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Juan A Zaragoza
A taxonomic revision of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) in the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and    Macaronesia is presented. New and previously insufficiently studied characteristics are shown to be taxonomically useful, such as the chelal lyrifissures patterns, chaetotaxy and condylar complex. Three taxa previously treated as subgenera of Chthonius are here raised to generic rank: Ephippiochthonius n. stat., Globochthonius n. stat., and Hesperochthonius n. stat. Two new genera are described: Cantabrochthonius n...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
Gustavo M Martins, Carla D G Borges, Maria Vale, Pedro A Ribeiro, Rogério R Ferraz, Helen R Martins, Ricardo S Santos, Stephen J Hawkins
Exploitation of organisms can prompt the reduction in the number and size of target populations consequently affecting reproductive output and replenishment. Here, we investigated the effects of exploitation on the population structure of a protandrous patellid limpet, Patella aspera, an overexploited Macaronesian endemic. Timed dives were used to collect animals across eleven islands of Macaronesia. Individuals were inspected for sex, size, and gonad stage. Using catch effort (time per person) per island coastal perimeter as a surrogate for exploitation intensity, we found that limpet abundance (CPUE) and mean size tended to decrease with exploitation intensity...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Antonio Machado, Eduardo Rodríguez-Expósito, Mercedes López, Mariano Hernández
The flightless Entiminae weevil genus Laparocerus is the species-richest genus, with 237 species and subspecies, inhabiting Macaronesia (Madeira archipelago, Selvagens, Canary Islands) and the continental 'Macaronesian enclave' in Morocco (one single polytypic species). This is the second contribution to gain insight of the genus and assist in its systematic revision with a mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis. It centres on the Canarian clade, adding the 12S rRNA gene to the combined set of COII and 16S rRNA used in our first contribution on the Madeiran clade (here re-analysed)...
2017: ZooKeys
Natacha Aguilar de Soto, Vidal Martín, Monica Silva, Roland Edler, Cristel Reyes, Manuel Carrillo, Agustina Schiavi, Talia Morales, Belen García-Ovide, Anna Sanchez-Mora, Nerea Garcia-Tavero, Lisa Steiner, Michael Scheer, Roland Gockel, Dylan Walker, Enrico Villa, Petra Szlama, Ida K Eriksson, Marisa Tejedor, Monica Perez-Gil, João Quaresma, Wojtek Bachara, Emma Carroll
The True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly known member of the Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the northern hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a few stranding records from the southern hemisphere suggest a wider and antitropical distribution, extending to waters from the Atlantic coast of Brazil to South Africa, Mozambique, Australia and the Tasman Sea coast of New Zealand. This paper (i) reports the first molecular confirmation of the occurrence of the True's beaked whale at the southern limit of its distribution recorded in the northeast Atlantic: the Azores and Canary Islands (macaronesian ecoregion); (ii) describes a new colouration for this species using evidence from a whale with molecular species confirmation; and (iii) contributes to the sparse worldwide database of live sightings, including the first underwater video recording of this species and close images of a calf...
2017: PeerJ
Mónica A G Otálora, Isabel Martínez, Gregorio Aragón, Mats Wedin
The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
Valérie Roussel, Alain Van Wormhoudt
The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity...
April 2017: Biochemical Genetics
Sereina Rutschmann, Harald Detering, Sabrina Simon, David H Funk, Jean-Luc Gattolliat, Samantha J Hughes, Pedro M Raposeiro, Rob DeSalle, Michel Sartori, Michael T Monaghan
The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny, although a lack of phylogenetic markers remains a limitation for many non-model groups. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
María Machín-Sánchez, Florence Rousseau, Line Le Gall, Valéria Cassano, Ana I Neto, Abel Sentíes, Mutue T Fujii, María Candelaria Gil-Rodríguez
Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section)...
August 2016: Journal of Phycology
Dario I Ojeda, Alfredo Valido, Alejandro G Fernández de Castro, Ana Ortega-Olivencia, Javier Fuertes-Aguilar, José A Carvalho, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra
Pollinator shifts are considered to drive floral trait evolution, yet little is still known about the modifications of petal epidermal surface at a biogeographic region scale. Here we investigated how independent shifts from insects to passerine birds in the Macaronesian Islands consistently modified this floral trait (i.e. absence of papillate cells). Using current phylogenies and extensive evidence from field observations, we selected a total of 81 plant species and subspecies for petal microscopy and comparative analysis, including 19 of the 23 insular species pollinated by opportunistic passerine birds (Macaronesian bird-flowered element)...
April 2016: Biology Letters
Raül Ramos, Iván Ramírez, Vitor H Paiva, Teresa Militão, Manuel Biscoito, Dília Menezes, Richard A Phillips, Francis Zino, Jacob González-Solís
The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae...
March 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bethany R M Williams, Hanno Schaefer, Miguel Menezes De Sequeira, J Alfredo Reyes-Betancort, Jairo Patiño, Mark A Carine
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Oceanic island endemics typically exhibit very restricted distributions. In Macaronesia, only one endemic angiosperm species, Ranunculus cortusifolius, has a distribution spanning the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Earlier work suggested possible differences between archipelagos and the multiple origins of the species. This paper tests the hypothesis that R. cortusifolius is a single widespread Macaronesian endemic species with a single origin...
October 2015: American Journal of Botany
F Espino, A Brito, R Haroun, F Tuya
In this study, patterns in the taxonomic richness and composition of the fish fauna inhabiting Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows were described across their entire distribution range in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Specifically, the study tested whether there are differences in the composition of fish assemblages between those ecoregions encompassed by the distribution range of C. nodosa, and whether these differences in composition are connected with differences in bioclimatic affinities of the fish faunas...
October 2015: Journal of Fish Biology
Gianna Innocenti, Raffaella Di Geronimo, William A Newman
The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam...
June 22, 2015: Zootaxa
Paulina Kondraskov, Nicole Schütz, Christina Schüßler, Miguel Menezes de Sequeira, Arnoldo Santos Guerra, Juli Caujapé-Castells, Ruth Jaén-Molina, Águedo Marrero-Rodríguez, Marcus A Koch, Peter Linder, Johanna Kovar-Eder, Mike Thiv
The Macaronesian laurel forests (MLF) are dominated by trees with a laurophyll habit comparable to evergreen humid forests which were scattered across Europe and the Mediterranean in the Paleogene and Neogene. Therefore, MLF are traditionally regarded as an old, 'Tertiary relict' vegetation type. Here we address the question if key taxa of the MLF are relictual. We evaluated the relict hypothesis consulting fossil data and analyses based on molecular phylogenies of 18 representative species. For molecular dating we used the program BEAST, for ancestral trait reconstructions BayesTraits and Lagrange to infer ancestral areas...
2015: PloS One
Lisa Pokorny, Ricarda Riina, Mario Mairal, Andrea S Meseguer, Victoria Culshaw, Jon Cendoya, Miguel Serrano, Rodrigo Carbajal, Santiago Ortiz, Myriam Heuertz, Isabel Sanmartín
The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands-Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Jano Núñez-Zapata, Paloma Cubas, David L Hawksworth, Ana Crespo
The genetic diversity and population structure of the foliose lichenized fungus Parmelina tiliacea has been analyzed through its geographical range, including samples from Macaronesia (Canary Islands), the Mediterranean, and Eurosiberia. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α were used as molecular markers. The haplotypes of the three markers and the molecular variance analyses of multilocus haplotypes showed the highest diversity in the Canary Islands, while restricted haplotypes occurred at high frequencies in Mediterranean coastal samples...
2015: PloS One
Javier Quinteiro, Pablo Manent, Lois Pérez-Diéguez, José A González, Corrine Almeida, Evandro Lopes, Ricardo Araújo, Gilberto P Carreira, Manuel Rey-Méndez, Nieves González-Henríquez
The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages...
2015: PloS One
Vítor Spínola, Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Sandra Gouveia, Paula C Castilho
Myrica faya is a fruit tree endemic of the Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira, and Canary Island), and its edible fruits are known as "amorinhos" (little loves), bright red to purple berries, used fresh and in jams and liquors. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of leaves and berries from M. faya are presented here for the first time. The screening of phytochemical compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with online UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n))...
October 8, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Regina L Cunha, Fernando P Lima, Manuel J Tenorio, Ana A Ramos, Rita Castilho, Suzanne T Williams
Ancient oceanic archipelagos of similar geological age are expected to accrue comparable numbers of endemic lineages with identical life history strategies, especially if the islands exhibit analogous habitats. We tested this hypothesis using marine snails of the genus Conus from the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and Canary Islands. Together with Azores and Madeira, these archipelagos comprise the Macaronesia biogeographic region and differ remarkably in the diversity of this group. More than 50 endemic Conus species have been described from Cape Verde, whereas prior to this study, only two nonendemic species, including a putative species complex, were thought to occur in the Canary Islands...
November 2014: Systematic Biology
Luís Carlos Crespo, Robert Bosmans, Pedro Cardoso, Paulo A V Borges
We describe Canariphantes junipericola n. sp. and C. relictus n. sp., new single-island endemic linyphiid spiders from the islands of Flores and Santa Maria (Azorean archipelago, Macaronesia), respectively. The female of the first species was incorrectly assigned to Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992), a species occurring in four islands in the Central Group of Azores (Faial, Pico, São Jorge and Terceira). The latter species is transferred to Canariphantes, its male redescribed and the female genitalia described for the first time...
2014: Zootaxa
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