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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977721/signatures-of-polygenic-adaptation-associated-with-climate-across-the-range-of-a-threatened-fish-species-with-high-genetic-connectivity
#1
K A Harrisson, S J Amish, A Pavlova, S Narum, M Telonis-Scott, M L Rourke, J Lyon, Z Tonkin, D M Gilligan, B A Ingram, M Lintermans, H M Gan, C M Austin, G Luikart, P Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species' ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation across the geographic range of an iconic Australian endemic freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970934/reversible-c-c-bond-formation-at-a-triply-cyclometallated-platinum-iv-centre
#2
Paul A Shaw, Guy J Clarkson, Jonathan P Rourke
The oxidation of the tribenzylphosphine derivative of the doubly cylcometallated platinum(ii) complex of diphenylpyridine, 1, with PhICl2 led, as a first step, to the formation of a highly electrophilic metal centre which attacked the benzyl phosphine to give a triply cyclometallated species as the arenium ion. The highly acidic arenium ion protonated unreacted starting 1, a reaction that could be supressed by the addition of water, and gave the neutral species 2(t). Octahedral complex 2(t) was induced to reductively couple, with two five-membered rings coupling to give square planar complex 5 containing a nine-membered ring...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904041/engagement-of-people-with-lived-experience-in-primary-care-research-living-with-hiv-innovation-team-community-scholar-program
#3
Claire E Kendall, Esther Susanna Shoemaker, Lois Crowe, Ron Rosenes, Philip Lundrigan, Christine Bibeau, Shabnam Asghari, Marissa Becker, Sean B Rourke, Zack Marshall, Clare Liddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899769/incidence-and-predictors-of-complications-due-to-urethral-stricture-in-patients-awaiting-urethroplasty
#4
Nathan Y Hoy, David W Chapman, Nicholas Dean, Keith F Rourke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and predictors of complications due to urethral stricture in patients awaiting urethroplasty. METHODS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing urethroplasty from 2009-2013 was performed. The primary outcome was complications, defined as any unplanned interaction with the health care system due to the urethral stricture during the period between decision for surgery and urethroplasty...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880109/how-adolescents-perceive-that-community-based-exercise-improves-their-well-being
#5
Kevin Rourke, Coralie J Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To determine if adolescents perceive community-based exercise as beneficial to their well-being and in what ways. METHODS: A New South Wales Police Citizens Youth Club ran a four-week fitness course. The classes involved: 1) sports including basketball and soccer, 2) non-contact boxing drills, and 3) games, both team games such as dodgeball and non-team games such as line tag. Parental consent to offer a survey at the completion of the course was requested during registration...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855308/a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-of-breast-cancer-screening-among-women-with-hiv-in-ontario-canada
#6
Claire E Kendall, Sharon Walmsley, Cindy Lau, Nathaniel Jembere, Ann N Burchell, Mona Loutfy, Janet Raboud, Ron Rosenes, Sean B Rourke, Tony Antoniou
BACKGROUND: As women with HIV live longer, the need for age-appropriate breast cancer screening will increase. We compared rates of screening mammography among women with and without HIV. METHODS: We used administrative health databases to identify all women in Ontario, Canada, who were eligible for screening mammography (aged 50 to 74 yr and no history of breast cancer) as of Apr. 1, 2011. We used multivariable log-binomial regression to compare the 2-year period prevalence of screening mammography in 2011 to 2013 among women with and without HIV and to examine the correlates of screening among women with HIV...
August 30, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835844/polar-bears-experience-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-response-to-food-deprivation-and-reduced-activity-in-winter-and-summer
#7
John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Bryan C Rourke, Manuel Robles, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835709/glycoprotein-2-is-a-specific-cell-surface-marker-of-human-pancreatic-progenitors
#8
Kathryn F Cogger, Ankit Sinha, Farida Sarangi, Emily C McGaugh, Diane Saunders, Craig Dorrell, Salvador Mejia-Guerrero, Yasaman Aghazadeh, Jillian L Rourke, Robert A Screaton, Markus Grompe, Philip R Streeter, Alvin C Powers, Marcela Brissova, Thomas Kislinger, M Cristina Nostro
PDX1(+)/NKX6-1(+) pancreatic progenitors (PPs) give rise to endocrine cells both in vitro and in vivo. This cell population can be successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hold the potential to generate an unlimited supply of β cells for diabetes treatment. However, the efficiency of PP generation in vitro is highly variable, negatively impacting reproducibility and validation of in vitro and in vivo studies, and consequently, translation to the clinic. Here, we report the use of a proteomics approach to phenotypically characterize hPSC-derived PPs and distinguish these cells from non-PP populations during differentiation...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833500/primary-stability-of-a-cementless-acetabular-cup-in-a-cohort-of-patient-specific-finite-element-models
#9
Dermot O' Rourke, Rami Al-Dirini, Mark Taylor
The primary stability achieved during total hip arthroplasty determines the long-term success of cementless acetabular cups. Pre-clinical finite element testing of cups typically use a model of a single patient and assume the results can be extrapolated to the general population. This study explored the variability in predicted primary stability of a Pinnacle ® cementless acetabular cup in 103 patient-specific finite element models of the hemipelvis and examined the association between patient-related factors and the observed variability...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817947/mortality-and-health-service-use-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-among-persons-with-hiv-a-population-based-study
#10
Caroline Jeon, Cindy Lau, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Sean B Rourke, Tony Antoniou
People with HIV have higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-negative individuals. We compared mortality risk and health service use following AMI among people with and without HIV between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2015. We conducted a population-based study using Ontario's administrative databases. Our primary outcomes were risk of inpatient death and death at 30 days following hospital discharge. In secondary analyses, we compared use of revascularization procedures within 90 days of AMI, as well as readmission or emergency department visits for heart disease and cardiology follow-up within 90 days of discharge...
September 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802381/diagnosing-subtle-palatal-anomalies-validation-of-video-analysis-and-assessment-protocol-for-diagnosing-occult-submucous-cleft-palate
#11
Ryan Rourke, Seth M Weinberg, Mary L Marazita, Noel Jabbour
INTRODUCTION: Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) classically involves bifid uvula, zona pellucida, and notched hard palate. However, patients may present with more subtle anatomic abnormalities. The ability to detect these abnormalities is important for surgeons managing velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) or considering adenoidectomy. OBJECTIVES: Validate an assessment protocol for diagnosis of occult submucous cleft palate (OSMCP) and identify physical examination features present in patients with OSMCP in the relaxed and activated palate positions...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796266/impact-of-sequential-surface-modification-of-graphene-oxide-on-ice-nucleation
#12
Caroline I Biggs, Christopher Packer, Steven Hindmarsh, Marc Walker, Neil R Wilson, Jonathan P Rourke, Matthew I Gibson
Base-washed graphene-oxide which has been sequentially-modified by thiol-epoxy chemistry, results in materials with ice-nucleation activity. The role of hydro-philic/phobic grafts and polymers was evaluated with the most potent functioning at just 0.25 wt%. These 2-D hybrid materials may find use in cryopreservation and fundamental studies on ice formation.
August 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780292/editorial-comment
#13
Keith Rourke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768289/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulated-cardiac-myocyte-apoptosis-role-of-cytochrome-p450-%C3%AF-hydroxylase
#14
Shan Jiang, Dan Huo, Xueying Wang, Huan Zhao, Jiang Tan, Qinghua Zeng, Stephen T OʼRourke, Chengwen Sun
Prolonged or excessive β-adrenergic activation leads to cardiac myocyte loss and heart dysfunction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we first confirmed the effect of isoproterenol (ISO), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, on cardiac toxicity using TUNEL and caspase activity assays in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. ISO treatment significantly increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Persistent ISO stimulation of cardiomyocytes also increased the expression of CYP4A3, a major CYP450 ω-hydroxylase that produces 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in a time-dependent manner...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746373/zika-virus-preferentially-replicates-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-after-vaginal-inoculation-of-rhesus-macaques
#15
Timothy Carroll, Ming Lo, Marion Lanteri, Joseph Dutra, Katie Zarbock, Paola Silveira, Tracy Rourke, Zhong-Min Ma, Linda Fritts, Shelby O'Connor, Michael Busch, Christopher J Miller
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709471/acceptability-and-design-preferences-of-supervised-injection-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-a-mid-sized-canadian-city
#16
Sanjana Mitra, Beth Rachlis, Ayden Scheim, Geoff Bardwell, Sean B Rourke, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Supervised injection services (SIS) have been shown to reduce the public- and individual-level harms associated with injection drug use. While SIS feasibility research has been conducted in large urban centres, little is known about the acceptability of these services among people who inject drugs (PWID) in mid-sized cities. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of willingness to use SIS as well as design and operational preferences among PWID in London, Canada. METHODS: Between March and April 2016, peer research associates administered a cross-sectional survey to PWID in London...
July 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700406/the-use-of-multistate-models-to-examine-associations-of-stress-and-adherence-with-transitions-among-hiv-care-states-observed-in-a-clinical-hiv-cohort
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sandra Blitz, Tony Antoniou, Ann Burchell, Sharon Walmsley, Lucia Light, Sandra Gardner, Sean Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Claire Kendall, Mona Loutfy, Anita Rachlis, Wendy Wobeser, Anita Benoit, Janet Raboud
BACKGROUND: The "cascade of care" is a framework for quantifying the trajectory of people with HIV along the continuum of HIV care. We extended this framework to recognize that individuals may transition back and forth between states of care and to identify factors associated with movement among states of care over time, with particular focus on stress, depression, and adherence. METHODS: The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multisite HIV clinical cohort...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678619/high-retention-in-hiv-care-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-toronto-canada
#18
Leah Szadkowski, Sharon Walmsley, Ann N Burchell, Evan Collins, Sean B Rourke, Janet Raboud
Poor retention in HIV care is associated with poor clinical outcomes and mortality. Previous studies of predictors of poor retention have been conducted with a wide variety of populations, using different measures of retention, and occasionally have conflicting results. We studied demographic and psychosocial factors associated with inter-visit interval length in a setting of universal health care and modern cART. Patients attending ≥2 appointments with an HIV specialist at the Toronto General Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic from 2004 to 2013 were studied...
July 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669198/pathological-and-microbiological-investigations-into-cases-of-bacterial-chondronecrosis-and-osteomyelitis-in-broiler-poultry
#19
Dinidu S Wijesurendra, Anthony Neal Chamings, Rhys Nathan Bushell, Denise O' Rourke, Mark Stevenson, Marc Serge Marenda, Amir H Noormohammadi, Andrew Stent
Bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of lameness in commercial broilers chickens worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the condition is incompletely understood. This was a longitudinal study of 20 commercial broiler farms in Victoria, Australia, to investigate the aetiology and pathology of BCO. Thorough postmortem examination was performed on culled and dead birds (n = 325) from 20 different flocks at either 1 week, 4 weeks or 5 weeks of age and samples were analysed by conventional bacteriology, molecular identification of infectious organisms detected, serology and histopathology...
August 16, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643553/renal-dysfunction-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-ischemic-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack-a-population-based-study
#20
Derek Hayden, Christine McCarthy, Layan Akijian, Elizabeth Callaly, Danielle Ní Chróinín, Gillian Horgan, Lorraine Kyne, Joseph Duggan, Eamon Dolan, Killian O' Rourke, David Williams, Sean Murphy, Yvonne O'Meara, Peter J Kelly
Background and purpose The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for ≥3 months, chronic kidney disease (CKD)) in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is unknown, as estimates have been based on single-point estimates of renal function. Studies investigating the effect of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), renal dysfunction) on post-stroke outcomes are limited to hospitalized cohorts and have provided conflicting results...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
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