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incompleteness ocd

Christian Saleh, Gregor Hasler
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory psychiatric disorders shows promising effects on symptom-reduction, however, little is known regarding the effects of DBS on social outcome. METHODS: A PubMed search based on original studies of DBS for psychiatric disorders [treatment resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)] was conducted. Data on social outcome following surgery were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Gertrudis Fornés-Romero, Amparo Belloch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on incompleteness and not-just right experiences, (INC/NJREs) indicate that some OCD symptom dimensions are motivated by these experiences rather than by anxiety. Most published data are correlational, using non-clinical individuals. This study sought to examine INC/NJREs in vivo in non-clinical and OCD individuals. METHODS: Study 1: Ninety-three undergraduates were randomly assigned to a INC/NJREs induction (n=44) or non-induction task (n=47)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
David Eilam
The application of similar analyses enables a direct projection from translational research in animals to human studies. Following is an example of how the methodology of a specific animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was applied to study human patients. Specifically, the quinpirole rat model for OCD was based on analyzing the trajectories of travel among different locales, and scoring the set of acts performed at each locale. Applying this analytic approach in human patients unveiled various aspects of OCD, such as the repetition and addition of acts, incompleteness, and the link between behavior and specific locations...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ulrike Schmidt, Eric Vermetten
Three and a half decades of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced substantial knowledge on the pathobiology of this frequent and debilitating disease. However, despite all research efforts, so far no drug that has specifically targeted PTSD core symptoms progressed to clinical use. Instead, although not overly efficient, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors continue to be considered the gold standard of PTSD pharmacotherapy. The psychotherapeutic treatment and symptom-oriented drug therapy options available for PTSD treatment today show some efficacy, although not in all PTSD patients, in particular not in a substantial percent of those suffering from the detrimental sequelae of repeated childhood trauma or in veterans with combat related PTSD...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Laura B Bragdon, Meredith E Coles
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous illness and evidence suggests that different clinical characteristics may relate to varying treatment outcomes. This study was designed to identify subgroups based on core motivational domains in a clinical sample of individuals with OCD, and to compare groups on clinical characteristics. Cluster analyses identified four subgroups including groups with relatively high or low levels of both harm avoidance (HA) and incompleteness (INC) motivations. A subgroup was identified that demonstrated a "traditional profile" marked by high motivation to avoid harm, and elevated levels of beliefs about responsibility/overestimation of threat...
January 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Meredith E Coles, Ariel Ravid
There is increasing recognition that instead of being motivated by a desire to prevent harm and reduce anxiety, some obsessive-compulsive symptoms may be driven by a desire to get things 'just right' or 'complete' and to reduce a sense of discomfort. However, existing data is largely from non-clinical samples. Therefore, in the current paper we examine the clinical presentation of not just right experiences (NJREs) in patients diagnosed with OCD and compare their experiences to both anxious and unselected controls...
December 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Wi Hoon Jung, Murat Yücel, Je-Yeon Yun, Youngwoo B Yoon, Kang Ik K Cho, Linden Parkes, Sung Nyun Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
Dysfunction of corticostriatal loops has been proposed to underlie certain cognitive and behavioral problems associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) characterized by repetitive, unwanted thoughts, and behaviors. Although functional abnormalities in the loops involving the orbitofronto-striato-thalamic (OFST) circuitry in patients with OCD have been reported, our understanding of a link between disruptions in the architecture of the intrinsic functional network of the OFST circuit and their symptoms remain incomplete...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Michael G Wheaton, Hanga Galfalvy, Shari A Steinman, Melanie M Wall, Edna B Foa, H Blair Simpson
Exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is an evidence-based treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet not all patients achieve wellness with EX/RP. The degree to which patients adhere to EX/RP procedures outside of sessions has been found to predict therapy outcomes, including who achieves post-treatment wellness. We sought to investigate which components of treatment adherence most relate to outcome and to develop adherence benchmarks to identify who does and does not become well to provide clinicians with prognostic tools...
October 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jana Zímová, Pavlína Zímová
Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Julia Raeke, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, Martin Wagner, Peter Herzsprung, Thorsten Reemtsma
Solid phase extraction (SPE) is often used for enrichment and clean-up prior to analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). It is generally accepted that extraction by SPE is not quantitative with respect to carbon concentration. However, little information is available on the selectivity of different SPE sorbents and the resulting effect for the acquired DOM mass spectra...
July 13, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Nicholas J Sibrava, Christina L Boisseau, Jane L Eisen, Maria C Mancebo, Steven A Rasmussen
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentations. To advance our understanding of this heterogeneity we investigated the prevalence and clinical features associated with incompleteness (INC), a putative underlying core feature of OCD. We predicted INC would be prominent in individuals with OCD and associated with greater severity and impairment. We examined the impact of INC in 307 adults with primary OCD. Participants with clinically significant INC (22.8% of the sample) had significantly greater OCD severity, greater rates of comorbidity, poorer ratings of functioning, lower quality of life, and higher rates of unemployment and disability...
August 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jasmin Knopp-Hoffer, Sarah Knowles, Peter Bower, Karina Lovell, Penny E Bee
BACKGROUND: Low intensity interventions based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) such as computerized therapy or guided self-help can offer effective and accessible care for mild to moderate mental health problems. However, critics argue that by reducing therapist input and the level of experience of the professionals delivering therapy, low intensity interventions deprive users of critical 'active ingredients'. Thus, while demand management arguments support the use of low intensity interventions for OCD, their integration into existing mental health services remains incomplete...
May 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Jinzhi Ding, Fei Li, Guibiao Yang, Leiyi Chen, Beibei Zhang, Li Liu, Kai Fang, Shuqi Qin, Yongliang Chen, Yunfeng Peng, Chengjun Ji, Honglin He, Pete Smith, Yuanhe Yang
The permafrost organic carbon (OC) stock is of global significance because of its large pool size and the potential positive feedback to climate warming. However, due to the lack of systematic field observations and appropriate upscaling methodologies, substantial uncertainties exist in the permafrost OC budget, which limits our understanding of the fate of frozen carbon in a warming world. In particular, the lack of comprehensive estimates of OC stocks across alpine permafrost means that current knowledge on this issue remains incomplete...
August 2016: Global Change Biology
Ilse van de Vondervoort, Geert Poelmans, Armaz Aschrafi, David L Pauls, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood and is characterized by obsessions (recurrent, intrusive, persistent thoughts, impulses and/or ideas that often cause anxiety or distress) and compulsions (ritualized and stereotypic behaviours or mental acts that are often performed to relieve anxiety or distress associated with obsessions). Although OCD is a heritable disorder, its complex molecular etiology is poorly understood. METHODS: We combined enrichment analyses and an elaborate literature review of the top-ranked genes emerging from the 2 published genome-wide association studies of OCD and candidate genes implicated through other evidence in order to identify biological processes that, when dysregulated, increase the risk for OCD...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Amparo Belloch, Gertrudis Fornés, Angel Carrasco, Clara López-Solá, Pino Alonso, Jose M Menchón
In the past decade, not just right experiences (NJRE) and incompleteness (INC) have attracted renewed interest as putative motivators of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), beyond harm avoidance (HA). This study examines, in 267 non-clinical undergraduates and 47 OCD patients, the differential contributions of HA, INC, and NJRE to the different OCD symptom dimensions and the propensity to have the disorder. The results indicate that although both the NJRE and INC range from normality to OCD, their number and intensity significantly increase as the obsessional tendencies increase, which suggests that they are vulnerability markers for OCD...
February 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Mark A Riddle, Brion S Maher, Ying Wang, Marco Grados, O Joseph Bienvenu, Fernando S Goes, Bernadette Cullen, Dennis L Murphy, Scott L Rauch, Benjamin D Greenberg, James A Knowles, James T McCracken, Anthony Pinto, John Piacentini, David L Pauls, Steven A Rasmussen, Yin Yao Shugart, Gerald Nestadt, Jack Samuels
BACKGROUND: To determine possible dimensions that underlie obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and to investigate their clinical correlates, familiality, and genetic linkage. METHODS: Participants were selected from 844 adults assessed with the Structured Instrument for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP) in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) that targeted families with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affected sibling pairs...
February 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Joshua M Nadeau, Cary Jordan, Robert R Selles, Monica S Wu, Morgan A King, Priyal D Patel, Camille E Hanks, Elysse B Arnold, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: This study reports an open trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibiting an onset pattern consistent with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). METHODS: Eleven primarily Caucasian youth with PANS-related OCD (range=4-14 years; 6 boys) who were incomplete responders to antibiotic treatment, received family-based CBT delivered either face-to-face or via web camera...
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Rasmita Ori, Taryn Amos, Hanna Bergman, Karla Soares-Weiser, Jonathan C Ipser, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: A significant number of patients who suffer with anxiety and related disorders (that is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (SAnD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD), specific phobia (SPh) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)) fail to respond optimally to first-line treatment with medication or cognitive and behavioural therapies. The addition of d-cycloserine (DCS) to cognitive and behavioural therapies may improve treatment response by impacting the glutamatergic system...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gerrit I Van Schalkwyk, Ish P Bhalla, Matthew Griepp, Benjamin Kelmendi, Larry Davidson, Christopher Pittenger
BACKGROUND: Current attempts at understanding the heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder have relied on quantitative methods. The results of such work point toward a dimensional structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Existing qualitative work in obsessive-compulsive disorder has focused on understanding specific aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder experience in greater depth. However, qualitative methods are also of potential value in furthering our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder heterogeneity by allowing for open-ended exploration of the obsessive-compulsive disorder experience and correlating identified subtypes with patient narratives...
January 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Giulio Perugi, Giuseppe Quaranta, Nunzio Bucci
INTRODUCTION: A considerable proportion of subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have shown resistance or an incomplete response to the standard first-line treatment of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In particular, patients often continue to show disrupted circadian rhythms with related sleep disturbances and comorbidity with bipolar spectrum disorders. AREAS COVERED: This paper discusses the possible role of agomelatine in the treatment of motivational aspects and dysregulated circadian rhythms of OCD...
May 2015: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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