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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830124/postmortem-fluid-and-tissue-concentrations-of-thc-11-oh-thc-and-thc-cooh
#1
Sunday R Saenz, Russell J Lewis, Mike K Angier, Jarrad R Wagner
Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830024/cognitive-remediation-training-improves-performance-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#2
Richard L McBride, Sarah Horsfield, Carolina X Sandler, Joanne Cassar, Sally Casson, Erin Cvejic, Uté Vollmer-Conna, Andrew R Lloyd
Neurocognitive disturbance with subjectively-impaired concentration and memory is a common, disabling symptom reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We recently reported preliminary evidence for benefits of cognitive remediation as part of an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)/ graded exercise therapy (GET) program. Here, we describe a contemporaneous, case-control trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online cognitive remediation training program (cognitive exercise therapy; CET) in addition to CBT/GET (n=36), compared to CBT/GET alone (n=36)...
August 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829985/follow-up-study-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-with-associated-absence-seizure-and-myoclonic-epilepsy-of-infancy
#3
Vincenzo Belcastro, Lucio Giordano, Dario Pruna, Cinzia Peruzzi, Susanna Casellato, Salvatore Barca, Giorgia Carlone, Pasquale Striano, Alberto Verrotti
We evaluated the long-term prognosis of patients featuring the association of absences and myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Our cohort consisted of 10 male subjects with mean age at seizure onset of 29 months. Follow-up data included seizure outcome and EEG findings. All individuals received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as monotherapy (6 patients) or polytherapy (4 patients) for a mean period of 24 months. Over a 30-60 month evaluation period (mean: 43 months), all patients were seizure-free. Follow-up data after withdrawal of antiepileptic therapy were obtained for a mean period of 22 months...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829959/cognitive-abilities-in-first-degree-relatives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder
#4
Daniela Calafiore, Susan L Rossell, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen
BACKGROUND: Although the study of cognition in first degree relatives (FDRs) is not new, findings in this group are still somewhat inconsistent and much of the research examining FDR populations include individuals under the age of 25, who are arguably still at significant risk to go on to develop BD. The present study aimed to establish the value of cognitive performance as a genuine endophenotypic marker of familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD), by examining cognition in FDRs aged 25 years or older...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829003/subjective-cognitive-impairment-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#5
Nikki L Hill, Caroline McDermott, Jacqueline Mogle, Elizabeth Munoz, Nicole DePasquale, Rachel Wion, Emily Whitaker
BACKGROUND: Older adults with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) experience increased affective symptoms, reduced engagement in a range of activities, as well as more functional problems when compared to those without SCI. These associations suggest that SCI may be detrimental to older adults' quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this paper is to advance understanding of the SCI-QoL relationship through a comprehensive review of the empirical literature relating SCI and QoL. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria...
August 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828890/psychosocial-benefits-of-exercise-for-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-innovative-practice
#6
Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Vicente J Beltrán-Carrillo, Nuria Caus, Marcos J Iglesias-Martínez, Inés Lozano-Cabezas, Sandra Jimenez-Hernández, J M Cortell-Tormo
The aim of this study was to explore the perceived psychosocial benefits of a three-month exercise program for 10 older adults with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, a condition in which memory loss is the main symptom. Qualitative data were collected by observation (research diary) and 20 semi-structured interviews with the participants (10) and their caregivers (10). The narratives showed remarkable psychosocial benefits, such as improved mood, motivation, autonomy, perceived competence, self-esteem, and social relationships...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828549/postnatal-hypoxia-evokes-persistent-changes-within-the-male-rat-s-dopaminergic-system
#7
Michael J Decker, Karra A Jones, Glenda L Keating, David B Rye
PURPOSE: Hypoxic insults occurring during the perinatal period remain the leading cause of permanent brain impairment. Severe cognitive and motor dysfunction, as seen in cerebral palsy, will occur in 4-10% of post-hypoxic newborns. Subtle cognitive impairment, apparent in disorders of minimal brain dysfunction will occur in > 3 million post-hypoxic newborns. Analyses of post-hypoxic rodent brains reveal reduced extracellular levels of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter of vigilance, execute function, and behavior...
August 22, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828403/stress-increases-peripheral-axon-growth-and-regeneration-through-glucocorticoid-receptor-dependent-transcriptional-programs
#8
Jessica K Lerch, Jessica K Alexander, Kathryn M Madalena, Dario Motti, Tam Quach, Akhil Dhamija, Alicia Zha, John C Gensel, Jeanette Webster Marketon, Vance P Lemmon, John L Bixby, Phillip G Popovich
Stress and glucocorticoid (GC) release are common behavioral and hormonal responses to injury or disease. In the brain, stress/GCs can alter neuron structure and function leading to cognitive impairment. Stress and GCs also exacerbate pain, but whether a corresponding change occurs in structural plasticity of sensory neurons is unknown. Here, we show that in female mice (Mus musculus) basal GC receptor (Nr3c1, also known as GR) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons is 15-fold higher than in neurons in canonical stress-responsive brain regions (M...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#9
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828223/effects-of-haloperidol-olanzapine-ziprasidone-and-pha-543613-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-the-morris-water-maze-test-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-mk-801-treated-mice
#10
Houxu Ning, Dong Cao, Haidong Wang, Bing Kang, Shiping Xie, Yujing Meng
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is the core symptom of schizophrenia, significantly impacting the functional outcome. Improvement of cognitive function has been an important aspect of the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is to demonstrate the effects of first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol, second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine and ziprasidone, and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PHA-543613 on spatial learning and memory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of haloperidol (2 mg/kg), olanzapine (2...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828207/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-subcortical-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-and-subcortical-vascular-dementia-patients-and-its-relation-with-cognitive-deficits
#11
Maoyu Li, Yao Meng, Minzhong Wang, Shuang Yang, Hui Wu, Bin Zhao, Guangbin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) is the predementia stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). The aim of this research is to explore and compare cerebral gray matter (GM) volume reduction in svMCI patients and SVaD patients, and to investigate the relationship between cerebral GM volume reduction and cognitive deficits. METHODS: Thirty one svMCI patients, 29 SVaD patients, and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our research...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828187/exercise-promotes-neuroplasticity-in-both-healthy-and-depressed-brains-an-fmri-pilot-study
#12
Joanne Gourgouvelis, Paul Yielder, Bernadette Murphy
Memory impairments are a frequently reported cognitive symptom in people suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and often persist despite antidepressant therapy. Neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal hippocampal activity during memory processes in MDD. Exercise as an ad-on treatment for MDD is a promising therapeutic strategy shown to improve mood, cognitive function, and neural structure and function. To advance our understanding of how exercise impacts neural function in MDD, we must also understand how exercise impacts healthy individuals without MDD...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827871/cognitive-effects-with-rivastigmine-augmentation-of-risperidone-a-12-month-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-in-schizophrenia
#13
Pattath Narayanan Suresh Kumar, Seema P Mohemmedali, P K Anish, Chittaranjan Andrade
OBJECTIVE: An important challenge in schizophrenia therapeutics is to develop an efficacious treatment for cognitive impairment. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine, have been studied for improving cognitive performance in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rivastigmine (uptitrated to 6 mg/day) was given as an add-on therapy to risperidone-treated stable schizophrenia patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Of 67 patients who met eligibility criteria, 55 were recruited into the study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827860/psychiatric-morbidity-in-the-community-a-population-based-study-from-kerala
#14
K S Shaji, D Raju, V Sathesh, P Krishnakumar, Varghese P Punnoose, P S Kiran, B S Mini, Shibu Kumar, P K Anish, Ganga G Kaimal, Lekshmy Gupthan, T P Sumesh, U G Nikhil, Nisha Cyriac, M D Vinod, R Prasad Kumar, Ramesh Chandran, P P Rejani, R Amrutha, Mahesh, T N Anand
BACKGROUND: Estimates of psychiatric morbidity in the community will help service development. Participation of trained nonspecialist health-care providers will facilitate scaling up of services in resource-limited settings. AIMS: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of priority mental health problems in populations served by the District Mental Health Program (DMHP). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a population-based cross-sectional survey...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827178/increase-of-cortical-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-rat-model-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-dysfunction
#15
Alberto Llorente-Ovejero, Iván Manuel, Maria Teresa Giralt, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
The basal forebrain cholinergic pathways progressively degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, leading to an irreversible impairment of memory and thinking skills. The stereotaxic lesion with 192IgG-saporin in the rat brain has been used to eliminate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and is aimed at emulating the cognitive damage described in this disease in order to explore its effects on behavior and on neurotransmission. Learning and memory processes that are controlled by cholinergic neurotransmission are also modulated by the endocannabinoid system...
August 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827155/effects-of-mental-workload-on-involuntary-attention-a-somatosensory-erp-study
#16
Sungchul Mun, Mincheol Whang, Sangin Park, Min-Chul Park
Previous psychophysiological assessments of mental workload have relied on the addition of visual or auditory stimuli. This study investigated the tactile ERP and EEG spectral power correlates of mental workload by relating limited-capacity involuntary attention allocation to changes in late positive potential (LPP) amplitude, alpha, and theta powers. We examined whether mental workload (high-level cognitive control) can be evaluated using somatosensory stimuli. Sixteen participants all performed three tasks of varying difficulty...
August 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827085/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#17
Daniela Scarabino, Elisabetta Broggio, Giuseppe Gambina, Rosa Maria Corbo
Numerous studies have reported an association between shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated the relationship between LTL and AD development, including in the analysis patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical entity considered prodromal of AD. LTL (T/S ratio) was measured in patients with AD (n=61) or aMCI (n=46), and compared with LTL of age-matched controls (n=56). Significant LTL differences were observed between controls, aMCI and AD patients (p<0...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827005/cognitive-dysfunction-and-symptoms-of-movement-disorders-in-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia
#18
Takeshi Ikeuchi, Naomi Mezaki, Takeshi Miura
Adult-onset leukoencephalopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that affect predominantly the cerebral white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical and neuroimaging-based approaches have been developed to improve diagnostic processes for adult-onset leukoencephalopathies. However, the differential diagnosis is often challenging. Recently, knowledge of the genetic basis of leukoencephalopathies has been accumulated rapidly, which provides powerful diagnostic approaches. The article provides an overview of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), focusing on the clinical presentations of cognitive impairment and symptoms of movement disorders...
August 16, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826965/potential-treatment-targets-for-modulation-of-affective-reactivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
EDITORIAL
Sara L Weisenbach, Joseph Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826872/determinants-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-scoping-review-of-the-evidence
#20
Ann Kolanowski, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Laura N Gitlin, Helen C Kales, Barbara Resnick, Kimberly S Van Haitsma, Amy Knehans, Jane E Sutterlin, Justine S Sefcik, Wen Liu, Darina V Petrovsky, Lauren Massimo, Andrea Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Margaret MacAndrew, Glenna Brewster, Vycki Nalls, Ying-Ling Jao, Naomi Duffort, Danny Scerpella
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent in people with neurodegenerative diseases. PURPOSE: In this scoping review the Kales, Gitlin and Lykestos framework is used to answer the question: What high quality evidence exists for the patient, caregiver and environmental determinants of five specific BPSD: aggression, agitation, apathy, depression and psychosis? METHOD: An a priori review protocol was developed; 692 of 6013 articles retrieved in the search were deemed eligible for review...
June 16, 2017: Nursing Outlook
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