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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679842/context-matters-social-cognition-task-performance-in-psychometric-schizotypes
#1
Madeline J Pflum, Diane C Gooding
Patients with schizophrenia show performance deficits on tasks requiring empathy-related social cognition. The extent to which empathy impairments are observed in psychometric schizotypy is unclear. We compared accuracy and reaction time in three groups of individuals characterized by positive schizotypy (n = 79), negative schizotypy (n = 123), or low schizotypy group (n = 137). On a social cognition task that provided context, namely, the Emotion Perspective Taking Task, the positive schizotypes showed poorer performance than the negative schizotypy and control groups...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679658/effective-multicomponent-interventions-in-comparison-to-active-control-and-no-interventions-on-physical-capacity-cognitive-function-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-elderly-people-with-and-without-mild-impaired-cognition-a-systematic-review-and
#2
REVIEW
Marina Bruderer-Hofstetter, Anne-Kathrin Rausch-Osthoff, André Meichtry, Thomas Münzer, Karin Niedermann
Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); b) provide a rating on the best interventions per outcome; c) evaluate MCTs' mode of delivery...
April 18, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679574/evidence-of-demyelination-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-a-direct-and-specific-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measure-of-myelin-content
#3
Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Christopher M Bergeron, Linda M Zukley, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick, Richard G Spencer
INTRODUCTION: We investigated brain demyelination in aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia using magnetic resonance imaging of myelin. METHODS: Brains of young and old controls and old subjects with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, or vascular dementia were scanned using our recently developed myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping technique, which provides greatly improved accuracy over previous comparable methods. Maps of MWF, a direct and specific myelin measure, and relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratio, indirect and nonspecific measures, were constructed...
April 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679434/key-issues-to-consider-and-innovative-ideas-on-fall-prevention-in-the-geriatric-department-of-a-teaching-hospital
#4
Daniel Ky Chan, Cathie Sherrington, Vasi Naganathan, Ying Hua Xu, Jack Chen, Anita Ko, Ian Kneebone, Robert Cumming
Falls in hospital are common and up to 70% result in injury, leading to increased length of stay and accounting for 10% of patient safety-related deaths. Yet, high-quality evidence guiding best practice is lacking. Fall prevention strategies have worked in some trials but not in others. Differences in study setting (acute, subacute, rehabilitation) and sampling of patients (cognitively intact or impaired) may explain the difference in results. This article discusses these important issues and describes the strategies to prevent falls in the acute hospital setting we have studied, which engage the cognitively impaired who are more likely to fall...
April 20, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679288/calcium-chloride-mimics-the-effects-of-acamprosate-on-cognitive-deficits-in-chronic-alcohol-exposed-mice
#5
Grishma Pradhan, Patrick R Melugin, Fei Wu, Hannah M Fang, Rachel Weber, Sven Kroener
RATIONALE: Acamprosate (calcium-bis N-acetylhomotaurinate) is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Acamprosate can improve executive functions that are impaired by chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Recent work has suggested that acamprosate's effects on relapse prevention are due to its calcium component, which raises the question whether its pro-cognitive effects are similarly mediated by calcium...
April 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679204/efficacy-of-curcumin-for-age-associated-cognitive-decline-a-narrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#6
REVIEW
Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan F Franks
Processes such as aberrant redox signaling and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation have been reported to modulate age-associated pathologies such as cognitive impairment. Curcumin, the primary therapeutic component of the Indian spice, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), has long been known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity attributable to its unique molecular structure. Recently, an interest in this polyphenol as a cognitive therapeutic for the elderly has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to critically review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating and preventing age-associated cognitive decline and address the translational progress of preclinical to clinical efficacy...
April 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679197/neuropsychological-impacts-of-indirect-revascularization-for-pediatric-moyamoya-disease
#7
WooHyun Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Seong-Eun Park, Eun-Kyung Park, Ju-Seong Kim, Dong-Seok Kim, Kyu-Won Shim
PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease (MMD) commonly leads to neurocognitive impairment. This study was carried out to show that temporal encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) has a positive neuropsychological impact on pediatric MMD patients. METHODS: Fifty-five participants diagnosed with MMD from 2008 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study. The mean age at the preoperative evaluation was 9.5 years and the mean age at postoperative evaluation was 10.4. The average interval of initial and follow-up test was 10 months...
April 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679045/trends-in-the-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-preterm-infants-from-2003-2012-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-japan
#8
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Hideyo Suenaga, Atsushi Uchiyama, Yumi Kono, Satoshi Kusuda
OBJECTIVES: To determine the trends in mortality and the prevalence of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm Japanese infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective multicenter cohort of 30,793 preterm infants born at a gestational age ≤32 weeks, between 2003 and 2012, in the Neonatal Research Network, Japan, was evaluated in the primary analysis. Finally, 13,661 infants were followed-up until 3 years of age and evaluated for neurodevelopmental outcomes, including cerebral palsy (CP), home oxygen therapy (HOT) use, and visual, hearing, and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678937/identification-of-a-specific-functional-network-altered-in-poststroke-cognitive-impairment
#9
Clément Bournonville, Hilde Hénon, Thibaut Dondaine, Christine Delmaire, Stephanie Bombois, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Charlotte Cordonnier, Solène Moulin, Xavier Leclerc, Régis Bordet, Renaud Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and defining a specific resting functional marker. METHODS: The resting-state functional connectivity 6 months after an ischemic stroke in 56 patients was investigated. Twenty-nine of the patients who had an impairment of one or several cognitive domains were compared to 27 without any cognitive deficit. We studied the whole-brain connectivity using 2 complementary approaches: graph theory to study the functional network organization and network-based statistics to explore connectivity between brain regions...
April 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678935/atrophy-patterns-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-with-and-without-cortical-superficial-siderosis
#10
Joonho Kim, Han Kyu Na, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hee Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong, Duk L Na
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differential atrophy patterns based on the presence of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) and the role of cSS in predicting amyloid positivity in memory clinic patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 44 cognitively impaired patients with probable CAA who underwent 3-dimensional, T1-weighted MRIs (cSS+, n = 27; cSS-, n = 17). Amyloid-positive patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 56) and amyloid-negative cognitively normal participants (n = 34) were recruited as controls...
April 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678666/biochemical-deficits-and-cognitive-decline-in-brain-aging-intervention-by-dietary-supplements
#11
REVIEW
Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cognitive deficit of non-pathological brain aging is the resultant of such inter-dependent and reinforcing molecular pathologies which have striking similarities with those operating in Alzheimer's disease which causes progressive, irreversible and a devastating form of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly people...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678643/a-systematic-review-of-neuropsychological-studies-involving-young-binge-drinkers
#12
REVIEW
Carina Carbia, Eduardo López-Caneda, Montserrat Corral, Fernando Cadaveira
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#13
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678475/both-oophorectomy-and-obesity-impaired-solely-hippocampal-dependent-memory-via-increased-hippocampal-dysfunction
#15
Duangkamol Mantor, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Wanitchaya Minta, Wissuta Sutham, Siripong Palee, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sirawit Sriwichaiin, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats...
April 17, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678279/the-psychiatric-consequences-of-cannabinoids
#16
Joao P De Aquino, Mohamed Sherif, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, John D Cahill, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak C D'Souza
With rising rates of cannabis use in the general population and an increasing number of US states legalizing both recreational and medical cannabis use, it is important to be informed about the adverse consequences of cannabinoids. This Commentary provides an overview of the psychiatric effects of plant-based and synthetic cannabinoids, differentiating acute effects from effects associated with persistent use. Cannabinoids produce multiphasic and dose-dependent effects on anxiety, mood, and perception, in addition to impairing cognition and psychomotor function...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678195/does-sensorimotor-upper-limb-therapy-post-stroke-alter-behavior-and-brain-connectivity-differently-compared-to-motor-therapy-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Nele De Bruyn, Bea Essers, Liselot Thijs, Annick Van Gils, Lisa Tedesco Triccas, Sarah Meyer, Kaat Alaerts, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: The role of somatosensory feedback in motor performance has been warranted in the literature. Although sensorimotor deficits are common after stroke, current rehabilitation approaches primarily focus on restoring upper limb motor ability. Evidence for integrative sensorimotor rehabilitation approaches is scarce, as is knowledge about neural correlates of somatosensory impairments after stroke and the effect of rehabilitation on brain connectivity level. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in sensorimotor function and brain connectivity following a sensorimotor therapy program compared to an attention-matched motor therapy program for the upper limb after stroke...
April 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678162/tacrolimus-induced-parkinsonism-in-a-patient-after-liver-transplantation-case-report
#18
Karin Gmitterová, Michal Minár, Miroslav Žigrai, Zuzana Košutzká, Alice Kušnírová, Peter Valkovič
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy may manifest by a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including cognitive impairment, seizures or extrapyramidal symptoms. The liver transplant can lead to improvement of the signs of encephalopathy but subsequent immunosuppressive treatment might possess pronounced neurotoxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case report of a patient with chronic liver disease who developed signs of Parkinsonism after an orthotopic liver transplant, with consecutive immunosuppressant treatment with tacrolimus...
April 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678126/associations-of-depression-anxiety-and-ptsd-with-neurological-disability-and-cognitive-impairment-in-survivors-of-moyamoya-disease
#19
Chanchan Liu, Xiyan Yi, Ting Li, Lei Xu, Mei Hu, Suming Zhang, Rifeng Jiang
Depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common complications of cerebrovascular diseases. However, they were seldom explored in Moyamoya Disease (MMD) survivors. In this study, we measured the prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD in MMD survivors. We evaluated the association of mental disorders with neurological disability and cognitive impairment, and further find out the independent protective and risk factors of neurological disability and cognitive impairment. In MMD survivors, the prevalence of these three mental disorders is high, 46...
April 20, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678052/automated-syntactic-analysis-of-language-abilities-in-persons-with-mild-and-subjective-cognitive-impairment
#20
Kristina Lundholm Fors, Kathleen Fraser, Dimitrios Kokkinakis
In this work we analyze the syntactic complexity of transcribed Swedish-language picture descriptions using a variety of automated syntactic features, and investigate the features' predictive power in classifying narratives from people with subjective and mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Our results indicate that while there are no statistically significant differences, syntactic features can still be moderately successful at distinguishing the participant groups when used in a machine learning framework...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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