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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917379/current-understanding-of-the-correlation-of-lignin-structure-with-biomass-recalcitrance
#1
REVIEW
Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas
Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresources to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914260/the-extent-of-fermentative-transformation-of-phenolic-compounds-in-the-bioanode-controls-exoelectrogenic-activity-in-a-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#2
Xiaofei Zeng, Maya A Collins, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#3
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891177/furfural-tolerance-and-detoxification-mechanism-in-candida-tropicalis
#4
Shizeng Wang, Gang Cheng, Chijioke Joshua, Zijun He, Xinxiao Sun, Ruimin Li, Lexuan Liu, Qipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888731/kelp-waste-extracts-combined-with-acetate-enhances-the-biofuel-characteristics-of-chlorella-sorokiniana
#5
Shiyan Zheng, Meilin He, Yangsui Sui, Temesgen Gebreluel, Shanmei Zou, Nyabuto Dorothy Kemuma, Changhai Wang
To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886606/a-symmetric-supercapacitor-biofuel-cell-hybrid-device-based-on-enzyme-modified-nanoporous-gold-an-autonomous-pulse-generator
#6
Xinxin Xiao, Peter Ó Conghaile, Dónal Leech, Roland Ludwig, Edmond Magner
The integration of supercapacitors with enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) can be used to prepare hybrid devices in order to harvest significantly higher power output. In this study, a supercapacitor/biofuel cell hybrid device was prepared by the immobilisation of redox enzymes with electrodeposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the redox polymer [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(polyvinylimidazole)10Cl](+/2+)(Os(bpy)2PVI) on dealloyed nanoporous gold. The thickness of the deposition layer can be easily controlled by tuning the deposition conditions...
November 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879392/characterization-of-class-iii-peroxidases-from-switchgrass
#7
Timothy W Moural, Kevin M Lewis, Carlo Barnaba, Fang Zhu, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Erin D Scully, Jeffrey P Jones, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specificity of these enzymes, we characterized one of the CIIIPRXs (PviPRX9) from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a strategic plant for 2nd generation biofuels. The crystal structure, kinetic experiments, molecular docking, as well as expression patterns of PviPRX9 across multiple tissues and treatments, along with its levels of coexpression with the majority of genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway, revealed the function of PviPRX9 in lignification...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875965/stimulation-of-laccase-biocatalysis-in-ionic-liquids-a-review-on-recent-progress
#8
Hao Liu, Xing Wu, Jianliang Sun, Shicheng Chen
It has been well known that laccases can directly or indirectly catalyze oxidation of a broad species of phenols, amines and many other electron acceptors. However, laccases as biocatalyst in "green" ionic liquids (ILs) media instead of conventional solvents are less known and regarded as an innovative research direction. The presence of ILs can either inhibit or stimulate laccase activity, strongly depending on water-miscibility and kosmotropic natures of ILs. In addition, enzyme source, mediator, pH as well as water content are very important factors which influence laccase activity and stability...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862889/significant-enhancement-of-fatty-acid-composition-in-seeds-of-the-allohexaploid-camelina-sativa-using-crispr-cas9-gene-editing
#9
Wen Zhi Jiang, Isabelle M Henry, Peter G Lynagh, Luca Comai, Edgar B Cahoon, Donald P Weeks
The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i...
November 11, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858972/a-simple-and-low-cost-procedure-for-growing-geobacter-sulfurreducens-cell-cultures-and-biofilms-in-bioelectrochemical-systems
#10
J Patrick O'Brien, Nikhil S Malvankar
Anaerobic microorganisms play a central role in several environmental processes and regulate global biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and minerals. Many anaerobic microorganisms are important for the production of bioenergy and biofuels. However, the major hurdle in studying anaerobic microorganisms in the laboratory is the requirement for sophisticated and expensive gassing stations and glove boxes to create and maintain the anaerobic environment. This appendix presents a simple design for a gassing station that can be used readily by an inexperienced investigator for cultivation of anaerobic microorganisms...
November 18, 2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851982/interdomain-electron-transfer-in-cellobiose-dehydrogenase-is-governed-by-surface-electrostatics
#11
Alan Kadek, Daniel Kavan, Julien Marcoux, Johann Stojko, Alfons K G Felice, Sarah Cianférani, Roland Ludwig, Petr Halada, Petr Man
BACKGROUND: Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a fungal extracellular oxidoreductase which fuels lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase with electrons during cellulose degradation. Interdomain electron transfer between the flavin and cytochrome domain in CDH, preceding the electron flow to lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, is known to be pH dependent, but the exact mechanism of this regulation has not been experimentally proven so far. METHODS: To investigate the structural aspects underlying the domain interaction in CDH, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX-MS) with improved proteolytic setup (combination of nepenthesin-1 with rhizopuspepsin), native mass spectrometry with ion mobility and electrostatics calculations were used...
November 13, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846239/high-throughput-accurate-single-cell-screening-of-euglena-gracilis-with-fluorescence-assisted-optofluidic-time-stretch-microscopy
#12
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Takuro Ito, Yiyue Jiang, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833653/valorization-of-lignin-and-cellulose-in-acid-steam-exploded-corn-stover-by-a-moderate-alkaline-ethanol-post-treatment-based-on-an-integrated-biorefinery-concept
#13
Sheng Yang, Yue Zhang, Wen Yue, Wei Wang, Yun-Yan Wang, Tong-Qi Yuan, Run-Cang Sun
BACKGROUND: Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833622/downregulation-of-a-udp-arabinomutase-gene-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-results-in-increased-cell-wall-lignin-while-reducing-arabinose-glycans
#14
Jonathan D Willis, James A Smith, Mitra Mazarei, Ji-Yi Zhang, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Charleson R Poovaiah, Holly L Baxter, David G J Mann, Mark F Davis, Michael K Udvardi, Maria J Peña, Jason Backe, Maor Bar-Peled, C N Stewart
Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall's natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832388/optimization-of-industrial-microorganisms-recent-advances-in-synthetic-dynamic-regulators
#15
REVIEW
Byung Eun Min, Hyun Gyu Hwang, Hyun Gyu Lim, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Production of biochemicals by industrial fermentation using microorganisms requires maintaining cellular production capacity, because maximal productivity is economically important. High-productivity microbial strains can be developed using static engineering, but these may not maintain maximal productivity throughout the culture period as culture conditions and cell states change dynamically. Additionally, economic reasons limit heterologous protein expression using inducible promoters to prevent metabolic burden for commodity chemical and biofuel production...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832297/exporters-for-production-of-amino-acids-and-other-small-molecules
#16
Lothar Eggeling
Microbes are talented catalysts to synthesize valuable small molecules in their cytosol. However, to make full use of their skills - and that of metabolic engineers - the export of intracellularly synthesized molecules to the culture medium has to be considered. This step is as essential as is each step for the synthesis of the favorite molecule of the metabolic engineer, but is frequently not taken into account. To export small molecules via the microbial cell envelope, a range of different types of carrier proteins is recognized to be involved, which are primary active carriers, secondary active carriers, or proteins increasing diffusion...
November 11, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826727/engineering-the-leucine-biosynthetic-pathway-for-isoamyl-alcohol-overproduction-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Jifeng Yuan, Pranjul Mishra, Chi Bun Ching
Isoamyl alcohol can be used not only as a biofuel, but also as a precursor for various chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae inherently produces a small amount of isoamyl alcohol via the leucine degradation pathway, but the yield is very low. In the current study, several strategies were devised to overproduce isoamyl alcohol in budding yeast. The engineered yeast cells with the cytosolic isoamyl alcohol biosynthetic pathway produced significantly higher amounts of isobutanol over isoamyl alcohol, suggesting that the majority of the metabolic flux was diverted to the isobutanol biosynthesis due to the broad substrate specificity of Ehrlich pathway enzymes...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826356/inhibition-of-microbial-biofuel-production-in-drought-stressed-switchgrass-hydrolysate
#18
Rebecca Garlock Ong, Alan Higbee, Scott Bottoms, Quinn Dickinson, Dan Xie, Scott A Smith, Jose Serate, Edward Pohlmann, Arthur Daniel Jones, Joshua J Coon, Trey K Sato, Gregg R Sanford, Dustin Eilert, Lawrence G Oates, Jeff S Piotrowski, Donna M Bates, David Cavalier, Yaoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Interannual variability in precipitation, particularly drought, can affect lignocellulosic crop biomass yields and composition, and is expected to increase biofuel yield variability. However, the effect of precipitation on downstream fermentation processes has never been directly characterized. In order to investigate the impact of interannual climate variability on biofuel production, corn stover and switchgrass were collected during 3 years with significantly different precipitation profiles, representing a major drought year (2012) and 2 years with average precipitation for the entire season (2010 and 2013)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825524/paper-based-microfluidic-biofuel-cell-operating-under-glucose-concentrations-within-physiological-range
#19
Maria José González-Guerrero, F Javier Del Campo, Juan Pablo Esquivel, Dónal Leech, Neus Sabaté
This work addresses the development of a compact paper-based enzymatic microfluidic glucose/O2 fuel cell that can operate using a very limited sample volume (≈35µl) and explores the energy generated by glucose at concentrations typically found in blood samples at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). Carbon paper electrodes combined with a paper sample absorption substrate all contained within a plastic microfluidic casing are used to construct the paper-based fuel cell. The anode catalysts consist of glucose dehydrogenase and [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl](+) as mediator, while the cathode catalysts were bilirubin oxidase and [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl](+) as mediator...
September 18, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825349/an-easy-and-efficient-permeabilization-protocol-for-in-vivo-enzyme-activity-assays-in-cyanobacteria
#20
Randi Engelberth Rasmussen, Simon Matthé Erstad, Erick Miguel Ramos-Martinez, Lorenzo Fimognari, Alice Jara De Porcellinis, Yumiko Sakuragi
BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that thrive in diverse ecosystems and play major roles in the global carbon cycle. The abilities of cyanobacteria to fix atmospheric CO2 and to allocate the fixed carbons to chemicals and biofuels have attracted growing attentions as sustainable microbial cell factories. Better understanding of the activities of enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism would lead to increasing product yields. Currently cell-free lysates are the most widely used method for determination of intracellular enzyme activities...
November 8, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
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