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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913450/lower-cognitive-function-in-older-patients-with-lower-muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass
#1
Romee van Dam, Jeanine M Van Ancum, Sjors Verlaan, Kira Scheerman, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. METHODS: This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT)...
June 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913227/effects-of-bright-light-exposure-on-human-fear-conditioning-extinction-and-associated-prefrontal-activation
#2
Takuya Yoshiike, Motoyasu Honma, Naoto Yamada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama
Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912798/phase-iib-trial-of-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-partial-agonist-with-and-without-nicotine-patch-for-withdrawal-associated-cognitive-deficits-and-tobacco-abstinence
#3
Randi Melissa Schuster, Gladys N Pachas, Luke Stoeckel, Corinne Cather, Mireya Nadal, David Mischoulon, David A Schoenfeld, Haiyue Zhang, Christine Ulysse, Elisabeth B Dodds, Sara Sobolewski, Vicenta Hudziak, Ailish Hanly, Maurizio Fava, A Eden Evins
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]). METHODS: Adult daily smokers, n = 160, who were motivated to quit smoking completed cognitive testing at satiated baseline and after overnight abstinence and then were randomized to receive a 12-week trial of encenicline 1 mg twice daily or identical placebo the day of the overnight abstinent cognitive testing...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912792/neurocognitive-effects-of-agomelatine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-patients-suffering-from-comorbid-depression-results-from-the-agopsych-study
#4
Susanne Englisch, Hanna Sophie Jung, Sarah Eisenacher, Antje Lewien, Anna Becker, Ulrike Nowak, Hanna Braun, Jascha Thiem, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is highly disabling and remains one of the major therapeutic challenges. Agomelatine (AGO), an agonist at melatonergic MT1/MT2 receptors and antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors, increases dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex and may therefore have the potential of improving neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid depression were treated with AGO in addition to stable doses of antipsychotic drugs...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912591/optical-coherence-tomography-oct-study-in-argentinean-huntington-s-disease-patients
#5
Emilia Gatto, Virginia Parisi, Gabriel Persi, Estela Fernandez Rey, Martin Cesarini, José Luis Etcheverry, Pablo Rivera, Ferdinando Squitieri
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912269/medication-management-performance-and-associated-cognitive-correlates-in-healthy-older-adults-and-older-adults-with-amci
#6
Catherine A Sumida, Thao T Vo, Emily J Van Etten, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objective: Difficulties managing medications, particularly among older adults experiencing cognitive deficits, is an important contributing factor to medication nonadherence that may have significant negative financial and health outcomes. The current study examined the performance of healthy older adults' (HOA) and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) on the medication management abilities assessment's (MMAA, a performance-based measure of medication management) original scoring criteria and derived error process measures, assessing medication overtaking and undertaking magnitude...
April 18, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912176/mk-0677-a-ghrelin-agonist-alleviates-amyloid-beta-related-pathology-in-5xfad-mice-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yu-On Jeong, Soo Jung Shin, Jun Yong Park, Bo Kyeong Ku, Ji Soo Song, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Sang Min Lee, Minho Moon
Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (A&beta;) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912061/a-single-low-dose-of-hydrocortisone-enhances-cognitive-functioning-in-hiv-infected-women
#8
Leah H Rubin, K Luan Phan, Sheila M Keating, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Low-dose hydrocortisone (LDH) enhances aspects of learning and memory in select populations including patients with PTSD and HIV-infected men. HIV-infected women show impairments in learning and memory, but the cognitive effects of LDH in HIV-infected women are unknown. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study examining the time-dependent effects of a single low-dose administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg oral) on cognition in 36 HIV-infected women...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912031/canine-outreach-promoting-engagement-the-effect-of-meaningful-activities-on-students-attitudes-toward-cognitively-impaired-older-adults
#9
B Morgan Yordy, W Stuart Pope, Chih-Hsuan Wang
Animal-assisted activities (AAAs) show promise in providing emotional and social benefits to older adults and may be used as a tool to promote therapeutic communication between students and cognitively impaired older adults. The purpose was to develop a program incorporating AAAs to enhance social engagement of cognitively impaired older adults in a community respite program and in turn enhance student comfort when caring for this vulnerable population. The Dementia Attitudes Scale, a validated tool, was used to measure students' attitudes before and after AAA intervention...
June 14, 2018: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911891/involvement-of-the-amygdala-in-memory-and-psychosocial-functioning-in-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Rivka Green, Ayala Adler, Brenda L Banwell, Tracy L Fabri, E Ann Yeh, D Louis Collins, John G Sled, Sridar Narayanan, Christine Till
Youth with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience cognitive impairment and psychosocial disturbances. We describe the relationship between memory function, psychosocial skills, and brain volume in 32 patients with pediatric-onset MS and 30 controls. Amygdala volume was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. In general, poorer memory was associated with reduced functional communication skills and reduced amygdala volume. Greater amygdala volume in patients correlated with parent-reported functional communication and social skills...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911493/normative-data-for-the-digit-symbol-substitution-test-in-a-population-based-sample-aged-65-79-years-results-from-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-for-adults-degs1
#11
Beate Gaertner, Michael Wagner, Tobias Luck, Amanda K Buttery, Judith Fuchs, Markus A Busch
OBJECTIVE: To provide normative data for the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III) in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults in Germany according to age, sex, and level of education. METHOD: The sample comprised 1385 participants aged 65-79 years from the nationwide representative 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults' (DEGS1, 2008-2011). Participants with known cognitive impairment or dementia, other medical conditions affecting cognition, or currently using psychotropic drugs were excluded...
June 17, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911280/claustral-structural-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Alessandro Arrigo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Michele Gaeta, Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Alberto Cacciola, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The claustrum is a thin grey matter structure which is involved in a wide brain network. Previous studies suggested a link between claustrum and Parkinson's Disease (PD), showing how α-synuclein pathology may affect claustral neurons as well as how α-synuclein immunoreactivity may correlate with the onset of cognitive dysfunctions. Our aim is to investigate, via diffusion MRI, claustral structural network changes in drug naïve PD patients, with the goal to understand whether such changes may contribute to cognitive decline in PD...
June 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911253/dha-selectively-protects-samp-8-associated-cognitive-deficits-through-inhibition-of-jnk
#13
S Vela, Neira Sainz, María J Moreno-Aliaga, M Solas, María J Ramirez
A potential role of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been suggested in memory, learning, and cognitive processes. Therefore, ω-3 PUFAs might be a promising treatment option, albeit controversial, for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the different mechanisms that have been proposed as responsible for the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs, inhibition of JNK stands as a particularly interesting candidate. In the present work, it has been studied whether the administration of two different PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and a DHA-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator (MaR1) is able to reverse cognitive deficits in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model of sporadic AD...
June 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911180/mammalian-trim67-functions-in-brain-development-and-behavior
#14
Nicholas P Boyer, Caroline Monkiewicz, Shalini Menon, Sheryl S Moy, Stephanie L Gupton
Class I members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases evolutionarily appeared just prior to the advent of neuronal like cells and have been implicated in neuronal development from invertebrates to mammals. The single Class I TRIM in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian Class I TRIM9 regulate axon branching and guidance in response to the guidance cue netrin, whereas mammalian TRIM46 establishes the axon initial segment. In humans, mutations in TRIM1 and TRIM18 are implicated in Opitz Syndrome, characterized by midline defects and often intellectual disability...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911174/aging-and-an-immune-challenge-interact-to-produce-prolonged-but-not-permanent-reductions-in-hippocampal-l-ltp-and-mbdnf-in-a-rodent-model-with-features-of-delirium
#15
Naoto Tanaka, Giuseppe P Cortese, Ruth M Barrientos, Steven F Maier, Susan L Patterson
Aging increases the risk of abrupt declines in cognitive function after an event that triggers immune system activation (e.g. surgery, infection, or injury). This phenomenon is poorly understood, but rodent models may provide clues. We have previously shown that aging (24-mo-old) F344xBN rats generally do not show significant physical or cognitive impairments. However, their brains mount an exaggerated inflammatory response to signals triggered by a peripheral immune challenge (an intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli or laparotomy)...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910801/lifelong-impacts-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-neuroimmune-function
#16
REVIEW
Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910769/assessment-of-perceived-attractiveness-usability-and-societal-impact-of-a-multimodal-robotic-assistant-for-aging-patients-with-memory-impairments
#17
Justyna Gerłowska, Urszula Skrobas, Katarzyna Grabowska-Aleksandrowicz, Agnieszka Korchut, Sebastian Szklener, Dorota Szczęśniak-Stańczyk, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Konrad Rejdak
The aim of the present study is to present the results of the assessment of clinical application of the robotic assistant for patients suffering from mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD). The human-robot interaction (HRI) evaluation approach taken within the study is a novelty in the field of social robotics. The proposed assessment of the robotic functionalities are based on end-user perception of attractiveness, usability and potential societal impact of the device. The methods of evaluation applied consist of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ), AttrakDiff and the societal impact inventory tailored for the project purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910756/effects-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-on-the-event-related-brain-potential-components-elicited-in-executive-control-tasks
#18
REVIEW
Montserrat Zurrón, Mónica Lindín, Jesús Cespón, Susana Cid-Fernández, Santiago Galdo-Álvarez, Marta Ramos-Goicoa, Fernando Díaz
We summarize here the findings of several studies in which we analyzed the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in healthy controls during performance of executive tasks. The objective of these studies was to investigate the neural functioning associated with executive processes in MCI. With this aim, we recorded the brain electrical activity generated in response to stimuli in three executive control tasks (Stroop, Simon, and Go/NoGo) adapted for use with the ERP technique...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910755/promoting-well-being-in-old-age-the-psychological-benefits-of-two-training-programs-of-adapted-physical-activity
#19
Antonella Delle Fave, Marta Bassi, Elena S Boccaletti, Carlotta Roncaglione, Giuseppina Bernardelli, Daniela Mari
In the last few decades, the relationship between physical conditions and mental health has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers and professionals across disciplines. This relationship is especially relevant in old age, as the challenges posed by aging at various levels represent crucial concerns for policy makers. Due to the remarkable increase in life expectancy across countries, sustainable prevention strategies are needed to help individuals preserve psychophysical well-being in old age. In particular, the regular practice of a moderately intense physical activity is recommended by the World Health Organization to enhance balance, prevent falls, strengthen muscles, and promote psychophysical well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910747/korsakoff-syndrome-in-non-alcoholic-psychiatric-patients-variable-cognitive-presentation-and-impaired-frontotemporal-connectivity
#20
Georgios Nikolakaros, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja, Tuula Ilonen
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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