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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334336/ophthalmic-screening-patterns-among-youths-with-diabetes-enrolled-in-a-large-us-managed-care-network
#1
Sophia Y Wang, Chris A Andrews, Thomas W Gardner, Michael Wood, Kanakadurga Singer, Joshua D Stein
Importance: Ophthalmic screening to check for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important to prevent vision loss in persons with diabetes. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that ophthalmic screening for DR occur beginning at 5 years after initial diabetes diagnosis for youths with type 1 diabetes; the American Diabetes Association recommends screening of youths with type 2 diabetes at the time of initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, it is unknown to what extent youths with diabetes obtain eye examinations in accordance with these guidelines...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322220/early-onset-progressive-retinal-atrophy-associated-with-an-iqcb1-variant-in-african-black-footed-cats-felis-nigripes
#2
Annie Oh, Jacqueline W Pearce, Barbara Gandolfi, Erica K Creighton, William K Suedmeyer, Michael Selig, Ann P Bosiack, Leilani J Castaner, Rebecca E H Whiting, Ellen B Belknap, Leslie A Lyons
African black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) are endangered wild felids. One male and full-sibling female African black-footed cat developed vision deficits and mydriasis as early as 3 months of age. The diagnosis of early-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) was supported by reduced direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes, phenotypic presence of retinal degeneration, and a non-recordable electroretinogram with negligible amplitudes in both eyes. Whole genome sequencing, conducted on two unaffected parents and one affected offspring was compared to a variant database from 51 domestic cats and a Pallas cat, revealed 50 candidate variants that segregated concordantly with the PRA phenotype...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314416/prevention-of-sport-related-facial-injuries
#3
REVIEW
Amanda M Black, Declan A Patton, Paul H Eliason, Carolyn A Emery
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296058/a-comparison-between-the-larval-eyes-of-the-dimly-luminescent-keroplatus-nipponicus-and-the-brightly-luminescent-arachnocampa-luminosa-diptera-keroplatidae
#4
V Benno Meyer-Rochow, Yumi Yamahama
Larvae of the weakly blue-luminescent fungus gnat Keroplatus nipponicus possess on either side of their heads a small black stemmatal eye with a plano-convex lens approximately 25 μm in diameter. In total, 12-14 retinula cells give rise to a centrally fused rhabdom of up to 8 μm in diameter. The rhabdom's constituent microvilli, approximately 70 nm in width, are roughly orthogonally oriented, a requirement for polarization sensitivity. Screening pigment granules are abundant in the retinula cells and measure at least 1 μm in diameter...
March 9, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293433/eye-tracking-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-functional-ability-in-everyday-tasks-in-glaucoma
#5
REVIEW
Enkelejda Kasneci, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293201/accessibility-of-referent-information-influences-sentence-planning-an-eye-tracking-study
#6
Lesya Y Ganushchak, Agnieszka E Konopka, Yiya Chen
This study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The accessibility of the agent (Experiment 1) and patient (Experiment 2) was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where the agent or patient was mentioned explicitly (fly, frog)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288454/validation-of-the-nuclear-cataract-grading-system-bcn-10
#7
Rafael I Barraquer, Laura Pinilla Cortés, Miriam J Allende, Gustavo A Montenegro, Bozidar Ivankovic, Justin Christopher D'Antin, Hernán Martínez Osorio, Ralph Michael
PURPOSE: To evaluate a new nuclear cataract grading system which is intended as a surgical guidance system to predict lens hardness before cataract surgery. METHODS: The new BCN 10 grading system consists of frontal and cross-sectional slit-lamp images of human eye lenses, ranging from a completely transparent lens nucleus to a totally black nuclear cataract. Validation was done with 9 observers for 110 cases. Two modalities were applied, and observers were asked to use only whole digits and then half digits for grading...
March 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287859/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-community-based-glaucoma-check-service-in-hackney-london-uk
#8
Elizabeth Holdsworth, Jessica Datta, Dalya Marks, Hannah Kuper, Helen Lee, Shaun Leamon, Robert Lindfield, Richard Wormald, Jonathan Clarke, Ahmed Elkarmouty, Wendy Macdowall
PURPOSE: To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. METHODS: The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service...
March 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257383/conjunctival-tattoo-with-inadvertent-globe-penetration-and-associated-complications
#9
Natasha Ferreira Santos da Cruz, Kátia Santana Santos, Michelle de Lima Farah, Sergio Felberg
PURPOSE: To report a case of conjunctival tattooing for cosmetic purposes with inadvertent globe penetration resulting in severe inflammation, capsular lens opacity, and secondary glaucoma. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 25-year-old woman experienced severe ocular pain and decreased vision in the left eye after conjunctival tattooing for cosmetic purposes on the previous day. Slit-lamp examination revealed black deposits over the conjunctiva, corneal endothelium, anterior chamber angle, iris, and anterior capsular lens due to the tattooing pigment...
March 1, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253385/association-of-steroid-5%C3%AE-reductase-type-3-congenital-disorder-of-glycosylation-with-early-onset-retinal-dystrophy
#10
Rachel L Taylor, Gavin Arno, James A Poulter, Kamron N Khan, Jiten Morarji, Sarah Hull, Nikolas Pontikos, Antonio Rueda Martin, Katherine R Smith, Manir Ali, Carmel Toomes, Martin McKibbin, Jill Clayton-Smith, Stephanie Grunewald, Michel Michaelides, Anthony T Moore, Alison J Hardcastle, Chris F Inglehearn, Andrew R Webster, Graeme C Black
Importance: Steroid 5α-reductase type 3 congenital disorder of glycosylation (SRD5A3-CDG) is a rare disorder of N-linked glycosylation. Its retinal phenotype is not well described but could be important for disease recognition because it appears to be a consistent primary presenting feature. Objective: To investigate a series of patients with the same mutation in the SRD5A3 gene and thereby characterize its retinal manifestations and other associated features. Design, Setting and Participants: Seven affected individuals from 4 unrelated families with early-onset retinal dystrophy as a primary manifestation underwent comprehensive ophthalmic assessment, including retinal imaging and electrodiagnostic testing...
March 2, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250447/antifogging-abilities-of-model-nanotextures
#11
Timothée Mouterde, Gaëlle Lehoucq, Stéphane Xavier, Antonio Checco, Charles T Black, Atikur Rahman, Thierry Midavaine, Christophe Clanet, David Quéré
Nanometre-scale features with special shapes impart a broad spectrum of unique properties to the surface of insects. These properties are essential for the animal's survival, and include the low light reflectance of moth eyes, the oil repellency of springtail carapaces and the ultra-adhesive nature of palmtree bugs. Antireflective mosquito eyes and cicada wings are also known to exhibit some antifogging and self-cleaning properties. In all cases, the combination of small feature size and optimal shape provides exceptional surface properties...
February 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214552/interocular-suppression-in-children-with-deprivation-amblyopia
#12
Lisa Hamm, Zidong Chen, Jinrong Li, Joanna Black, Shuan Dai, Junpeng Yuan, Minbin Yu, Benjamin Thompson
In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9...
March 5, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211184/night-time-pedestrian-conspicuity-effects-of-clothing-on-drivers-eye-movements
#13
Joanne M Wood, Richard A Tyrrell, Philippe Lacherez, Alex A Black
PURPOSE: Drivers' responses and eye movements were assessed as they approached pedestrians at night in order to explore the relative conspicuity benefits of different configurations of retroreflective markings. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded using an ASL Mobile Eye (Applied Science Technologies, www.asleyetracking.com) from 14 young licensed drivers (M = 24.1 ± 6.4 years) as they drove along a closed-road circuit at night. At two locations, pedestrians walked in place facing either towards or away from the road...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193286/tropical-diabetic-hand-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Eugene Vernyuy Yeika, Jacques Cabral Tchoumi Tantchou, Joyce Bei Foryoung, Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac, Derrick Tembi Efie, Siméon Pierre Choukem
BACKGROUND: Tropical diabetic hand syndrome describes a complex hand sepsis affecting patients with diabetes across the tropics and often results from a trivial hand trauma. The clinical presentation of this syndrome is variable and ranges from localised swelling and cellulitis, with or without ulceration of the hand to progressive fulminant hand sepsis, and gangrene affecting the entire limb which may be fatal. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome could lead to permanent disability and death as a result of delay in presentation, late diagnosis and late medical and surgical intervention...
February 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183014/a-novel-indolium-salt-as-a-highly-sensitive-and-selective-fluorescent-sensor-for-cyanide-detection-in-water
#15
Apiwat Promchat, Paitoon Rashatasakhon, Mongkol Sukwattanasinitt
A highly sensitive fluorescent turn-on cyanide probe is developed based on benzylidenes containing methylindolium group. Three benzylidene derivatives were synthesized from the condensations of three benzaldehyde derivatives and methyleneindoline. Only one of these three derivatives shows strong blue fluorescent response selectively to CN(-) which can be clearly observed in submicromolar range as the result of the cyanide addition to the indolium group. The detection of cyanide with this compound is optimized in aqueous media using non-ionic surfactant and sonication method to give very low limit of detection in subnanomolar range...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181961/the-association-of-dry-eye-symptom-severity-and-comorbid-insomnia-in-us-veterans
#16
Anat Galor, Benjamin E Seiden, Jasmine J Park, William J Feuer, Allison L McClellan, Elizabeth R Felix, Roy C Levitt, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Douglas M Wallace
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between dry eye (DE) and insomnia symptom severity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 187 individuals seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. An evaluation was performed consisting of questionnaires regarding insomnia (insomnia severity index [ISI]) and DE symptoms, including ocular pain, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination. Using a two-step cluster analysis based on intensity ratings of ocular pain, the patient population was divided into two groups (high and low ocular pain groups: HOP and LOP)...
January 6, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166901/effects-of-ambient-illumination-contrast-polarity-and-letter-size-on-text-legibility-under-glance-like-reading
#17
Jonathan Dobres, Nadine Chahine, Bryan Reimer
Recent research on the legibility of digital displays has demonstrated a "positive polarity advantage", in which black-on-white text configurations are more legible than their negative polarity, white-on-black counterparts. Existing research in this area suggests that the positive polarity advantage stems from the brighter illumination emitted by positive polarity displays, as opposed to the darker backgrounds of negative polarity displays. In the present study, legibility thresholds were measured under glance-like reading conditions using a lexical decision paradigm, testing two type sizes, display polarities, and ambient illuminations (near-dark and daylight-like)...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159379/factors-affecting-visits-to-the-emergency-department-for-urgent-and-nonurgent-ocular-conditions
#18
Brian C Stagg, Muazzum M Shah, Nidhi Talwar, Dolly A Padovani-Claudio, Maria A Woodward, Joshua D Stein
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits for nonurgent and urgent ocular conditions and risk factors associated with ED use for nonurgent and urgent ocular problems. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS: All enrollees aged 21 years or older in a United States managed care network during 2001-2014. METHODS: We identified all enrollees visiting an ED for ocular conditions identified by International Classification of Diseases, billing codes...
January 31, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156544/equity-in-patient-provider-communication-regarding-treatment-related-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#19
Jennifer Schaal, Linda Robertson, Eugenia Eng, Jemeia G Kollie, Christina Yongue, Karen Foley, Beth Smith, Mellissa K Yee, Kristin Black, Katrina Ellis, Lucretia Hoffman, Alexandra Lightfoot, Claire Morse, Neda Padilla, Sam Cykert
127 Background: Compared with white breast cancer patients, black patients more often report inadequate symptom control and decrements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Racial differences in patient-provider communication (PPC) are well-documented and linked to worse health outcomes for minorities; however, less is known about inequities in symptom and HRQOL discussions among cancer patients and providers. As part of an NCI-funded systems change intervention to improve racial equity in treatment completion among Black and White cancer patients, we assessed racial differences in PPC regarding treatment-related symptoms, HRQOL issues (e...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155227/a-new-cave-dwelling-loach-triplophysa-xichouensis-sp-nov-teleostei-nemacheilidae-from-yunnan-china
#20
S W Liu, X F Pan, J X Yang, X Y Chen
A new cave-dwelling loach of the genus Triplophysa, T. xichouensis, is described from an outlet of a subterranean river in Xisa Town, Xichou County, Yunnan Province, China. It can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays iii, 8; anal-fin rays ii, 6; pectoral-fin rays i, 9 or 10; pelvic-fin rays i, 5 or 6; branched caudal-fin rays 16(8+8); eyes highly degenerated to a very tiny black dot; dorsal-fin origin closer to snout tip than to caudal-fin base and anterior to vertical line of pelvic-fin origin; pectoral fin length about two-thirds the distance between pectoral-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; caudal peduncle slender, its length about three times its depth; caudal fin emarginate; body smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete and straight; anterior chamber of air bladder wrapped in dumbbell-shaped bony capsule and the posterior one well developed, long, oval; intestine short, bending in zigzag shape behind stomach...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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