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Aizhan Tastanova, Marc Folcher, Marius Müller, Gieri Camenisch, Aaron Ponti, Thomas Horn, Maria S Tikhomirova, Martin Fussenegger
Diagnosis marks the beginning of any successful therapy. Because many medical conditions progress asymptomatically over extended periods of time, their timely diagnosis remains difficult, and this adversely affects patient prognosis. Focusing on hypercalcemia associated with cancer, we aimed to develop a synthetic biology-inspired biomedical tattoo using engineered cells that would (i) monitor long-term blood calcium concentration, (ii) detect onset of mild hypercalcemia, and (iii) respond via subcutaneous accumulation of the black pigment melanin to form a visible tattoo...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Paula Bernal-Molina, José J Esteve-Taboada, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in the accommodative response of the eye while reading a text under different contrast polarity conditions: black letters on white background (BoW condition) and white letters on black background (WoB condition). METHODS: Eighteen subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 41 years participated in this experimental study. The accommodative response (AR) of the eye while reading a text with BoW or WoB contrast polarity was obtained objectively with an adaptive optics system that corrected all aberrations but subject's own...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Optometry
Lucia Sobrin, Lynn K Stanwyck, Wei Pan, Rebecca A Hubbard, John H Kempen, Brian L VanderBeek
Importance: Understanding the role of vitamin D-which regulates inflammatory responses-in noninfectious uveitis (an inflammatory disease) may provide insight into treatment and prevention of this disease. Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and incident noninfectious uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective case-control study, data from a health care claims database containing deidentified medical claims from a large private insurer were used to identify 558 adults enrolled from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016, who received a diagnosis of noninfectious uveitis from an eye care clinician (with receipt of a confirmatory diagnosis within 120 days of the initial diagnosis) and who had a vitamin D level measured within 1 year before the first diagnosis...
April 5, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: To assess the link between visual scanning behaviour and closed-road driving performance in older drivers with glaucomatous visual impairment. METHODS: Participants included 13 older drivers with glaucoma (mean age=72.0±6.7▒y; average better-eye mean deviation [MD])=-2.9±2.1▒dB, average worse-eye MD=-12.5±7.1▒dB) and ten visually-normal controls (mean age=70.6±7.4▒y). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, useful field-of-view (UFoV), and motion sensitivity were assessed...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Jessica E Black
The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001 ), originally designed for use in clinical populations, has been used with increasing frequency as a measure of advanced social cognition in nonclinical samples (e.g., Domes, Heinriches, Michel, Berger, & Herpertz, 2007 ; Kidd & Castano, 2013 ; Mar, Oatley, Hirsh, de la Paz, & Peterson, 2006 ). The purpose of this research was to use item response theory to assess the ability of the RMET to detect differences at the high levels of theory of mind to be expected in neurotypical adults...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Eliot L Berson, Carol Weigel-DiFranco, Bernard Rosner, Alexander R Gaudio, Michael A Sandberg
Importance: While oral vitamin A supplementation is considered to potentially slow loss of retinal function in adults with retinitis pigmentosa and normal liver function, little data from children with this disease are available. Objective: To compare disease courses in children with retinitis pigmentosa taking or not taking vitamin A supplementation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective, nonrandomized comparison of vitamin A and control cohorts followed up for a mean of 4 to 5 years by the Electroretinography Service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary...
March 29, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Purim Jarujamrus, Nutthaporn Malahom, Sodsai Puchum, Rattapol Meelapsom, Maliwan Amatatongchai, Atitaya Siripinyanond, Sanoe Chairam, Chadin Kulsing
This work describes analytical approaches based on simple complexometric and argentometric titrations leading to the color change of a novel microfluidic thread-based analytical device (µTAD). The device was fabricated from a cotton thread (15 cm) treated with indicator solution, providing an easy-to-use platform for rapid measurement of analyte concentration in aqueous solution. The thread was immobilized onto a support, being a polypropylene sheet or box platform, to facilitate loading of liquid samples...
June 1, 2018: Talanta
Sherry Adrianos, Marcé Lorenzen, Brenda Oppert
The Tribolium castaneum vermilion gene encodes tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a pivotal enzyme in the ommochrome pathway that is required for proper pigmentation of the eye. A white-eyed mutant strain of T. castaneum, vermilionwhite (vw ), lacks eye pigmentation due to a deletion of unknown size that removes all but the 3'- end of the vermilion gene. To create a more defined mutation in vermilion, the CRISPR/Cas9-nuclease system was used to target wild type vermilion in preblastoderm T. castaneum embryos. As adults, all injected beetles had wild type (black) eye pigmentation; however, when outcrossed to vw mates, one cross produced 19% white-eyed offspring...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Robert Beaulieu, Kaden Andre, Ronald Mancini
PURPOSE: To determine if frontalis muscle contraction can be induced by manipulating visual and eyelid proprioceptive inputs through simulating visual deprivation and ptosis. METHODS: Volunteers without prior eyelid or forehead pathologic study were recruited for this nonrandomized, prospective study. Baseline and study phase brow positions were documented. The first phase was to simulate visual deprivation and the second to simulate ptosis. The dominant eye was used for each phase...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sophia Y Wang, Mariam S Hamid, David C Musch, Maria A Woodward
Importance: Nearly 2 million patients visit emergency departments (EDs) because of eye concerns annually in the United States. How hospitals currently assign these patients to treatment is important for designing systems that equitably allocate resources for eye care in urgent settings. Objective: To investigate factors associated with ophthalmology consultation for eye-related adult ED encounters to assess possible disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, language preference, or residential distance from the medical center...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Betul Sen, Aysun Şavk, Fatih Sen
Dimethylamine borane (DMAB) has been considered as one of the important hydrogen sources with a simple process by the help of the efficient catalyst. For this purpose, herein, platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), placed inside carbon black hybrid (Pt NPs@CBH), activated carbon (Pt NPs@AC) and Vulcan carbon (Pt NPs@VC), have been prepared as highly monodisperse catalysts for dehydrogenation reactions of DMAB at room temperature. The morphological and physical structure of the monodisperse catalysts have been identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) etc...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Li Zhaoping, Joëlle Ackermann
In a random-dot stereogram, the percept of object surfaces in a three-dimensional scene is generated by images presented to left and right eyes that comprise interocularly corresponding random black and white dots. The spatial disparities between the corresponding dots determine the depths of object surfaces. If the dots are anticorrelated, such that a black dot in one monocular image corresponds to a white dot in the other, disparity-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) respond as if their preferred disparities become nonpreferred and vice versa, thereby reversing the disparity signs reported to higher visual areas...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Robin K Kuriakose, Lorna W Grant, Eric K Chin, David R P Almeida
Purpose: Conjunctival adherence of a tick is an uncommon event with few reports previously cited in the literature. We report a unique case of tick penetration, specifically a black-legged deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ), into the conjunctiva. Observations: This patient experienced a 3-week history of unilateral mild ocular pain, decreased vision, and pigmented lesion of her right eye. Slit lamp examination demonstrated a tick attached to the conjunctiva. Pathology confirmed the insect exoskeleton...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Jennifer A Deal, A Richey Sharrett, Andreea M Rawlings, Rebecca F Gottesman, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Marilyn Albert, David Knopman, Elizabeth Selvin, Bruce A Wasserman, Barbara Klein, Ronald Klein
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that retinal vascular signs are associated with greater cognitive decline over 20 years in 12,317 men and women 50 to 73 years of age at baseline. METHODS: A composite cognitive score was created with 3 neuropsychological tests measured at 3 time points (1990-1992 to 2011-2013). Retinal signs were measured with fundus photography (1993-1995). Differences in cognitive change by retinal signs status were estimated with linear mixed models...
February 28, 2018: Neurology
Elaine Fiod Costa, Luciano Moreira Pinto, Marcos Adriano Garcia Campos, Thais Mota Gomes, Gyl Eanes Barros Silva
BACKGROUND: Rhinosporidiosis is a rare chronic infection of the mucous membranes caused by the Rhinosporidium seeberi. Approximately 15% of cases of rhinosporidiosis are ocular, occurring mainly in the tarsal conjunctiva. There are only 11 cases of scleral melt with staphyloma formation associated with bulbar conjuctival oculosporidiosis and none of them was associated with partial regression of the scleral ectasia after a corneoscleral tectonic graft. CASE PRESENTATION: a 13-year-old girl with a progressively increasing black mass in the upper nasal part above the cornea of the left eye...
February 27, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Bret A Moore, David J Maggs, Soohyun Kim, Monica J Motta, Ruta Bandivadekar, Lisa A Tell, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ocular disease and obtain normative ocular data for free-living hummingbirds. ANIMALS STUDIED: Two hundred and sixty-three free-living, adult Hummingbirds from coastal and inland central California were studied, including Anna's (Calypte anna, n = 186) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri; n = 77) hummingbirds. PROCEDURES: Slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed on all individuals...
February 20, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Robert S White, Dahniel L Sastow, Licia K Gaber-Baylis, Virginia Tangel, Andrew D Fisher, Zachary A Turnbull
BACKGROUND: Total hip replacements (THRs) are the sixth most common surgical procedure performed in the USA. Readmission rates are estimated at between 4.0 and 10.9%, and mean costs are between $10,000 and $19,000. Readmissions are influenced by the quality of care received. We sought to examine differences in readmissions by insurance payer, race and ethnicity, and income status. METHODS: We analyzed all THRs from 2007 to 2011 in California, Florida, and New York from the State Inpatient Databases, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shalini Singh, Ankita Shrivastav, Manisha Agarwal, Arpan Gandhi, Rahul Mayor, Lagan Paul
BACKGROUND: Scleral buckling is an established modality of treating retinal detachment. Being an external implant the buckle may be prone to infections. We report such a case with a delayed presentation and a rare etiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male presented with redness, foreign body sensation and discharge for one month in his right eye. The patient had undergone a retinal detachment surgery elsewhere 14 years back without any visual gain. Right eye demonstrated no perception of light and the best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 6/6, N6...
February 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Tzu-Chieh Lin, Michael F Marmor, Medha Barbhaiya, Hongshu Guan, Sarah K Chen, Candace H Feldman, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVES: Baseline retinal examination has long been recommended at hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) initiation, but it is unknown how well this guideline is followed. We investigated baseline eye examinations among U.S. Medicaid SLE patients initiating HCQ. METHODS: Using billing codes, we identified SLE patients aged 18-65 enrolled in Medicaid, residing in the 29 most populated U.S. states from 2000-2010. New HCQ users were identified by filling a prescription, with none in the preceding 12 months...
February 6, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Pritha Bagchi, Nathan Geldner, B Rey deCastro, Víctor R De Jesús, Sang Ki Park, Benjamin C Blount
INTRODUCTION: Crotonaldehyde is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that is a potent eye, respiratory, and skin irritant. Crotonaldehyde is a major constituent of tobacco smoke and its exposure can be quantified using its urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (HPMM). A large-scale biomonitoring study is needed to determine HPMM levels, as a measure of crotonaldehyde exposure, in the general U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x488a7c8) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples were obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 from participants who were at least six-years-old (N = 4692)...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Research
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