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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906027/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#1
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#2
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900335/a-rare-presentation-of-peritoneal-tuberculosis-mimicking-malignancy
#3
Thein Swe, Akari Thein Naing, Zaw Win Phyo, Malar Thwin
Our search of literature revealed combined elevations of serum cancer antigen 125 levels and rheumatoid factor levels in a patient with peritoneal tuberculosis has rarely been reported. Thus, we describe the case of a 63-year-old female with large abdominal ascites and malignancy was ruled out with biopsy. High levels of serum cancer antigen and rheumatoid factor were noted. Physicians should be aware that tuberculosis infection could induce elevation of rheumatoid factor levels in the absence of rheumatologic symptoms or disease...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898411/radioprotective-effects-of-heat-killed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-cultured-cells-and-radiosensitive-tissues
#4
Yuanyuan Chen, Yang Xu, Jicong Du, Jiaming Guo, Xiao Lei, Jianguo Cui, Cong Liu, Ying Cheng, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Jintao Ju, Jianming Cai, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often causes severe damage to radiosensitive tissues, which limits the use of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Novel safe and effective radioprotectant is urgently required. It has been reported toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in radioresistance. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of Heat-Killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HKMT), a potent TLR2 agonist, against IR. METHODS: Cell survival and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin V assay, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895343/cervical-mediastinoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-lymphadenopathy-in-south-asia
#5
Sulaiman Bashir Hasan, Fazal Wahab Khan, Shiraz Hashmi, Ahsan Ehtesham, Rizwana Ahmed Magsi, Syed Shahabuddin
We planned to determine the clinical utility and safety of mediastinoscopy in the pathologic diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and to determine disease patterns in a tertiary care setting in Karachi. The retrospective review comprised record of patients who underwent mediastinoscopy over 25 years between July, 1990 and August, 2015. Of the 122 patients, records were complete for 88(72%). Mean age was 42.5±12.9 years and 55(62.5%) were male. Overall, 60(68.2%) patients had benign inflammatory diseases; 25 (28...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889632/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-in-silico-molecular-modeling-of-pyrrolyl-benzohydrazide-derivatives-as-enoyl-acp-reductase-inhibitors
#6
Shrinivas D Joshi, Sheshagiri R Dixit, Venkatarao H Kulkarni, Christian Lherbet, Mallikarjuna N Nadagouda, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
In efforts to develop lead anti-TB compounds, a novel series of 19 pyrrolyl benzohydrazides were synthesized and screened to target enoyl-ACP reductase enzyme, which is one of the important enzymes involved in type II fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of M. tuberculosis. Pharmacophores were constructed using GALAHAD to generate alignment of data sets and calculated by Pareto ranking. The pharmacophore features were then filtered by Surflex-dock study using enoyl ACP reductase from M. tuberculosis. Compounds 5b and 5d showed H-bonding interactions with Tyr158, Thr196 and co-factor NAD(+) that fitted well within the binding pocket of InhA...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888179/predicting-tuberculosis-risk-in-the-foreign-born-population-of-british-columbia-canada-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Lisa A Ronald, Jonathon R Campbell, Robert F Balshaw, David Z Roth, Kamila Romanowski, Fawziah Marra, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#8
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866817/discovery-of-novel-n-phenyl-1-4-dihydropyridines-with-a-dual-mode-of-antimycobacterial-activity
#9
Fabian Lentz, Marc Hemmer, Norbert Reiling, Andreas Hilgeroth
There is an urgent need for novel drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains against first-line and second-line therapeutics. We developed novel N-phenyl 1,4-dihydropyridines as potential antituberculotic agents. The observed activity depends on the substitution patterns of the aromatic residues. N-unsubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines are known inhibitors of the cancer-relevant transmembrane efflux pump ABCB1...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865222/endometrial-tuberculosis-simulating-an-ovarian-cancer-a-case-report
#10
Silvia Eleonora Di Giovanni, Teresa Margarida Cunha, Ana Luisa Duarte, Ines Alves
Female genital tuberculosis remains a major health problem in developing countries and is an important cause of infertility. As symptoms, laboratory data and physical findings are non-specific, its diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman suffering from peri-umbilical pain and increased abdominal size for one year, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss, occasionally dysuria and dyspareunia, and four months amenorrhea. Laboratory data revealed cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level of 132.3 U/mL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 42 mm/h, and gamma-globulins of 2...
June 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853089/disseminated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-masquerading-as-metastasis-after-heavy-ion-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#11
Masaru Ando, Yutaka Mukai, Ryo-Ichi Ushijima, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Kenji Umeki, Fumito Okada, Shin-Ichi Nureki, Hiromitsu Mimata, Jun-Ichi Kadota
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful in disease monitoring of malignancies after therapy, while an FDG uptake may also be present in benign diseases. We herein demonstrate a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mimicking systemic metastasis of prostate cancer. This case highlights that clinicians should consider Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with prostate cancer who demonstrate multifocal FDG uptakes masquerading as metastasis, even when the chest photographs reveal a normal appearance and a sputum examination demonstrates negative results...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833923/low-dose-bcg-infection-as-a-model-for-macrophage-activation-maintaining-cell-viability
#12
Leslie Chávez-Galán, Dominique Vesin, Denis Martinvalet, Irene Garcia
Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823561/synthesis-antitubercular-and-anticancer-activities-of-p-nitrophenylethylenediamine-derived-schiff-bases
#13
Raquel S Amim, Cláudia Pessoa, Maria C S Lourenço, Marcus V N de Souza, Josane A Lessa
BACKGROUND: Schiff bases have been greatly studied in biological field due to their wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antitubercular and antitumour. In the search of novel antitubercular agents, several compounds containing pharmacophoric group of ethambutol have been synthesized and evaluated against mycobacteria species causing tuberculosis. In this work, we investigate whether ethylenediamine, Schiff base as well as nitro group together could contribute to the formation of novel molecules with dual biological activities: antitubercular and anticancer...
November 4, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809691/identification-of-the-mirna-mrna-regulatory-network-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Qinghe Yang, Wei Pan, Liwei Qian
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the common neurological disorders in young adults, which affects the central nervous system myelin or oligodendrocytes and results in disability. This study aimed to identify the key miRNAs in blood of patients in MS for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of MS. METHODS: The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus data-sets of MS were performed to integrated analysis. miRNA expression and mRNA expression were analyzed in whole blood samples from patients with MS and healthy controls by microarray analysis, Gene Ontology enrichment analyses, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses, construction of miRNA-mRNA interaction network, and quantitative real-time polymerase reaction...
November 4, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809237/discovery-of-bioactive-compounds-by-the-uic-icbg-drug-discovery-program-in-the-18-years-since-1998
#15
REVIEW
Hong-Jie Zhang, Wan-Fei Li, Harry H S Fong, Djaja Doel Soejarto
The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program based at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a program aimed to address the interdependent issues of inventory and conservation of biodiversity, drug discovery and sustained economic growth in both developing and developed countries. It is an interdisciplinary program involving the extensive synergies and collaborative efforts of botanists, chemists and biologists in the countries of Vietnam, Laos and the USA. The UIC-ICBG drug discovery efforts over the past 18 years have resulted in the collection of a cumulative total of more than 5500 plant samples (representing more than 2000 species), that were evaluated for their potential biological effects against cancer, HIV, bird flu, tuberculosis and malaria...
October 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807019/abdominal-tuberculosis-an-old-disease-surprising-young-doctors
#16
Marta David Sousa, Joana Batista, Patricia Pacheco, Vitor Nunes
Tuberculosis remains a worldwide public health concern. Atypical extrapulmonary presentations may delay the diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of an adult woman admitted to the emergency department with bowel obstruction. The putative intraoperative diagnostic hypothesis was ovarian cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Histopathological analysis showed a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease with acid-fast bacilli. The patient was started on an alternative parenteral antituberculosis drug combination until oral feeding was available...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806934/progress-in-resistance-mechanisms-and-diagnosis-of-non-first-line-anti-tb-drugs
#17
Liu Yang, Wang Bangxing, Liu Zhiyong, Han Yi, Tan Yaoju, Li Xinjie, Liu Jianxiong, Tan Shouyong, Zhang Tianyu
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the three major infectious diseases in China and all over the world. In 2014, for the first time, TB killed more people than HIV did. Non-first line anti-TB drugs are used as main drugs in the treatment of MDR-TB. However, MDR-TB can gradually develop as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) because of poor diagnosis, the unreasonable treatment, poor medical conditions and so on. The death rate of XDR-TB is close to lung cancer. Research on the mechanism of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has turned to non first-line anti-TB drugs: second and third line drugs and some new anti-TB drugs in development...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804936/-first-time-revealed-small-formations-of-lungs-under-2-cm-in-diameter-dynamic-follow-up-or-surgery
#18
Yu V Pavlov, V K Rybin
AIM: To develop the treatment algorithm in patients with first time revealed lung lesions smaller than 2 cm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 110 patients with pathological lung lesions with small dimensions who have been treated in the Burdenko Clinic of Faculty Surgery for the period 1997-2013. All patients underwent surgical removal of lung tissue using different surgical approaches: 44 cases of videothoracoscopic resections, 43 video-assisted minithoracotomies, 23 minithoracotomies...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800700/t-cell-exhaustion-in-tuberculosis-pitfalls-and-prospects
#19
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Mohammed Amir, Khurram Mushtaq, Javed Naim Agrewala
T-cells play an important role in immunity but when these cells are overexposed to specific antigens, their function may decline. This state is usually referred to as exhaustion and the T-cells show reduced proliferation and functions such as cytokine release. T-cell exhaustion has been observed in several cancers as well as in chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). In chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, T-cells may express the exhaustion phenotype and show a progressive loss of secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787715/bifunctional-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#20
Clive Page, Mario Cazzola
Over the last decade, there has been a steady increase in the use of fixed dose combinations for the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. It is now evident that patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can also benefit from the use of fixed dose combinations, including combinations of a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) and an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and combinations of LABAs and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs)...
October 28, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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