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Leslie L Heywood
Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes' social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable - that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots...
2011: Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience
Stephen W Porges
This article focuses on the importance of social engagement and the behavioral and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow individuals to reduce psychological and physical distance. A model of social engagement derived from the Polyvagal Theory is presented. The model emphasizes phylogeny as an organizing principle and includes the following points: (1) there are well-defined neural circuits to support social engagement behaviors and the defensive strategies of fight, flight, and freeze; (2) these neural circuits form a phylogenetically organized hierarchy; (3) without being dependent on conscious awareness, the nervous system evaluates risk in the environment and regulates the expression of adaptive behavior to match the neuroception of a safe, dangerous, or life-threatening environment; (4) social engagement behaviors and the benefits of the physiological states associated with social support require a neuroception of safety; (5) social behaviors associated with nursing, reproduction, and the formation of strong pair bonds require immobilization without fear; and (6) immobilization without fear is mediated by a co-opting of the neural circuit regulating defensive freezing behaviors through the involvement of oxytocin, a neuropeptide in mammals involved in the formation of social bonds...
December 2003: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
V Sanchis-Alfonso, E Roselló-Sastre, F Revert
We studied 7 samples of lateral retinaculae excised at the time of surgical realignments. They were obtained from patients with isolated symptomatic patellofemoral malalignment resistant to conservative treatment and were evaluated with immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We found that neural growth factor is higher in patients with pain than in those with instability as the main symptom. Neural growth factor is related to neural proliferation in vessels and perivascular tissue and to the release of neuroceptive transmitters, such as substance P...
April 2001: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica
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