS: The mean dry-bulb temperature and air relative humidity during the road race were 25.1 ± 2.1° C and 54.7 ± 2.2%, respectively. The volume of water ingested by the runners was monitored using marked volumetric plastic bottles provided at the hydration stations located at 0, 2...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dandan Cao, Jiehong Guo, Yawei Wang, Zhuona Li, Kang Liang, Margaret B Corcoran, Soheil Hosseini, Solidea M C Bonina, Karl J Rockne, Neil C Sturchio, John P Giesy, Jing-Fu Liu, An Li, Guibin Jiang
This is the first study on organophosphate esters (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in the sediment of the Great Lakes. Concentrations of 14 OPEs were measured in three sediment cores and 88 Ponar surface grabs collected from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior of North America. The sum of these OPEs (Σ14OPEs) in Ponar grabs averaged 2.2, 4.7, and 16.6 ng g-1 dw in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant associations between logarithm concentrations of Σ14OPEs as well as selected congeners in surface grab samples and sediment organic carbon content as well as a newly developed urban distance factor...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Thierry Rouxel, Marie-Hélène Balesdent
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: In agricultural systems, major (R) genes for resistance in plants exert strong selection pressure on cognate/corresponding avirulence effector genes of phytopathogens. However, a complex interplay often exists between trade-offs linked to effector function and the need to escape R gene recognition. Here, using the Leptosphaeria maculans-oilseed rape pathosystem we review evolution of effectors submitted to multiple resistance gene selection. Characteristics of this pathosystem include a crop in which resistance genes have been deployed intensively resulting in 'boom and bust' cycles; a fungal pathogen with a high adaptive potential in which seven avirulence genes are cloned and for which population surveys have been coupled with molecular analysis of events responsible for virulence...
January 13, 2017: New Phytologist
V P Nikitin, S A Kozyrev, S V Solntseva
Specificity of behavioral and neuronal mechanisms of impairment of long-term memory reconsolidation was studied in edible snails trained for associative skill of rejection of two types of food: raw carrots (conditioned stimulus 1) and apple (conditioned stimulus 2). In 2 days after training, the snails received protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and a reminder (conditioned stimulus 1 or 2). In 3 and 14 days after cycloheximide/reminder, we observed the absence of aversive responses to the conditioned stimulus used as the reminder and preserved responses to the conditioned stimulus not used as the reminder...
January 13, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Robert J Henning, Giffe T Johnson, Jayme P Coyle, Raymond D Harbison
Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is formed during the burning of gasoline and diesel fuels, cigarettes, woods and plastics. In addition, acrolein is generated during the cooking or frying of food with fats or oils. Acrolein is also used in the synthesis of many organic chemicals and as a biocide in agricultural and industrial water supply systems. The total emissions of acrolein in the United States from all sources are estimated to be 62,660 tons/year. Acrolein is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a high-priority air and water toxicant...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Connie C W Hsia
This review compares the manner in which physical stress imposed on the parenchyma, vasculature and thorax and the thoraco-pulmonary interactions, drive both developmental and compensatory lung growth. Re-initiation of anatomical lung growth in the mature lung is possible when the loss of functioning lung units renders the existing physiologic-structural reserves insufficient for maintaining adequate function and physical stress on the remaining units exceeds a critical threshold. The appropriate spatial and temporal mechanical interrelationships and the availability of intra-thoracic space, are crucial to growth initiation, follow-on remodeling and physiological outcome...
January 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E C Jepson
Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C...
January 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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