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Skin epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#1
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#2
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
December 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034764/the-concept-of-the-personal-vitamin-d-response-index
#3
REVIEW
Carsten Carlberg, Afrozul Haq
Humans are able to synthesize vitamin D3 in their skin when exposed to UV-B, but seasonal variations, textile coverage and predominant indoor activities often make supplementation with the compound necessary. There is some dispute on the desired vitamin D status, measured via the serum concentration of the most stable vitamin D3 metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and the respective recommended daily supplementation. A possible answer may be provided by the concept of the personal vitamin D response index describing the efficiency of the molecular response to supplementation with vitamin D...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028860/possible-association-between-germline-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-gene-polymorphisms-and-psoriasis-risk-in-a-turkish-population
#4
S Kilic, O Ozdemir, F Silan, S Isik, O Yildiz, D Karaagacli, C Silan, Z Ogretmen
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by genetic and epigenetic factors. There are conflicting results in the literature about the association between psoriasis and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), ranging from strong linkage to no association. AIM: To investigate the association between the germline MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C with psoriasis risk in a Turkish population. METHODS: The study enrolled 84 patients with psoriasis and 212 healthy controls (HCs) without any history of psoriasis...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993549/higher-naevus-count-exhibits-a-distinct-dna-methylation-signature-in-healthy-human-skin-implications-for-melanoma
#5
Leonie Roos, Johanna K Sandling, Christopher G Bell, Daniel Glass, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Panos Deloukas, Veronique Bataille, Jordana T Bell
High naevus count is the strongest risk factor for melanoma and although gene variants have been discovered for both traits, epigenetic variation is unexplored. We investigated 322 healthy human skin DNA methylomes associated with total body naevi count, incorporating genetic and transcriptomic variation. DNA methylation changes were identified at genes involved in melanocyte biology, such as RAF1 (p = 1.2 x 10(-6)) and CTC1 (region: p = 6.3 x 10(-4)), and other genes including ARRDC1 (p = 3.1 x 10(-7)). A subset exhibited coordinated methylation and transcription changes within the same biopsy...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965059/epigenetics-of-psoriatic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal
#6
Remy A Pollock, Fatima Abji, Dafna D Gladman
Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by an auto-inflammatory arthritis called psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are multifactorial diseases that result from complex interactions of environmental and genetic risk factors. Epigenetic marks, which are labile chemical marks with diverse functions, form a layer of biological information that sits at the interface of genetics and the environment. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been previously implicated in other rheumatological disorders...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935057/crosstalk-among-uv-induced-inflammatory-mediators-dna-damage-and-epigenetic-regulators-facilitates-suppression-of-the-immune-system
#7
Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
The suppression of the immune system by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. Numerous changes occur in the skin on UVB exposure, including the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and migration and functional alterations in the antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Although each of these alterations can elicit a cascade of events that have the potential to modulate immune sensitivity alone, there is emerging evidence that there is considerable crosstalk between these cascades...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928500/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-psoriatic-arthritis
#8
REVIEW
Dafna D Gladman
This article reviews recent advances in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) over the past several years with emphasis on early diagnosis, better understanding of pathogenesis, and new therapeutic approaches. Early diagnosis is important, since people who present late do not fare as well. There are a number of clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound features that can help identify patients destined to develop PsA, and several screening tools have been developed. It is recognized that genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as T cells and cytokines, play a role in the pathogenesis of PsA, and several targets have been identified for therapeutic interventions...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921251/skin-manifestations-of-insulin-resistance-from-a-biochemical-stance-to-a-clinical-diagnosis-and-management
#9
REVIEW
Gloria González-Saldivar, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, José Gerardo González-González, Minerva Gómez-Flores
Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i.e., prediabetes). The impact of these two chronic conditions relies not only on the burden of illnesses per se (i.e., associated increased morbidity and mortality), but also on their increased cost, burden of treatment, and decreased health-related quality of life. For this review a comprehensive search in several databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted...
December 5, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903442/are-micrornas-true-sensors-of-ageing-and-cellular-senescence
#10
REVIEW
Justin Williams, Flint Smith, Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
All living beings are programmed to death due to aging and age-related processes. Aging is a normal process of every living species. While all cells are inevitably progressing towards death, many disease processes accelerate the aging process, leading to senescence. Pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and skin diseases have been associated with deregulated aging. Healthy aging can delay onset of all age-related diseases...
November 27, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899960/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-melanoma
#11
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Cancer affects multiple organs in the body Malignant melanoma involves the invasion of skin and occasionally mucosal membrane or eye choroidal tissues. The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is on the increase worldwide and is a major concern in current research. The increase is associated with UV irradiation-induced genetic aberrations that stimulate skin melanocytes to develop unlimited growth. This eventually leads to cell immortality, which in turn causes metastases. The present review examines the genetics and epigenetics of this pathological state together with recent perspectives of the therapeutic management of disease...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899087/paradoxical-physiological-responses-to-propranolol-in-a-rett-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#12
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890240/melanocytic-nevi-and-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-oncogene-induced-senescence
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer M Huang, Ijeuru Chikeka, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytic nevi represent benign clonal proliferations of the melanocytes in the skin that usually remain stable in size and behavior or disappear during life. Infrequently, melanocytic nevi undergo malignant transformation to melanoma. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying oncogene-induced senescence should help identify pathways underlying melanoma development, leading to the development of new strategies for melanoma prevention and early detection.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889686/microrna-181-contributes-to-downregulation-of-samhd1-expression-in-cd4-t-cells-derived-from-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-patients
#14
Rebecca Kohnken, Karthik M Kodigepalli, Anjali Mishra, Pierluigi Porcu, Li Wu
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that is characterized by aggressive spread of neoplastic CD4+ T-cells from the skin into the bloodstream with metastasis to visceral organs. The deoxynucleoside triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 is highly expressed in normal CD4+ T-cells, while its expression is down-regulated in CD4+ T-cells from SS patients. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation is an important epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis and progression of SS. MiR-181 has been shown to inhibit SAMHD1 expression in cell lines and was identified as an important prognostic biomarker in CTCL...
January 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875351/pathogenesis-and-immunotherapy-in-cutaneous-psoriasis-what-can-rheumatologists-learn
#15
Helen Alexander, Frank O Nestle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis with a particular focus on recent areas of research and emerging concepts. RECENT FINDINGS: Psoriasis arises in genetically predisposed individuals who have an abnormal innate and adaptive immune response to environmental factors. Recent studies have identified novel genetic, epigenetic and immunological factors that play a role in the disease pathogenesis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826842/pathways-of-dna-demethylation
#16
Wendy Dean
The regulation of the genome relies on the epigenome to instruct, define and restrict the activities of growth and development. Among the cohort of epigenetic instructions, DNA methylation is perhaps the best understood. In most mammals, cycles of the addition and removal of DNA methylation constitute phases of reprogramming when the developing embryo must negotiate lineage defining and developmental commitment events. In these instances, the DNA methylation instruction is often removed, thereby allowing a change in permission for future development and a return to a more plastic and pluripotent state...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825810/dss1-promoter-hypomethylation-and-overexpression-predict-poor-prognosis-in-melanoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#17
Mario Venza, Maria Visalli, Teresa Catalano, Concetta Beninati, Diana Teti, Isabella Venza
Previous studies have found a link between high expression levels of the Deleted in Split hand/Split foot 1 (DSS1) gene and cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of DSS1 is a feature of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and if any epigenetic modifications are involved. Evaluation of DSS1 expression profile indicated that the gene is overexpressed in 112/130 cutaneous melanomas (86.1%), 41/64 uveal melanomas (64.1%), 67/82 mucosal melanomas (81.7%), and 61/75 SCC samples (81...
November 4, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815388/loss-of-the-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-zbtb4-alters-mitotic-checkpoint-increases-aneuploidy-and-promotes-tumorigenesis
#18
Audrey Roussel-Gervais, Ikrame Naciri, Olivier Kirsh, Laetitia Kasprzyk, Guillaume Velasco, Giacomo Grillo, Pierre Dubus, Pierre-Antoine Defossez
Chromosome segregation during mitosis is monitored by the mitotic checkpoint and is dependent upon DNA methylation. ZBTB4 is a mammalian epigenetic regulator with high affinity for methylated CpGs that localizes at pericentromeric heterochromatin and is frequently downregulated in cancer. Here, we report that decreased ZBTB4 expression correlates with high genome instability across many frequent human cancers. In human cell lines, ZBTB4 depletion was sufficient to increase the prevalence of micronuclei and binucleated cells in parallel with aberrant mitotic checkpoint gene expression, a weakened mitotic checkpoint, and an increased frequency of lagging chromosomes during mitosis...
January 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783096/neat1-modulates-herpes-simplex-virus-1-replication-by-regulating-viral-gene-transcription
#19
Ziqiang Wang, Ping Fan, Yiwan Zhao, Shikuan Zhang, Jinhua Lu, Weidong Xie, Yuyang Jiang, Fan Lei, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang
Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) is the crucial structural platform of paraspeckles, which is one type of nuclear bodies. As a stress-induced lncRNA, the expression of NEAT1 increases in response to viral infection, but little is known about the role of NEAT1 or paraspeckles in the replication of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 infection increases NEAT1 expression and paraspeckle formation in a STAT3-dependent manner. NEAT1 and other paraspeckle protein components, P54nrb and PSPC1, can associate with HSV-1 genomic DNA...
October 25, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777593/genetic-and-epigenetic-studies-of-atopic-dermatitis
#20
REVIEW
Lianghua Bin, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the complex interaction of genetic, immune and environmental factors. There have many recent discoveries involving the genetic and epigenetic studies of AD. METHODS: A retrospective PubMed search was carried out from June 2009 to June 2016 using the terms "atopic dermatitis", "association", "eczema", "gene", "polymorphism", "mutation", "variant", "genome wide association study", "microarray" "gene profiling", "RNA sequencing", "epigenetics" and "microRNA"...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
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