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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933676/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-disproportionate-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy
#1
Cassidy M Fiford, Emily N Manning, Jonathan W Bartlett, David M Cash, Ian B Malone, Gerard R Ridgway, Manja Lehmann, Kelvin K Leung, Carole Sudre, Sebastien Ourselin, Geert Jan Biessels, Owen T Carmichael, Nick C Fox, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
This study investigates relationships between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain and hippocampal volume loss. Subjects included 198 controls, 345 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 154 AD subjects with serial volumetric 1.5T MRI. CSF Aβ42 and total tau were measured (n=353). Brain and hippocampal loss were quantified from serial MRI using the Boundary Shift Integral (BSI). Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationships between WMHs and hippocampal and brain atrophy rates...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933636/primary-headaches-in-an-elderly-population-seeking-medical-care-for-cognitive-decline
#2
Michele Feleppa, Silvia Fucci, Marcelo E Bigal
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of specific headache disorders in a population older than 65 years seeking consultation due to memory problems or cognitive impairment. METHODS: We verified the occurrence of headache symptoms and the impact of headaches on daily life. Headaches were classified as per the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-2). All patients were screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), followed by the Selective Reminding Test and neuroimaging...
December 9, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933582/microrna-181c-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#3
Chen Fang, Qian Li, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Jing Cui, Jing Sun, Liang Li
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) characterized by global cerebral ischemia is an important risk factor contributing to the development of dementia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cellular adaptation to long-term ischemia/hypoxia by turning off or on the expression of target genes. MiR-181c is widely expressed in the nervous system, and tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) is one of its target genes. In this work, we had identified that progressive spatial memory deficiency was induced in the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) rat models...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#4
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933285/developmental-profile-and-diagnoses-in-children-presenting-with-motor-stereotypies
#5
Francesco Cardona, Francesca Valente, Daniela Miraglia, Caterina D'Ardia, Valentina Baglioni, Flavia Chiarotti
INTRODUCTION: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient) from symptoms or among different disorders ["primary stereotypies," associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, and sensory impairment]. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We studied 23 children (3 girls), aged 36-95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933028/autism-in-action-reduced-bodily-connectedness-during-social-interactions
#6
C Lieke E Peper, Sija J van der Wal, Sander Begeer
Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932974/patterns-of-longitudinal-neural-activity-linked-to-different-cognitive-profiles-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Mohamed S Al-Azzawi, Alexandru Hanganu, Clotilde Degroot, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Christophe Bedetti, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Valérie Soland, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked with functional brain changes. Previously, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we reported reduced cortico-striatal activity in patients with PD who also had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. those who did not (non-MCI). We followed up these patients to investigate the longitudinal effect on the neural activity. Twenty-four non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (non-MCI: 12, MCI: 12) were included in the study. Each participant underwent two fMRIs while performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task 20 months apart...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932626/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-association-between-living-arrangements-and-health-among-older-adults-in-china
#8
Zi Zhou, Fanzhen Mao, Jiaping Ma, Shichao Hao, Zhengmin Min Qian, Keith Elder, Jason S Turner, Ya Fang
This article used the nationally representative Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to explore the associations between living arrangements and health among older adults. Living arrangements were stratified into six categories. Health was measured by self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL) disability, and cognitive impairment. Random-effects ordered probit regressions were applied. The results indicated that coresidence had a positive effect on self-rated health compared with living alone...
December 8, 2016: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932362/predicting-functional-decline-in-older-emergency-patients-the-safe-elderly-emergency-discharge-seed-project
#9
Judy A Lowthian, Lahn D Straney, Caroline A Brand, Anna Barker, P de Villiers Smit, Harvey Newnham, Peter Hunter, Cathie Smith, Peter A Cameron
OBJECTIVE: to profile the trajectory of, and risk factors for, functional decline in older patients in the 30 days following Emergency Department (ED) discharge. METHODS: prospective cohort study of community-dwelling patients aged ≥65 years, discharged home from a metropolitan Melbourne ED, 31 July 2012 to 30 November 2013. The primary outcome was functional decline, comprising either increased dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADL) or in skills required for living independently instrumental ADL (IADL), deterioration in cognitive function, nursing home admission or death...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932344/using-robust-normative-data-to-investigate-the-neuropsychology-of-cognitive-aging
#10
Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, David Ames, Jason Hassenstab, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Olivier Salvado, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which increasing age is associated with impairment in cognitive function, termed cognitive aging, may have been overestimated in prior studies. The inclusion of individuals with severe or uncontrolled systemic medical illness or prodromal neurodegenerative disease in normal aging samples is likely to bias estimates toward lower cognitive performance and inflate estimates of variability. METHOD: Unbiased estimates of cognitive aging in 658 adults aged 60-84, who underwent rigorous screening to ensure their general and cognitive health, were computed...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932305/scavenging-of-highly-reactive-gamma-ketoaldehydes-attenuates-cognitive-dysfunction-associated-with-epileptogenesis
#11
Jennifer N Pearson, Eric Warren, Li-Ping Liang, L Jackson Roberts, Manisha Patel
Cognitive dysfunction is a major comorbidity of the epilepsies; however, treatments targeting seizure-associated cognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in learning and memory are not available. Isoketals and neuroketals, collectively known as gamma-ketoaldehydes are formed via the non-enzymatic, free radical catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. They are attractive candidates for oxidative protein damage and resultant cognitive dysfunction due to their formation within the plasma membrane and their high proclivity to form cytotoxic adducts on protein lysine residues...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931796/the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-3-continued-innovation-for-clinical-trial-improvement
#13
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Jennifer Salazar, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI-3, which began on August 1, 2016, is a 5-year renewal of the current ADNI-2 study. METHODS: ADNI-3 will follow current and additional subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD using innovative technologies such as tau imaging, magnetic resonance imaging sequences for connectivity analyses, and a highly automated immunoassay platform and mass spectroscopy approach for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis...
December 5, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931265/increased-caspase-6-activity-in-the-human-anterior-olfactory-nuclei-of-the-olfactory-bulb-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment
#14
Benedicte Foveau, Steffen Albrecht, David A Bennett, José A Correa, Andrea C LeBlanc
Abnormally elevated hippocampal Caspase-6 (Casp6) activity is intimately associated with age-related cognitive impairment in humans and in mice. In humans, these high levels of Casp6 activity are initially localized in the entorhinal cortex, the area of the brain first affected by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, according to Braak staging. The reason for the high vulnerability of entorhinal cortex neurons to neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Casp6 activity is unknown. Casp6 activity is involved in axonal degeneration, therefore, one possibility to explain increased vulnerability of the entorhinal cortex neurons would be that the afferent neurons of the olfactory bulb, some of which project their axons to the entorhinal cortex, are equally degenerating...
December 8, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931251/conflicting-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-progression-to-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Lukas Werle, Jennifer Roesler, Nathalie Thierjung, Lena Sophie Gleixner, Igor Yakushev, Nikolaos Laskaris, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Philippos Gourzis, Alexander Kurz, Robert Perneczky
BACKGROUND: According to new diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD), biomarkers enable estimation of the individual likelihood of underlying AD pathophysiology and the associated risk of progression to AD dementia for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nonetheless, how conflicting biomarker constellations affect the progression risk is still elusive. The present study explored the impact of different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker constellations on the progression risk of MCI patients...
December 9, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931249/tailored-approach-to-sleep-health-education-tashe-study-protocol-for-a-web-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Natasha J Williams, Rebecca Robbins, David Rapoport, John P Allegrante, Alwyn Cohall, Gbenga Ogedgebe, Girardin Jean-Louis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that disproportionately affects African Americans (hereafter referred to as blacks). Moreover, blacks may underutilize sleep services including overnight polysomnography. Thus, OSA among blacks may go undiagnosed and untreated, which has significant health consequences, including hypertension, diabetes, cognitive impairment, and daytime sleepiness. DESIGN AND METHODS: This two-arm randomized controlled trial will assign 200 participants to a culturally and linguistically tailored web-based sleep educational platform...
December 8, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931146/d-cycloserine-restores-experience-dependent-neuroplasticity-after-tbi-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#17
Naomi Sulit Sta Maria, Maxine Lane Reger, Yan Cai, Mary Anne Tezheart Mercado Baquing, Floyd Buen, Aditya Ponnaluri, David Hovda, Neil G Harris, Christopher C Giza
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can cause persisting cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and inevitably raises concerns about lost potential in these injured youths. Lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in weanling rats pathologically affects hippocampal NMDAR- and AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission subacutely, within the first post-injury week. FPI to weanling rats has also been shown to impair enriched-environment (EE) induced enhancement of Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory in adulthood...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#18
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930899/the-cingulate-cortex-of-older-adults-with-excellent-memory-capacity
#19
Feng Lin, Ping Ren, Mark Mapstone, Steven P Meyers, Anton Porsteinsson, Timothy M Baran
Memory deterioration is the earliest and most devastating cognitive deficit in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some older adults, known as "Supernormals", maintain excellent memory. This study examined relationships between cerebral amyloid deposition and functional connectivity (FC) within the cingulate cortex (CC) and between CC and other regions involved in memory maintenance between Supernormals, healthy controls (HC), and those at risk for AD (amnestic mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Supernormals had significantly stronger FC between anterior CC and R-hippocampus, middle CC (MCC) and L-superior temporal gyrus, and posterior CC (PCC) and R-precuneus, while weaker FC between MCC and R-middle frontal gyrus and MCC and R-thalamus than other groups...
November 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930593/usefulness-of-3-dimensional-stereotactic-surface-projection-fdg-pet-images-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#20
Jahae Kim, Sang-Geon Cho, Minchul Song, Sae-Ryung Kang, Seong Young Kwon, Kang-Ho Choi, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong-Chae Kim, Ho-Chun Song
To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).[F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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