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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813860/design-and-evaluation-of-a-modular-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-rehabilitation
#1
Wilian M Dos Santos, Samuel L Nogueira, Gustavo C de Oliveira, Guido G Pena, Adriano A G Siqueira
This paper deals with the evaluation of an exoskeleton designed for assisting individuals to rehabilitate compromised lower limb movements resulting from stroke or incomplete spinal cord injury. The exoskeleton is composed of lightweight tubular structures and six free joints that provide a modular feature to the system. This feature allows the exoskeleton to be adapted to assist the movement of one or more patient joints. The actuation of the exoskeleton is also modular, and can be performed passively, by means of springs and dampers, or actively through actuators...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813843/addition-of-forelimb-training-reduces-gains-from-robotic-gait-training-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Nathan D Neckel, Haining Dai, Olga C Rodriguez
To restore locomotor function following spinal cord injury the disrupted descending supraspinal drive needs to be re-connected to regions caudal to the injury. Robotic gait training aims to facilitate recovery by stimulating the proprioceptive networks of the legs in a coordinated walking pattern while the descending supraspinal connections are re-established. In incomplete injuries, it is believed that the interneuronal networks near the injury site form relay circuits to reroute the supraspinal signals through the spared tissue...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813812/characterization-of-surface-electromyography-patterns-of-healthy-and-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-subjects-interacting-with-an-upper-extremity-exoskeleton
#3
Craig G McDonald, Troy A Dennis, Marcia K O'Malley
Rehabilitation exoskeletons may make use of myoelectric control to restore in patients with significant motor impairment following a spinal cord injury (SCI) a sense of volitional control over their limb - a crucial component for recovery of movement. Little investigation has been done into the feasibility of using surface electromyography (sEMG) as an exoskeleton control interface for SCI patients, whose impairment manifests in a highly variable way across the patient population. We have demonstrated that by using only a small subset of features extracted from eight bipolar electrodes recording on the upper arm and forearm muscles, we can achieve high predictive accuracy for the intended direction of motion...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813461/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-infants-in-oxfordshire-uk-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-carriage-and-genetic-overlap-with-regional-c-difficile-infection-strains
#4
Nicole Stoesser, David W Eyre, T Phuong Quan, Heather Godwin, Gemma Pill, Emily Mbuvi, Alison Vaughan, David Griffiths, Jessica Martin, Warren Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Sarah Oakley, Kazimierz Wanelik, John M Finney, Melina Kachrimanidou, Catrin E Moore, Sherwood Gorbach, Thomas V Riley, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, Mark H Wilcox, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. METHODS: Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 years) were recruited in Oxfordshire, UK, and provided ≥1 fecal samples. Independent risk factors for toxigenic/non-toxigenic C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813433/diabetes-risks-and-outcomes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-two-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-cohort-studies
#5
Chao-Shun Lin, Chih-Chung Liu, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Yi-Cheng Chang, Chi-Li Chung, Hsin-Long Lane, Chun-Chuan Shih, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes remains incompletely understood. This study evaluated diabetes risk and post-diabetes outcomes in COPD patients with and without exacerbations. METHODS: We identified 4671 adults newly diagnosed with COPD exacerbations and 9342 adults newly diagnosed with COPD without exacerbations during 2000-2008 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort of 18684 adults without COPD, matched by age and sex, was randomly selected from the same dataset for the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813195/prediction-of-therapeutic-response-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-to-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-based-on-pretherapeutic-dynamic-ct-and-textural-findings
#6
Hyun Jeong Park, Jung Hoon Kim, Seo-Youn Choi, Eun Sun Lee, Sang Joon Park, Jae Young Byun, Byung Ihn Choi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the value of CT texture analysis for prediction of therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with pretherapeutic dynamic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 132 HCCs in 96 patients treated with TACE who underwent dynamic CT before initial TACE. Imaging findings and arterial enhancement ratios were analyzed. All HCCs were manually segmented, and their texture features were quantitatively extracted using in-house software...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813180/inflammatory-signaling-cascades-and-autophagy-in-cancer
#7
Teresa Monkkonen, Jayanta Debnath
Tumor-associated inflammation is predictive of poor prognosis and drives a variety of tumorigenic phenotypes, including tumor proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis. Here, we review mammalian data addressing the interaction of macroautophagy/autophagy with key signaling cascades associated with tumor inflammation. Although our understanding of this area remains incomplete, certain inflammatory pathways have emerged as important mediators of the crosstalk between autophagy and inflammation in tumors...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813074/oral-narrative-of-individuals-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#8
Giulia Ganthous, Natalia Freitas Rossi, Célia Maria Giacheti
Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812839/just-say-no-to-the-tpp-a-democratic-setback-for-american-and-asian-public-health-comment-on-the-trans-pacific-partnership-is-it-everything-we-feared-for-health
#9
Carles Muntaner, Deb Finn Mahabir
(TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812815/stakeholders-perspectives-on-the-success-drivers-in-ghana-s-national-health-insurance-scheme-identifying-policy-translation-issues
#10
Adam Fusheini, Gordon Marnoch, Ann Marie Gray
BACKGROUND: Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812661/human-population-growth-offsets-climate-driven-increase-in-woody-vegetation-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Martin Brandt, Kjeld Rasmussen, Josep Peñuelas, Feng Tian, Guy Schurgers, Aleixandre Verger, Ole Mertz, John R B Palmer, Rasmus Fensholt
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km(2)) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km(2)), mostly in humid zones...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812457/from-half-dead-to-being-free-resistance-to-hiv-stigma-self-disclosure-and-support-for-pmtct-hiv-care-among-couples-living-with-hiv-in-kenya
#12
Sydney A Spangler, Lisa L Abuogi, Eliud Akama, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Anna Helova, Pamela Musoke, Wafula Z Nalwa, Thomas A Odeny, Maricianah Onono, Iris Wanga, Janet M Turan
In sub-Saharan Africa, self-disclosure of HIV-positive status may be a pivotal action for improving access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. However, understanding of HIV stigma and disclosure, and their effects on demand for care remains incomplete - particularly in the current context of new antiretroviral therapy guidelines. The purpose of this study was to explore these issues among self-disclosed couples living in southwest Kenya. We conducted 38 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive pregnant or postpartum women and their male partners...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#13
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812012/spinal-cord-injury-due-to-tumour-or-metastasis-in-arag%C3%A3-n-northeastern-spain-1991-2008-incidence-time-trends-and-neurological-function
#14
Maayken Elizabeth Louise van den Berg, Juan M Castellote, Jose Ignacio Mayordomo, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Jesus de Pedro-Cuesta
PURPOSE: Understanding the presentation of spinal cord injury (SCI) due to tumours considering population distribution and temporal trends is key to managing SCI health services. This study quantified incidence rates, function scores, and trends of SCI due to tumour or metastasis over an 18-year time period in a defined region in Spain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study included in-and outpatients with nontraumatic SCI due to tumour or metastasis admitted to a metropolitan hospital in Spain between 1991 and 2008...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811780/role-of-vitamin-d-in-reducing-number-of-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients
#15
Dur Muhammad Khan, Aziz Ullah, Fawad Ahmad Randhawa, Somia Iqtadar, Nasir Farooq Butt, Khadija Waheed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. METHODS: This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811594/spatio-temporal-variations-of-pm2-5-concentrations-and-the-evaluation-of-emission-reduction-measures-during-two-red-air-pollution-alerts-in-beijing
#16
Nianliang Cheng, Dawei Zhang, Yunting Li, Xiaoming Xie, Ziyue Chen, Fan Meng, Bingbo Gao, Bin He
To effectively improve air quality during pollution episodes, Beijing released two red alerts in 2015. Here we examined spatio-temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations during two alerts based on multiple data sources. Results suggested that PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly across Beijing. PM2.5 concentrations in southern parts of Beijing were higher than those in northern areas during both alerts. In addition to unfavorable meteorological conditions, coal combustion, especially incomplete coal combustion contributed significantly to the high PM2...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811520/chronic-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-is-determined-by-fragmentation-of-residual-white-matter-networks
#17
Barbara K Marebwa, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Lynda Feenaughty, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Many stroke survivors with aphasia in the acute period experience spontaneous recovery within the first six months after the stroke. However, approximately 30-40% sustain permanent aphasia and the factors determining incomplete recovery are unclear. Suboptimal recovery may be influenced by disruption of areas seemingly spared by the stroke due to loss of white matter connectivity and network integrity. We reconstructed individual anatomical whole-brain connectomes from 90 left hemisphere stroke survivors using diffusion MR images...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811365/a-model-explaining-the-matrilateral-bias-in-alloparental-investment
#18
Gretchen Perry, Martin Daly
Maternal grandmothers invest more in childcare than paternal grandmothers. This bias is large where the expression of preferences is unconstrained by residential and lineage norms, and is detectable even where marriage removes women from their natal families. We maintain that the standard evolutionary explanation, paternity uncertainty, is incomplete, and present an expanded model incorporating effects of alloparents on the mother as well as on her children. Alloparenting lightens a mother's load and increases her residual nepotistic value: her expected fitness from later investments in personal reproduction and in her natal relatives...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811335/the-conserved-and-unique-genetic-architecture-of-kernel-size-and-weight-in-maize-and-rice
#19
Jie Liu, Juan Huang, Huan Guo, Liu Lan, Hongze Wang, Yuancheng Xu, Xiaohong Yang, Wenqiang Li, Hao Tong, Yingjie Xiao, Qingchun Pan, Feng Qiao, Mohammad Sharif Raihan, Haijun Liu, Xuehai Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaqing Wang, Min Deng, Minliang Jin, Lijun Zhao, Xin Luo, Yang Zhou, Xiang Li, Wei Zhan, Nannan Liu, Hong Wang, Gengshen Chen, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Maize is a major staple crop. Maize kernel size and weight are important contributors to its yield. Here, we measured kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, hundred kernel weight and kernel test weight in 10 recombinant inbred line populations and dissected their genetic architecture using three statistical models. In total, 729 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified, many of which were identified in all three models, including 22 major QTLs that each can explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811274/hypoxia-in-combination-with-muscle-contraction-improves-insulin-action-and-glucose-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle-via-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway
#20
Sven W Görgens, Tim Benninghoff, Kristin Eckardt, Christian Springer, Alexandra Chadt, Anita Melior, Jakob Wefers, Andrea Cramer, Jørgen Jensen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Hadi Al-Hasani, Jürgen Eckel
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and develops long before the onset of the disease. It is well accepted that physical activity improves glycemic control but the knowledge on underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects remains incomplete. Exercise is accompanied by a decrease in intramuscular oxygen levels resulting in induction of HIF-1α. HIF-1α is a master regulator of gene expression and might play an important role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism...
August 15, 2017: Diabetes
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