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Skin epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815487/benzophenone-3-impairs-autophagy-alters-epigenetic-status-and-disrupts-retinoid-x-receptor-signaling-in-apoptotic-neuronal-cells
#1
Agnieszka Wnuk, Joanna Rzemieniec, Władysław Lasoń, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Małgorzata Kajta
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is the most widely used compound among UV filters for the prevention of photodegradation. Population studies have demonstrated that it penetrates through the skin and crosses the blood-brain barrier. However, little is known about the impact of BP-3 on the nervous system and its possible adverse effects on the developing brain. We demonstrated that the neurotoxic effects of BP-3 were accompanied by the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptosis-related caspase-3 activation and apoptotic body formation as well as the inhibition of autophagy, as determined by the downregulation of autophagy-related genes, decreased autophagosome formation, and reduced LC3B-to-LC3A ratio...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807942/nuclear-fak-and-runx1-cooperate-to-regulate-igfbp3-cell-cycle-progression-and-tumor-growth
#2
Marta Canel, Adam Byron, Andrew H Sims, Jessy Cartier, Hitesh Patel, Margaret C Frame, Valerie G Brunton, Bryan Serrels, Alan Serrels
Nuclear focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a potentially important regulator of gene expression in cancer, impacting both cellular function and the composition of the surrounding tumor microenvironment. Here we report in a murine model of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that nuclear FAK regulates Runx1-dependent transcription of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and that this regulates SCC cell cycle progression and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we identified a novel molecular complex between FAK and Runx1 in the nucleus of SCC cells and showed that FAK interacted with a number of Runx1 regulatory proteins, including Sin3a and other epigenetic modifiers known to alter Runx1 transcriptional function through post-translational modification...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783689/inhibition-of-hdac8-and-hdac9-by-microbial-short-chain-fatty-acids-breaks-immune-tolerance-of-the-epidermis-to-tlr-ligands
#3
James A Sanford, Ling-Juan Zhang, Michael R Williams, Jon A Gangoiti, Chun-Ming Huang, Richard L Gallo
Epidermal keratinocytes participate in immune defense through their capacity to recognize danger, trigger inflammation, and resist infection. However, normal skin immune function must tolerate contact with an abundant community of commensal microbes without inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial environmental conditions dictate the production of molecules that influence epigenetic events and cause keratinocytes to break innate immune tolerance. Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal skin bacterium, produced the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and valerate when provided a lipid source in hypoxic growth conditions, and these SCFAs inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity...
October 28, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751580/intracellular-adenosine-regulates-epigenetic-programming-in-endothelial-cells-to-promote-angiogenesis
#4
Yiming Xu, Yong Wang, Siyuan Yan, Yaqi Zhou, Qiuhua Yang, Yue Pan, Xianqiu Zeng, Xiaofei An, Zhiping Liu, Lina Wang, Jiean Xu, Yapeng Cao, David J Fulton, Neal L Weintraub, Zsolt Bagi, Md Nasrul Hoda, Xiaoling Wang, Qinkai Li, Mei Hong, Xuejun Jiang, Detlev Boison, Christian Weber, Chaodong Wu, Yuqing Huo
The nucleoside adenosine is a potent regulator of vascular homeostasis, but it remains unclear how expression or function of the adenosine-metabolizing enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK) and the intracellular adenosine levels influence angiogenesis. We show here that hypoxia lowered the expression of ADK and increased the levels of intracellular adenosine in human endothelial cells. Knockdown (KD) of ADK elevated intracellular adenosine, promoted proliferation, migration, and angiogenic sprouting in human endothelial cells...
July 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750404/altered-global-5-hydroxymethylation-status-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-support-for-an-epigenetic-background
#5
Schapoor Hessam, Michael Sand, Kerstin Lang, Heiko U Käfferlein, Lisa Scholl, Thilo Gambichler, Marina Skrygan, Thomas Brüning, Eggert Stockfleth, Falk G Bechara
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), with its complex inflammatory network, is still elusive. Imbalances in DNA methylation can lead to genome destabilization and have been assumed to play a role in inflammatory diseases. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation have not been studied in HS yet. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to investigate the global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation status in lesional and perilesional HS skin compared to healthy controls...
July 28, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747631/jmjd3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-activation-of-notch1-gene-is-required-for-keratinocyte-migration-during-skin-wound-healing
#6
Jungtae Na, Jee Yoon Shin, Hayan Jeong, Jee Youn Lee, Beom Joon Kim, Won Sun Kim, Tae Young Yune, Bong-Gun Ju
It has been shown that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in skin wound healing. We previously found that histone H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 regulates inflammation and cell migration in keratinocyte wound healing. In this study, we identified Notch1 as a direct target of JMJD3 and NF-κB in wounded keratinocytes using in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. We found that Notch1 is up-regulated in the wound edge and its expression is dependent on JMJD3 and NF-κB in wounded keratinocytes. We also found that Notch1 activates the expression of RhoU and PLAU gene, which are critical regulators of cell migration...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714938/taxifolin-activates-the-nrf2-anti-oxidative-stress-pathway-in-mouse-skin-epidermal-jb6-p-cells-through-epigenetic-modifications
#7
Haixue Kuang, Zhenqiu Tang, Chengyue Zhang, Zhibin Wang, Wenji Li, Chunjuan Yang, Qiuhong Wang, Bingyou Yang, Ah-Ng Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a vital transcription factor that regulates the anti-oxidative defense system. Previous reports suggested that the expression of the Nrf2 gene can be regulated by epigenetic modifications. The potential epigenetic effect of taxifolin (TAX), a potent cancer chemopreventive agent, in skin cancer chemoprotection is unknown. In this study, we investigated how Nrf2 is epigenetically regulated by TAX in JB6 P+ cells. TAX was found to inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced colony formation of JB6 P+ cells...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702031/alloantigen-induced-regulatory-t-cells-generated-in-presence-of-vitamin-c-display-enhanced-stability-of-foxp3-expression-and-promote-skin-allograft-acceptance
#8
Eirini Nikolouli, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Martin Hapke, Michael Beckstette, Robert Geffers, Stefan Floess, Elmar Jaeckel, Jochen Huehn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance and can be therapeutically used for prevention of unwanted immune responses such as allotransplant rejection. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, and recent work suggests that epigenetic imprinting of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes is crucial for the stabilization of both Foxp3 expression and immunosuppressive properties within Tregs. Lately, vitamin C was reported to enhance the activity of enzymes of the ten-eleven translocation family, thereby fostering the demethylation of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes in developing Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684431/convergent-roles-of-atf3-and-csl-in-chromatin-control-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-activation
#9
Dong Eun Kim, Maria-Giuseppina Procopio, Soumitra Ghosh, Seung-Hee Jo, Sandro Goruppi, Francesco Magliozzi, Pino Bordignon, Victor Neel, Paolo Angelino, G Paolo Dotto
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important for tumor initiation and promotion. CSL, a transcriptional repressor and Notch mediator, suppresses CAF activation. Like CSL, ATF3, a stress-responsive transcriptional repressor, is down-modulated in skin cancer stromal cells, and Atf3 knockout mice develop aggressive chemically induced skin tumors with enhanced CAF activation. Even at low basal levels, ATF3 converges with CSL in global chromatin control, binding to few genomic sites at a large distance from target genes...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679862/mysm1-2a-dub-is-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-human-melanoma-and-contributes-to-tumor-cell-growth
#10
Christina Wilms, Carsten M Kroeger, Adelheid V Hainzl, Ishani Banik, Clara Bruno, Ioanna Krikki, Vida Farsam, Meinhard Wlaschek, Martina V Gatzka
Histone modifying enzymes, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and polycomb repressive complex (PRC) components, have been implicated in regulating tumor growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor stem cell maintenance, or repression of tumor suppressor genes - and may be promising targets for combination therapies of melanoma and other cancers. According to recent findings, the histone H2A deubiquitinase 2A-DUB/Mysm1 interacts with the p53-axis in hematopoiesis and tissue differentiation in mice, in part by modulating DNA-damage responses in stem cell and progenitor compartments...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664715/the-history-of-arsenical-pesticides-and-health-risks-related-to-the-use-of-agent-blue
#11
Vladimir Bencko, Florence Yan Li Foong
Arsenicals in agriculture. Beginning in the 1970s, the use of arsenic compounds for such purposes as wood preservatives, began to grow. By 1980, in the USA, 70% of arsenic had been consumed for the production of wood preservatives. This practice was later stopped, due to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ban of the arsenic-and chromium-based wood preservative chromated copper arsenate. In the past, arsenical herbicides containing cacodylic acid as an active ingredient have been used extensively in the USA, from golf courses to cotton fields, and drying-out the plants before harvesting...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#12
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621264/dna-methylation-hydroxymethylation-in-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
Siqi Fu, Haijing Wu, Huiming Zhang, Christine G Lian, Qianjin Lu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and is considered to be the most aggressive cancer among all skin diseases. The pathogenesis of melanoma has not been well documented, which may restrict the research and development of biomarkers and therapies. To date, several genetic and epigenetic factors have been identified as contributing to the development and progression of melanoma. Besides the findings on genetic susceptibilities, the recent progress in epigenetic studies has revealed that loss of the DNA hydroxymethylation mark, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), along with high levels of DNA methylation at promoter regions of several tumor suppressor genes in melanoma, may serve as biomarkers for melanoma...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607911/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-is-predetermined-by-the-epigenetic-state-of-the-skin-tumor-cell-of-origin
#14
EDITORIAL
Takashi Semba, Yoshimi Arima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583676/second-international-symposium-epigenetic-regulation-of-skin-regeneration-and-aging-from-chromatin-biology-towards-the-understanding-of-epigenetic-basis-of-skin-diseases
#15
Vladimir A Botchkarev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574180/topical-equol-preparation-improves-structural-and-molecular-skin-parameters
#16
U Magnet, Chr Urbanek, D Gaisberger, E Tomeva, E Dum, A Pointner, A G Haslberger
OBJECTIVE: Equol has been shown to improve skin health and regeneration, due to its antioxidative, phytoestrogenic and epigenetic characteristics. The effects of a topical intervention on skin structure, telomere length and epigenetic markers in skin cells were analysed. METHODS: 64 participants were divided in four groups and three of them treated topically with: emulsion with Equol powder (Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ); emulsion with microencapsulated Equol (Vesisorb(®) Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ) and an emulsion with lecithin (Vesisorb(®) placebo)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558655/the-common-transcriptional-subnetworks-of-the-grape-berry-skin-in-the-late-stages-of-ripening
#17
Ryan Ghan, Juli Petereit, Richard L Tillett, Karen A Schlauch, David Toubiana, Aaron Fait, Grant R Cramer
BACKGROUND: Wine grapes are important economically in many countries around the world. Defining the optimum time for grape harvest is a major challenge to the grower and winemaker. Berry skins are an important source of flavor, color and other quality traits in the ripening stage. Senescent-like processes such as chloroplast disorganization and cell death characterize the late ripening stage. RESULTS: To better understand the molecular and physiological processes involved in the late stages of berry ripening, RNA-seq analysis of the skins of seven wine grape cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon) was performed...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556560/association-of-microrna-618-expression-with-altered-frequency-and-activation-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Marzia Rossato, Alsya J Affandi, Soley Thordardottir, Catharina G K Wichers, Marta Cossu, Jasper C A Broen, Frederique M Moret, Lara Bossini-Castillo, Eleni Chouri, Lenny van Bon, Femke Wolters, Wioleta Marut, Maarten van der Kroef, Sandra Silva-Cardoso, Cornelis P J Bekker, Harry Dolstra, Jacob M van Laar, Javier Martin, Joel A G van Roon, Kris A Reedquist, Lorenzo Beretta, Timothy R D J Radstake
OBJECTIVE: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are a critical source of type I interferons (IFNs) that can contribute to the onset and maintenance of autoimmunity. Molecular mechanisms leading to PDC dysregulation and a persistent type I IFN signature are largely unexplored, especially in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a disease in which PDCs infiltrate fibrotic skin lesions and produce higher levels of IFNα than those in healthy controls. This study was undertaken to investigate potential microRNA (miRNA)-mediated epigenetic mechanisms underlying PDC dysregulation and type I IFN production in SSc...
May 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537880/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#19
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536458/epigenetic-priming-restores-the-hla-class-i-antigen-processing-machinery-expression-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#20
Cathrin Ritter, Kaiji Fan, Annette Paschen, Sine Reker Hardrup, Soldano Ferrone, Paul Nghiem, Selma Ugurel, David Schrama, Jürgen C Becker
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive, yet highly immunogenic skin cancer. The latter is due to its viral or UV-associated carcinogenesis. For tumor progression MCC has to escape the host's immuno-surveillance, e.g. by loss of HLA class-I expression. Indeed, a reduced HLA class-I expression was observed in MCC tumor tissues and MCC cell lines. This reduced HLA class-I surface expression is caused by an impaired expression of key components of the antigen processing machinery (APM), including LMP2 and LMP7 as well as TAP1 and TAP2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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