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Skin epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#1
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621264/dna-methylation-hydroxymethylation-in-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Siqi Fu, Haijing Wu, Huiming Zhang, Christine G Lian, Qianjin Lu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and is considered to be the most aggressive cancer among all skin diseases. The pathogenesis of melanoma has not been well documented, which may restrict the research and development of biomarkers and therapies. To date, several genetic and epigenetic factors have been identified as contributing to the development and progression of melanoma. Besides the findings on genetic susceptibilities, the recent progress in epigenetic studies has revealed that loss of the DNA hydroxymethylation mark, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), along with high levels of DNA methylation at promoter regions of several tumor suppressor genes in melanoma, may serve as biomarkers for melanoma...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607911/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-is-predetermined-by-the-epigenetic-state-of-the-skin-tumor-cell-of-origin
#3
EDITORIAL
Takashi Semba, Yoshimi Arima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583676/second-international-symposium-epigenetic-regulation-of-skin-regeneration-and-aging-from-chromatin-biology-towards-the-understanding-of-epigenetic-basis-of-skin-diseases
#4
Vladimir A Botchkarev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574180/topical-equol-preparation-improves-structural-and-molecular-skin-parameters
#5
U Magnet, Chr Urbanek, D Gaisberger, E Tomeva, E Dum, A Pointner, A G Haslberger
OBJECTIVE: Equol has been shown to improve skin health and regeneration, due to its antioxidative, phytoestrogenic and epigenetic characteristics. The effects of a topical intervention on skin structure, telomere length and epigenetic markers in skin cells were analysed. METHODS: 64 participants were divided in four groups and three of them treated topically with: emulsion with Equol powder (Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ); emulsion with microencapsulated Equol (Vesisorb(®) Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ) and an emulsion with lecithin (Vesisorb(®) placebo)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558655/the-common-transcriptional-subnetworks-of-the-grape-berry-skin-in-the-late-stages-of-ripening
#6
Ryan Ghan, Juli Petereit, Richard L Tillett, Karen A Schlauch, David Toubiana, Aaron Fait, Grant R Cramer
BACKGROUND: Wine grapes are important economically in many countries around the world. Defining the optimum time for grape harvest is a major challenge to the grower and winemaker. Berry skins are an important source of flavor, color and other quality traits in the ripening stage. Senescent-like processes such as chloroplast disorganization and cell death characterize the late ripening stage. RESULTS: To better understand the molecular and physiological processes involved in the late stages of berry ripening, RNA-seq analysis of the skins of seven wine grape cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon) was performed...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556560/expression-of-mir-618-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-systemic-sclerosis-patients-is-associated-with-their-altered-frequency-and-activation
#7
Marzia Rossato, Alsya J Affandi, Soley Thordardottir, Catharina G K Wichers, Marta Cossu, Jasper C A Broen, Frederique M Moret, Lara Bossini-Castillo, Eleni Chouri, Lenny van Bon, Femke Wolters, Wioleta Marut, Maarten van der Kroef, Sandra Silva-Cardoso, Cornelis P J Bekker, Harry Dolstra, Jacob M van Laar, Javier Martin, Joel A G van Roon, Kris A Reedquist, Lorenzo Beretta, Timothy R D J Radstake
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a critical source of type I interferons (IFNs) that can contribute to the onset and maintenance of autoimmunity. Molecular mechanisms leading to pDC dysregulation and persistent type I IFN signature are largely unexplored, especially in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a disease in which pDCs infiltrate fibrotic skin lesions and produce higher levels of IFNα as compared to healthy controls. Objective To investigate potential microRNA-mediated epigenetic mechanisms underlying pDC dysregulation and type I IFN production in SSc...
May 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537880/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#8
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536458/epigenetic-priming-restores-the-hla-class-i-antigen-processing-machinery-expression-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#9
Cathrin Ritter, Kaiji Fan, Annette Paschen, Sine Reker Hardrup, Soldano Ferrone, Paul Nghiem, Selma Ugurel, David Schrama, Jürgen C Becker
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive, yet highly immunogenic skin cancer. The latter is due to its viral or UV-associated carcinogenesis. For tumor progression MCC has to escape the host's immuno-surveillance, e.g. by loss of HLA class-I expression. Indeed, a reduced HLA class-I expression was observed in MCC tumor tissues and MCC cell lines. This reduced HLA class-I surface expression is caused by an impaired expression of key components of the antigen processing machinery (APM), including LMP2 and LMP7 as well as TAP1 and TAP2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524065/microrna-in-skin-diseases
#10
Tatiana G Ruksha, Anna V Komina, Nadezhda V Palkina
MicroRNAs are essential regulators of various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and the immune response, acting as factors for translational repression and/or degradation of target messenger RNA. Currently, microRNAs are considered as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for different pathological conditions. Skin may serve as a convenient model for microRNA modulation studies due to the comparatively easy access to targets cells. Cutaneous diseases are characterized by multiple intercellular communication pathways, triggered by diverse stimuli and mediated by heterogenous regulators, including microRNAs...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470479/epigenetic-variability-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-what-we-learned-from-genome-wide-dna-methylation-studies
#11
REVIEW
Maria Teruel, Amr H Sawalha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA methylation has emerged as an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe the DNA methylation patterns identified in SLE and how these epigenetic changes can influence disease susceptibility, clinical heterogeneity, and disease flares. RECENT FINDINGS: Several genome-wide DNA methylation studies have been recently completed in SLE. Important observations include robust demethylation of interferon-regulated genes, which is consistent across all cell types studied to date, and is independent of disease activity...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469092/transcriptional-dissection-of-melanoma-identifies-a-high-risk-subtype-underlying-tp53-family-genes-and-epigenome-deregulation
#12
Brateil Badal, Alexander Solovyov, Serena Di Cecilia, Joseph Minhow Chan, Li-Wei Chang, Ramiz Iqbal, Iraz T Aydin, Geena S Rajan, Chen Chen, Franco Abbate, Kshitij S Arora, Antoine Tanne, Stephen B Gruber, Timothy M Johnson, Douglas R Fullen, Leon Raskin, Robert Phelps, Nina Bhardwaj, Emily Bernstein, David T Ting, Georg Brunner, Eric E Schadt, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Julide Tok Celebi
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a heterogeneous malignancy. We set out to identify the molecular underpinnings of high-risk melanomas, those that are likely to progress rapidly, metastasize, and result in poor outcomes. METHODS: We examined transcriptome changes from benign states to early-, intermediate-, and late-stage tumors using a set of 78 treatment-naive melanocytic tumors consisting of primary melanomas of the skin and benign melanocytic lesions. We utilized a next-generation sequencing platform that enabled a comprehensive analysis of protein-coding and -noncoding RNA transcripts...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436451/empirical-modeling-of-physiochemical-immune-response-of-multilayer-zinc-oxide-nanomaterials-under-uv-exposure-to-melanoma-and-foreskin-fibroblasts
#13
Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, M Waseem Akram, Seemab Iqbal, K S Alimgeer, M Atif, K Sultana, M Willander, Zhiming M Wang
Carcinogenesis is a complex molecular process starting with genetic and epigenetic alterations, mutation stimulation, and DNA modification, which leads to proteomic adaptation ending with an uncontrolled proliferation mechanism. The current research focused on the empirical modelling of the physiological response of human melanoma cells (FM55P) and human foreskin fibroblasts cells (AG01518) to the multilayer zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials under UV-A exposure. To validate this experimental scheme, multilayer ZnO nanomaterials were grown on a femtotip silver capillary and conjugated with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415767/unique-properties-of-thymic-antigen-presenting-cells-promote-epigenetic-imprinting-of-alloantigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Garima Garg, Eirini Nikolouli, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Aras Toker, Naganari Ohkura, Michael Beckstette, Takahisa Miyao, Robert Geffers, Stefan Floess, Norbert Gerdes, Esther Lutgens, Anke Osterloh, Shohei Hori, Shimon Sakaguchi, Elmar Jaeckel, Jochen Huehn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potential immunotherapeutic candidates to induce transplantation tolerance. However, stability of Tregs still remains contentious and may potentially restrict their clinical use. Recent work suggested that epigenetic imprinting of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific signature genes is crucial for stabilization of immunosuppressive properties of Foxp3+ Tregs, and that these events are initiated already during early stages of thymic Treg development. However, the mechanisms governing this process remain largely unknown...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411854/the-molecular-revolution-in-cutaneous-biology-chromosomal-territories-higher-order-chromatin-remodeling-and-the-control-of%C3%A2-gene-expression-in-keratinocytes
#15
REVIEW
Vladimir A Botchkarev
Three-dimensional organization of transcription in the nucleus and mechanisms controlling the global chromatin folding, including spatial interactions between the genes, noncoding genome elements, and epigenetic and transcription machinery, are essential for establishing lineage-specific gene expression programs during cell differentiation. Spatial chromatin interactions in the nucleus involving gene promoters and distal regulatory elements are currently considered major forces that drive cell differentiation and genome evolution in general, and such interactions are substantially reorganized during many pathological conditions...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410601/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-nk-t-cell-lymphomas
#16
REVIEW
Eric Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive malignancy of putative NK-cell origin, with a minority deriving from the T-cell lineage. Pathologically, the malignancy occurs in two forms, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type; and aggressive NK-cell leukaemia. Lymphoma occur most commonly (80%) in the nose and upper aerodigestive tract, less commonly (20%) in non-nasal areas (skin, gastrointestinal tract, testis, salivary gland), and rarely as disseminated disease with a leukemic phase...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380423/microrna-217-modulates-human-skin-fibroblast-senescence-by-directly-targeting-dna-methyltransferase-1
#17
Ben Wang, Rui Du, Xiao Xiao, Zhi-Li Deng, Dan Jian, Hong-Fu Xie, Ji Li
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a major epigenetic regulator associated with many biological processes. However, the roles and mechanisms of DNMT1 in skin aging are incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of DNMT1 in human skin fibroblasts senescence and its related regulatory mechanisms. DNMT1 expression decreased in passage-aged fibroblasts and DNMT1 silencing in young fibroblasts induced the senescence phenotype. MiR-217 is predicted to target DNMT1 mRNA and miR-217 expression increased in passage-aged fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374742/the-histone-methyltransferase-ash1l-is-required-for-epidermal-homeostasis-in-mice
#18
Gang Li, Zhisheng Ye, Cheng Shi, Ling Sun, Min Han, Yuan Zhuang, Tian Xu, Shimin Zhao, Xiaohui Wu
Epidermal homeostasis under normal and healing conditions are critical for the physical and functional maintenance of the skin barrier. It requires a proper balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation under genetic and epigenetic regulations. Here we show that mice carrying a hypomorphic mutation of the histone methyltransferase Ash1l [(absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Drosophila)] develop epidermal hyperplasia and impaired epidermal stratification upon aging. In adult mutants, loss of Ash1l leads to more proliferative keratinocytes in disturbed differentiation stages...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366709/architecture-in-3d-cell-culture-an-essential-feature-for-in-vitro-toxicology
#19
Sophie A Lelièvre, Tim Kwok, Shirisha Chittiboyina
Three-dimensional cell culture has the potential to revolutionize toxicology studies by allowing human-based reproduction of essential elements of organs. Beyond the study of toxicants on the most susceptible organs such as liver, kidney, skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, testis, heart and brain, carcinogenesis research will also greatly benefit from 3D cell culture models representing any normal tissue. No tissue function can be suitably reproduced without the appropriate tissue architecture whether mimicking acini, ducts or tubes, sheets of cells or more complex cellular organizations like hepatic cords...
March 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362190/hpv-epigenetic-mechanisms-related-to-oropharyngeal-and-cervix-cancers
#20
Marina Di Domenico, Giancarlo Giovane, Soumaya Kouidhi, Rosamaria Iorio, Maurizio Romano, Francesco De Francesco, Antonia Feola, Camilla Siciliano, Luigi Califano, Antonio Giordano
Human Papilloma Virus infection is very frequent in humans and is mainly transmitted sexually. The majority of infections are transient and asymptomatic, however, if the infection persists, it can occur with a variety of injuries to skin and mucous membranes, depending on the type of HPV involved. Some types of HPV are classified as high oncogenic risk as associated with the onset of cancer. The tumors most commonly associated with HPV are cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, epigenetic mechanisms related to HPV infection include methylation changes to host and viral DNA and chromatin modification in host species...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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