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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661003/outcomes-among-persons-with-hiv-following-a-mental-health-admission-a-population-based-study
#1
Cindy Lau, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Sean Rourke, Tony Antoniou
Objective To compare outcomes following psychiatric hospitalization between people with and without HIV. Methods Population-based study of people with (n = 1,089) and without (n = 280,888) HIV who were hospitalized for psychiatric illness between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. Results Overall, 9 (0.8%) people with HIV died within 30 days of discharge, compared with 3710 (1.3%) HIV-negative individuals. Following multivariable adjustment, there was no difference in the risk of readmission or emergency department (ED) visits for psychiatric illness in the 90 days following discharge...
April 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620606/apelin-reduces-nitric-oxide-induced-relaxation-of-cerebral-arteries-by-inhibiting-activation-of-large-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channels
#2
Amreen Mughal, Chengwen Sun, Stephen T OʼRourke
Activation of the apelin/APJ receptor signaling system causes endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation in several peripheral arteries. The effects of apelin in cerebral arteries are unknown; however, apelin inhibits voltage-dependent increases in large-conductance, calcium-activated K channel (BKCa) currents in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Because NO-induced relaxation of cerebral arteries is mediated, in part, by activation of BKCa channels, the goals of this study were to determine the net effect of apelin in cerebral arteries, as well as test the hypothesis that the actions of apelin in cerebral arteries are secondary to stimulation of APJ receptors...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599382/large-intra-abdominal-seminoma-in-a-left-undescended-testicle-complicated-by-torsion
#3
Elizabeth Rourke, Gilda Digman, Eric Gourley, Dharam Kaushik
A 39-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of worsening constant, dull diffuse lower abdominal pain with associated constipation and known history of left undescended testicle. He was evaluated at an outside hospital where a non-contrasted CT scan revealed a 20 cm well-circumscribed soft tissue mass within the pelvis.He was referred and further imaging revealed a 12 cm heterogeneous mass with foci of air that appeared to be contiguous with the left spermatic cord. This constellation of findings could represent torsion of undescended left testicle with infarction or underlying malignancy...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557541/elevated-mortality-and-associated-social-determinants-of-health-in-a-community-based-sample-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-ontario-canada-findings-from-the-positive-spaces-healthy-places-pshp-study
#4
Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, James Watson, Stephen W Hwang, Keith Hambly, Jay Koornstra, Glen Walker, Jean Bacon, Sean B Rourke
We examined social determinants of health associated with all-cause mortality among 602 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario, Canada. Mortality status was verified at 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up visits with information obtained from proxies (family members, partners, and friends), obituaries, and local AIDS memorial lists. Of the 454 people for whom mortality information was available, 53 individuals died yielding a crude mortality rate of 22.3 deaths per 1000 person-years, a rate substantially higher than the rate in the general population (6...
March 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548259/does-rural-generalist-focused-medical-school-and-family-medicine-training-make-a-difference-memorial-university-of-newfoundland-outcomes
#5
James Rourke, Shabnam Asghari, Oliver Hurley, Mohamed Ravalia, Michael Jong, Wendy Graham, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Danielle O'Keefe, Scott Moffatt, Katherine Stringer, Carolyn Sturge Sparkes, Janelle Hippe, Kristin Harris Walsh, Donald McKay, Asoka Samarasena
INTRODUCTION: Rural recruitment and retention of physicians is a global issue. The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, was established as a rural-focused medical school with a social accountability mandate that aimed to meet the healthcare needs of a sparse population distributed over a large landmass as well as the needs of other rural and remote areas of Canada. This study aimed to assess whether Memorial medical degree (MD) and postgraduate (PG) programs were effective at producing physicians for their province and rural physicians for Canada compared with other Canadian medical schools...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548258/from-pipelines-to-pathways-the-memorial-experience-in-educating-doctors-for-rural-generalist-practice
#6
James Rourke, Shabnam Asghari, Oliver Hurley, Mohamed Ravalia, Michael Jong, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Danielle O'Keefe, Scott Moffatt, Wendy Graham, Carolyn Sturge Sparkes, Janelle Hippe, Kristin Harris Walsh, Donald McKay, Asoka Samarasena
CONTEXT: This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544189/methadone-treatment-severe-food-insecurity-and-hiv-hcv-co-infection-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#7
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540400/pathways-to-rural-family-practice-at-memorial-university-of-newfoundland
#8
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536283/assessing-timely-presentation-to-care-among-people-diagnosed-with-hiv-during-hospital-admission-a-population-based-study-in-ontario-canada
#9
Claire E Kendall, Esther S Shoemaker, Janet Raboud, Amy E Mark, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Ann N Burchell, Mona Loutfy, Sean B Rourke, Clare E Liddy, Ron Rosenes, Timothy Rogers, Tony Antoniou
Timely presentation to care for people newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to optimize health outcomes and reduce onward HIV transmission. Studies describing presentation to care following diagnosis during a hospital admission are lacking. We sought to assess the timeliness of presentation to care and to identify factors associated with delayed presentation. We conducted a population-level study using health administrative databases. Participants were all individuals older than 16 and newly diagnosed with HIV during hospital admission in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015...
March 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493813/rapid-adipose-tissue-expansion-triggers-unique-proliferation-and-lipid-accumulation-profiles-in-adipose-tissue-macrophages
#10
Lindsey A Muir, Samadhi Kiridena, Cameron Griffin, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibañez, Brian F Zamarron, Hannah Lucas, Kanakadurga Singer, Robert W O' Rourke, Carey N Lumeng
Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475198/willingness-to-use-drug-checking-within-future-supervised-injection-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-a-mid-sized-canadian-city
#11
Mary Clare Kennedy, Ayden Scheim, Beth Rachlis, Sanjana Mitra, Geoff Bardwell, Sean Rourke, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Esclating epidemics of fatal overdose are affecting communities across Canada. In many instances, the unanticipated presence of powerful opioids, such as fentanyl, in street drugs is a contributing factor. Drug checking offered within supervised injection services (SIS) is being considered as a potential measure for reducing overdose and related harms. We therefore sought to characterize the willingness of people who inject drugs (PWID) to use drug checking within SIS. METHODS: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey examining the feasibility of SIS in London, Canada, a mid-sized city...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452002/conditions-based-learning-theory-as-a-framework-for-comparative-effectiveness-reviews-a-worked-example
#12
Liam Rourke, Jessica Leong, Patricia Chatterly
Phenomenon: An evidence-informed era of medical education encourages the generation and use of comparative-effectiveness reviews, yet the reviews often conclude, curiously, that all instructional approaches are equally effective. APPROACH: We used a conditions-based learning theory to structure a review of the comparative-effectiveness literature on electrocardiogram instruction. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE (Ovid), ERIC (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), and CINAHL (EBSCO) from inception to June 2016...
February 16, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397762/challenges-with-access-to-healthcare-from-the-perspective-of-patients-living-with-hiv-a-scoping-review-framework-synthesis
#13
Shabnam Asghari, Jillian Hurd, Zack Marshall, Allison Maybank, Lydia Hesselbarth, Oliver Hurley, Alison Farrell, Claire E Kendall, Sean B Rourke, Marissa Becker, Sharon Johnston, Phil Lundrigan, Ron Rosenes, Christine Bibeau, Clare Liddy
Accessing healthcare can be difficult but the barriers multiply for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To improve access and the health of PLHIV, we must consider their perspectives and use them to inform standard practice. A better understanding of the current literature related to healthcare access from the perspective of PLHIV, can help to identify evidence gaps and highlight research priorities and opportunities. To identify relevant peer-reviewed publications, search strategies were employed. Electronic and grey literature databases were explored...
February 4, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392683/health-endowment-at-birth-and-variation-in-intergenerational-economic-mobility-evidence-from-u-s-county-birth-cohorts
#14
Cassandra Robertson, Rourke O'Brien
New estimates of intergenerational economic mobility reveal substantial variation in the spatial distribution of opportunity in the United States. Efforts to explain this variation in economic mobility have conspicuously omitted health despite it being a key pathway for the transmission of economic position across generations. We begin to fill this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between health endowment at birth and intergenerational economic mobility across county birth cohorts in the United States, drawing on estimates from two population-level data sets...
February 1, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377308/solution-solid-state-and-computational-analysis-of-agostic-interactions-in-a-coherent-set-of-low-coordinate-rhodium-iii-and-iridium-iii-complexes
#15
Richard C Knighton, Jack Emerson-King, Jonathan P Rourke, C André Ohlin, Adrian B Chaplin
A homologous family of low-coordinate complexes of the formulation trans-[M(2,2'-biphenyl)(PR3)2][BArF4] (M = Rh, Ir; R = Ph, Cy, iPr, iBu) has been prepared and extensively structurally characterised. Enabled through a comprehensive set of solution (VT 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy) and solid-state (single crystal X-ray diffraction) data, and analysis in silico (DFT-based NBO and QTAIM analysis), the structural features of the constituent agostic interactions have been systematically interrogated. The combined data substantiates the adoption of stronger agostic interactions for the Ir(III) compared to Rh(III) complexes and, with respect to the phosphine ligands, in the order PiBu3 > PCy3 > PiPr3 > PPh3...
January 26, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360530/perinephric-hematoma-size-is-independently-associated-with-the-need-for-urological-intervention-in-multisystem-blunt-renal-trauma
#16
Logan Zemp, Uday Mann, Keith F Rourke
PURPOSE: We examined radiographic predictors of intervention for blunt renal trauma independent of AAST-OIS (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 328 patients with blunt renal trauma from October 2004 to December 2014 were identified for analysis. Hospital records and diagnostic imaging were reviewed to identify the need for urological intervention, including angiographic embolization, nephrectomy, renorrhaphy, ureteral stenting or percutaneous drainage...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324068/reliability-and-validity-of-survey-instruments-to-measure-work-related-fatigue-in-the-emergency-medical-services-setting-a-systematic-review
#17
P Daniel Patterson, Matthew D Weaver, Anthony Fabio, Ellen M Teasley, Megan L Renn, Brett R Curtis, Margaret E Matthews, Andrew J Kroemer, Xiaoshuang Xun, Zhadyra Bizhanova, Patricia M Weiss, Denisse J Sequeira, Patrick J Coppler, Eddy S Lang, J Stephen Higgins
BACKGROUND: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. METHODS: A systematic review study design was used and searched six databases, including one website. The research question guiding the search was developed a priori and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews: "Are there reliable and valid instruments for measuring fatigue among EMS personnel?" (2016:CRD42016040097)...
February 15, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289437/ampk-and-friends-central-regulators-of-%C3%AE-cell-biology
#18
REVIEW
Jillian L Rourke, Queenie Hu, Robert A Screaton
If left unchecked, prediabetic hyperglycemia can progress to diabetes and often life-threatening attendant secondary complications. Central to the process of glucose homeostasis are pancreatic β cells, which sense elevations in plasma glucose and additional dietary components and respond by releasing the appropriate quantity of insulin, ensuring the arrest of hepatic glucose output and glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Given that β cell failure is associated with the transition from prediabetes to diabetes, improved β cell function ('compensation') has a central role in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
February 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216222/cortical-computations-via-transient-attractors
#19
Oliver L C Rourke, Daniel A Butts
The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209931/co-morbid-non-communicable-diseases-and-associated-health-service-use-in-african-and-caribbean-immigrants-with-hiv
#20
Khatundi-Irene Masindi, Nathaniel Jembere, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Janet Raboud, Sean B Rourke, Henry Luyombya, Tony Antoniou
We sought to characterize non-communicable disease (NCD)-related and overall health service use among African and Caribbean immigrants living with HIV between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2013. We conducted two population-based analyses using Ontario's linked administrative health databases. We studied 1525 persons with HIV originally from Africa and the Caribbean. Compared with non-immigrants with HIV (n = 11,931), African and Caribbean immigrants had lower rates of hospital admissions, emergency department visits and non-HIV specific ambulatory care visits, and higher rates of health service use for hypertension and diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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