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Oscar J Ponce, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Neri Alvarez-Villalobos, Valentina Serrano, Naykky Singh-Ospina, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro, Raed Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito
Context: The efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men remain incompletely understood. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to determine the effects of TRT on patient-important outcomes and adverse events in hypogonadal men. Data Sources: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus from inception to March 2th, 2017...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wei Zhang, Guihai Feng, Libin Wang, Fei Teng, Liu Wang, Wei Li, Ying Zhang, Qi Zhou
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a great opportunity in research and regenerative medicine. The current poor efficiency and incomplete mechanistic understanding of the reprogramming process hampers the clinical application of iPSCs. MeCP2 connects histone modification and DNA methylation, which are key changes of somatic cell reprogramming. However, the role of MeCP2 in cell reprogramming has not been examined. In this study, we found that MeCP2 deficiency enhanced reprogramming efficiency and stimulated cell proliferation through regulating cell cycle protein expression in the early stage of reprogramming...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi
Despite unquestionable progress in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the much improved clinical results achievable today in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, the overall therapeutic outcome remains far from optimal. The main reason of this partial success is that all current medications only block individual components of a highly complex disease process that results from the integration of multiple and incompletely identified pathogenic components. Thus, if further progress is to be achieved in IBD therapeutics and we want to move from the current success rate to nearly 100%, bold new ideas must be entertained and new approaches put into practice...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
D V Scholey, N K Morgan, A Riemensperger, R Hardy, E J Burton
There has been discussion regarding microbial phytase replacing inorganic phosphorus (P) supplementation in broiler diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to examine the effect of phytase supplementation on diets low in inorganic P. Ross 308 broilers (n = 288) were fed one of 6 experimental diets in 4 phases. The control diet had 16.20, 10.90, 9.40, and 6.10 g/kg inorganic P in the Starter, Grower 1, Grower 2 and Finisher phase respectively. The remaining diets had 10.50 g/kg inorganic P in the Starter phase...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Devram S Ghorpade, Lale Ozcan, Ze Zheng, Sarah M Nicoloro, Yuefei Shen, Emily Chen, Matthias Blüher, Michael P Czech, Ira Tabas
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Yasir Mohamud, Junyan Shi, Junyan Qu, Tak Poon, Yuan Chao Xue, Haoyu Deng, Jingchun Zhang, Honglin Luo
Picornaviruses have evolved to hijack host cellular machinery, including the autophagic pathway. However, the mechanisms remain largely unclear. We use coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) as a model organism to explore the possible role of picornavirus subversion of the autophagic pathway in viral infection. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that CVB3 infection causes a significant, albeit incomplete, inhibition of autophagic flux by limiting the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes and/or late endosomes...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Amanda C Carroll, Alex Wong
Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements that can be found throughout bacteria, as well as in other domains of life. Nonetheless, the evolutionary processes underlying the persistence of plasmids are incompletely understood. Bacterial plasmids may encode genes for traits which are sometimes beneficial to their hosts, such as antimicrobial resistance, virulence, heavy metal tolerance, and the catabolism of unique nutrient sources. In the absence of selection for these traits, however, plasmids generally impose a fitness cost on their hosts...
March 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Bridget P Bannerman, Susanne Kramer, Richard G Dorrell, Mark Carrington
The degree of conservation and evolution of cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism pathways across the eukaryotes remains incompletely resolved. In this study, we describe a comprehensive genome and transcriptome-wide analysis of proteins involved in mRNA maturation, translation, and mRNA decay across representative organisms from the six eukaryotic super-groups. We demonstrate that eukaryotes share common pathways for mRNA metabolism that were almost certainly present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor, and show for the first time a correlation between intron density and a selective absence of some Exon Junction Complex (EJC) components in eukaryotes...
2018: PloS One
Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
Shannon C Agner, Robyn S Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jin-Huan Yue, Shi-Jun Zhang, Qi Sun, Zhong-Ren Sun, Xin-Xin Wang, Brenda Golianu, Ying Lu, Qinhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that local warming therapy (LWT) may help to treat chronic wounds, such as pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. However, evidence supporting the efficacy of this treatment is still incomplete. This study aimed to assess the effects of LWT in treating chronic wounds. METHODS: For this review, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialized Register (March 6, 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2017 issue 3); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to March 6, 2017); Ovid Embase (1974 to March 6, 2017); EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to March 6, 2017); Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1980 to March 20, 2017); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1980 to March 20, 2017); VIP Information (1980 to March 20, 2017) (Chinese Database); and Wanfang Data (1980 to March 20, 2017)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kate R Weinberger, Kipruto Kirwa, Melissa N Eliot, Julia Gold, Helen H Suh, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Climate change is expected to result in more heat-related, but potentially fewer cold-related, emergency department visits and deaths. The net effect of projected changes in temperature on morbidity and mortality remain incompletely understood. We estimated the change in temperature-related morbidity and mortality at two sites in southern New England, USA through the end of the 21st century. METHODS: We used distributed lag Poisson regression models to estimate the present-day associations between daily mean temperature and all-cause emergency department visits and deaths in Rhode Island and in Boston, Massachusetts...
March 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Chung-Hsuan Huang, Satish Kumar
Transfer of liquid from one surface to another plays a vital role in printing processes. During liquid transfer, a liquid bridge is formed and subjected to substantial extension, but incomplete liquid transfer can produce defects that are detrimental to the operation of printed electronic devices. One strategy for minimizing these defects is to apply an electric field, a technique known as electrostatic assist (ESA). However, the physical mechanisms underlying ESA remain a mystery. To better understand these mechanisms, slender-jet models are developed for both perfect dielectric and leaky dielectric axisymmetric Newtonian liquid bridges with moving contact lines...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
A Patrykiejew
This paper discusses the results of the grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of the wetting behavior of non-additive symmetric mixtures at non-selective walls. We have focused on the mixtures that exhibit closed immiscibility loops in the bulk, and the results obtained have demonstrated that such systems show a rather complex wetting behavior. In particular, such mixtures may exhibit a complete wetting at temperatures below the bulk demixing point, and an incomplete wetting at higher temperatures...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jiajie Peng, Xuanshuo Zhang, Weiwei Hui, Junya Lu, Qianqian Li, Shuhui Liu, Xuequn Shang
BACKGROUND: Gene Ontology (GO) is one of the most popular bioinformatics resources. In the past decade, Gene Ontology-based gene semantic similarity has been effectively used to model gene-to-gene interactions in multiple research areas. However, most existing semantic similarity approaches rely only on GO annotations and structure, or incorporate only local interactions in the co-functional network. This may lead to inaccurate GO-based similarity resulting from the incomplete GO topology structure and gene annotations...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Tai-Wan Yao, Jia Liu, Xue-Zhi Li, Lin Ma, Jia-Peng Wu, Xiao-Fang Xi, Yan Fu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on chronic inflammatory response of Leydig cells in aged rats with low testosterone, so as to investigate its underlying mechanism of anti-male reproductive aging. METHODS: Twenty-four 20 months old SD rats were randomly divided into EA, medication and aged control groups ( n = 8 in each), and other 8 young SD rats (2 months of age) were used as the youth control group. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Guanyuan"(CV 4) and bilate-ral "Shenshu"(BL 23) for 15 min, once daily for 8 weeks except the weekends...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Xingxing Shi, Kai Zhou, Fei Huang, Juan Zhang, Chen Wang
Background: As a potentially bioactive material, the widespread application of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) in the field of bone regeneration has increased the risk of human exposure. However, our understanding of the interaction between nano-HAP and stem cells implicated in bone repair remains incomplete. Methods: Here, we characterized the adhesion and cellular internalization of HAP nanoparticles (HANPs) with different sizes (20 nm np20 and 80 nm np80) and highlighted the involved pathway in their uptake using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
S L Scholz, I Cosgarea, D Süßkind, R Murali, I Möller, H Reis, S Leonardelli, B Schilling, T Schimming, E Hadaschik, C Franklin, A Paschen, A Sucker, K P Steuhl, D Schadendorf, H Westekemper, K G Griewank
BACKGROUND: Conjunctival melanoma is a potentially deadly eye tumour. Despite effective local therapies, tumour recurrence and metastasis remain frequent. The genetics of conjunctival melanomas remain incompletely understood. METHODS: A large cohort of 63 conjunctival melanomas was screened for gene mutations known to be important in other melanoma subtypes by targeted next-generation sequencing. Mutation status was correlated with patient prognosis. RESULTS: Frequent mutations in genes activating the MAP kinase pathway were identified...
March 21, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Christos Gournas, Stelios Gkionis, Mélanie Carquin, Laure Twyffels, Donatienne Tyteca, Bruno André
The eukaryotic plasma membrane is compartmentalized into domains enriched in specific lipids and proteins. However, our understanding of the molecular bases and biological roles of this partitioning remains incomplete. The best-studied domain in yeast is the membrane compartment containing the arginine permease Can1 (MCC) and later found to cluster additional transporters. MCCs correspond to static, furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane and associate with subcortical structures named "eisosomes" that include upstream regulators of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in the sensing of sphingolipids and membrane stress...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ronny Kalash, Scott M Glaser, Balasubramanya Rangaswamy, Zachary D Horne, Hayeon Kim, Christopher Houser, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) response and outcome in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based planning and to assess whether the addition of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) could more accurately classify treatment response and prognosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review identified 244 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation, including high-dose-rate image-based brachytherapy, between 2007 and 2016...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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