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Liam Rourke, Jessica Leong, Patricia Chatterly
Phenomenon: An evidence-informed era of medical education encourages the generation and use of comparative-effectiveness reviews, yet the reviews often conclude, curiously, that all instructional approaches are equally effective. APPROACH: We used a conditions-based learning theory to structure a review of the comparative-effectiveness literature on electrocardiogram instruction. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE (Ovid), ERIC (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), and CINAHL (EBSCO) from inception to June 2016...
February 16, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Shabnam Asghari, Jillian Hurd, Zack Marshall, Allison Maybank, Lydia Hesselbarth, Oliver Hurley, Alison Farrell, Claire E Kendall, Sean B Rourke, Marissa Becker, Sharon Johnston, Phil Lundrigan, Ron Rosenes, Christine Bibeau, Clare Liddy
Accessing healthcare can be difficult but the barriers multiply for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To improve access and the health of PLHIV, we must consider their perspectives and use them to inform standard practice. A better understanding of the current literature related to healthcare access from the perspective of PLHIV, can help to identify evidence gaps and highlight research priorities and opportunities. To identify relevant peer-reviewed publications, search strategies were employed. Electronic and grey literature databases were explored...
February 4, 2018: AIDS Care
Cassandra Robertson, Rourke O'Brien
New estimates of intergenerational economic mobility reveal substantial variation in the spatial distribution of opportunity in the United States. Efforts to explain this variation in economic mobility have conspicuously omitted health despite it being a key pathway for the transmission of economic position across generations. We begin to fill this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between health endowment at birth and intergenerational economic mobility across county birth cohorts in the United States, drawing on estimates from two population-level data sets...
February 1, 2018: Demography
Richard C Knighton, Jack Emerson-King, Jonathan P Rourke, C André Ohlin, Adrian B Chaplin
A homologous family of low-coordinate complexes of the formulation trans-[M(2,2'-biphenyl)(PR3)2][BArF4] (M = Rh, Ir; R = Ph, Cy, iPr, iBu) has been prepared and extensively structurally characterised. Enabled through a comprehensive set of solution (VT 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy) and solid-state (single crystal X-ray diffraction) data, and analysis in silico (DFT-based NBO and QTAIM analysis), the structural features of the constituent agostic interactions have been systematically interrogated. The combined data substantiates the adoption of stronger agostic interactions for the Ir(III) compared to Rh(III) complexes and, with respect to the phosphine ligands, in the order PiBu3 > PCy3 > PiPr3 > PPh3...
January 26, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Logan Zemp, Uday Mann, Keith F Rourke
PURPOSE: To examine radiographic predictors of intervention for blunt renal trauma independent of the American Association of the Surgery for Trauma Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2004-December 2014, 328 patients with blunt renal trauma were identified for analysis. Hospital records and diagnostic imaging were reviewed to identify the need for urologic intervention including angiographic embolization, nephrectomy, renorrhaphy, ureteral stenting or percutaneous drainage...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Urology
P Daniel Patterson, Matthew D Weaver, Anthony Fabio, Ellen M Teasley, Megan L Renn, Brett R Curtis, Margaret E Matthews, Andrew J Kroemer, Xiaoshuang Xun, Zhadyra Bizhanova, Patricia M Weiss, Denisse J Sequeira, Patrick J Coppler, Eddy S Lang, J Stephen Higgins
BACKGROUND: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. METHODS: A systematic review study design was used and searched six databases, including one website. The research question guiding the search was developed a priori and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews: "Are there reliable and valid instruments for measuring fatigue among EMS personnel?" (2016:CRD42016040097)...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jillian L Rourke, Queenie Hu, Robert A Screaton
If left unchecked, prediabetic hyperglycemia can progress to diabetes and often life-threatening attendant secondary complications. Central to the process of glucose homeostasis are pancreatic β cells, which sense elevations in plasma glucose and additional dietary components and respond by releasing the appropriate quantity of insulin, ensuring the arrest of hepatic glucose output and glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Given that β cell failure is associated with the transition from prediabetes to diabetes, improved β cell function ('compensation') has a central role in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
December 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Oliver L C Rourke, Daniel A Butts
The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories...
2017: PloS One
Khatundi-Irene Masindi, Nathaniel Jembere, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Janet Raboud, Sean B Rourke, Henry Luyombya, Tony Antoniou
We sought to characterize non-communicable disease (NCD)-related and overall health service use among African and Caribbean immigrants living with HIV between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2013. We conducted two population-based analyses using Ontario's linked administrative health databases. We studied 1525 persons with HIV originally from Africa and the Caribbean. Compared with non-immigrants with HIV (n = 11,931), African and Caribbean immigrants had lower rates of hospital admissions, emergency department visits and non-HIV specific ambulatory care visits, and higher rates of health service use for hypertension and diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Nicolas Chin-Yee, Joshua Taylor, Kaitlyn Rourke, Danika Faig, Alexandra Davis, Dean Fergusson, Elianna Saidenberg
BACKGROUND: The risks and benefits of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in palliative care patients remain poorly understood. We reviewed the literature to summarize available information on RBC transfusion in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL) from inception through September 2016 to identify studies reporting data on palliative patients receiving RBC transfusion. Original studies that assessed RBC transfusion as an intervention and reported at least one clinical outcome were included...
January 2018: Transfusion
Ming Y Lim, Joyce Foster, Angela Rourk, Charles S Greenberg
Many medical centers are faced with a major challenge in making an accurate diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and ensuring appropriate changes in management strategy in line with guideline recommendations. We report the initial and long-term impact and challenges of institution-wide changes in the diagnosis and management of HIT in the inpatient setting at an academic medical center. We established a HIT Task Force, consisting of a multidisciplinary team of non-malignant hematologists, nursing, pharmacist, pathology, blood bank and clinical lab informatics...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Feng Zhu, Jacob Rodriguez, Tianyi Yang, Ilia Kevlishvili, Eric Miller, Duk Yi, Sloane O'Neill, Michael Rourke, Peng Liu, Maciej A Walczak
Stereoselective manipulations at the C1 anomeric position of saccharides are one of the central goals of preparative carbohydrate chemistry. Historically, the majority of reactions forming a bond with anomeric carbon has focused on reactions of nucleophiles with saccharide donors equipped with a leaving group. Here, we describe a novel approach to stereoselective synthesis of C-aryl glycosides capitalizing on the highly stereospecific reaction of anomeric nucleophiles. First, methods for the preparation of anomeric stannanes have been developed and optimized to afford both anomers of common saccharides in high anomeric selectivities...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, James Watson, Murray Jose-Boebridge, Richard Kennedy, Keith Hambly, Aranka Anema, Robert S Hogg, Sean B Rourke
Up to half of people living with HIV in resource-rich settings experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Food insecurity, in turn, has been linked to adverse health outcomes including poor antiretroviral adherence, poor HIV viral suppression, frailty, and mortality. We estimated the prevalence of food insecurity among 649 adults living with HIV and recruited from community-based AIDS service organizations in Ontario, Canada. Food security was assessed using the Canadian Household Food Security module. We used logistic regression modeling to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors independently associated with food insecurity...
October 28, 2017: AIDS Care
Haryana M Dhillon, Ian F Tannock, Gregory R Pond, Corrinne Renton, Sean B Rourke, Janette L Vardy
PURPOSE: Cognitive symptoms are common after cancer, but poorly associated with neuropsychological results. We previously reported colorectal cancer (CRC) patients had more cognitive impairment than controls. Here, we explore relationships between cognitive symptoms and neuropsychological domains. METHODS: Subjects with CRC (N = 362) and 72 healthy controls completed neuropsychological assessments and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognition (FACT-COG) at baseline (pre-chemotherapy) and 6, 12, and 24 months...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Jane Murphy, Sadhbh O' Rourke, Mary Corcoran, Nicola O' Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: The widespread uptake of pneumococcal vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, such that pneumococcal bacteremia in children is now considered a relatively rare event. The objective of this study was to ascertain the clinical utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time PCR assay compared with standard blood culture for the diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia in children in the post-vaccine era. METHODS: A systematic retrospective review of laboratory and patient records from Children's University Hospital, Temple Street during a 6 year period was performed...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kjersti Baksaas-Aasen, Lewis Gall, Simon Eaglestone, Claire Rourke, Nicole P Juffermans, J Carel Goslings, Paal Aksel Naess, Susan van Dieren, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Jakob Stensballe, Marc Maegele, Simon J Stanworth, Christine Gaarder, Karim Brohi, Per I Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) may exacerbate bleeding and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. In spite of improved resuscitation strategies over the last decade, current transfusion therapy still fails to correct TIC during ongoing haemorrhage and evidence for the optimal management of bleeding trauma patients is lacking...
October 18, 2017: Trials
K A Harrisson, S J Amish, A Pavlova, S Narum, M Telonis-Scott, M L Rourke, J Lyon, Z Tonkin, D M Gilligan, B A Ingram, M Lintermans, H M Gan, C M Austin, G Luikart, P Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species' ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation across the geographic range of an iconic Australian endemic freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Paul A Shaw, Guy J Clarkson, Jonathan P Rourke
The oxidation of the tribenzylphosphine derivative of the doubly cylcometallated platinum(ii) complex of diphenylpyridine, 1, with PhICl2 led, as a first step, to the formation of a highly electrophilic metal centre which attacked the benzyl phosphine to give a triply cyclometallated species as the arenium ion. The highly acidic arenium ion protonated unreacted starting 1, a reaction that could be supressed by the addition of water, and gave the neutral species 2(t). Octahedral complex 2(t) was induced to reductively couple, with two five-membered rings coupling to give square planar complex 5 containing a nine-membered ring...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Claire E Kendall, Esther Susanna Shoemaker, Lois Crowe, Ron Rosenes, Philip Lundrigan, Christine Bibeau, Shabnam Asghari, Marissa Becker, Sean B Rourke, Zack Marshall, Clare Liddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Nathan Y Hoy, David W Chapman, Nicholas Dean, Keith F Rourke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and predictors of complications due to urethral stricture in patients awaiting urethroplasty. METHODS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing urethroplasty from 2009-2013 was performed. The primary outcome was complications, defined as any unplanned interaction with the health care system due to the urethral stricture during the period between decision for surgery and urethroplasty...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Urology
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