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biofuel cell

Takuya Tomiyama, Kaeko Kurihara, Takahisa Ogawa, Takanori Maruta, Takumi Ogawa, Daisaku Ohta, Yoshihiro Sawa, Takahiro Ishikawa
Wax ester fermentation is a unique energy gaining pathway for a unicellular phytoflagellated protozoan, Euglena gracilis, to survive under anaerobiosis. Wax esters produced in E. gracilis are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols, which are the major constituents of myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Thus, wax esters can be promising alternative biofuels. Here, we report the identification and characterization of wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltrasferase (WSD) isoenzymes as the terminal enzymes of wax ester production in E...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ruma Perveen, Inamuddin, Sufia Ul Haque, Abu Nasar, Abdullah M Asiri, Ghulam Md Ashraf
The proposed work intended to make an intellectual contribution to the domain of green nanotechnology which emphasizes the chemical synthesis of a conducting nanocomposite based on the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (Au) into the redox matrix of polyindole (PIn) along with the subsequent improvement in the overall properties of the composite by the addition of sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO). The bioanode was developed by the deposition of the PIn-Au-SGO nanocomposite with subsequent immobilization of ferritin (Frt) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on the glassy carbon electrode (GC)...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zepeng Kang, Kailong Jiao, Jin Cheng, Ruiyun Peng, Shuqiang Jiao, Zongqian Hu
A novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon composite of PANI1600@CNTs with rhizobium-like structure is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers around and along the functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and then carbonized at 1600°C for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). The SEM and TEM images clearly show that the carbonized PANI grew seamlessly on the surface of CNTs and presented the rhizobium-like structure. The carbonized PANI acts like conductive "glue" and connects the adjacent tubes together, which can assemble the CNTs into a 3D network...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Hye-Na Kim, Sanaz Vahidinia, Amanda L Holt, Alison M Sweeney, Shu Yang
It will be ideal to deliver equal, optimally efficient "doses" of sunlight to all cells in a photobioreactor system, while simultaneously utilizing the entire solar resource. Backed by the numerical scattering simulation and optimization, here, the design, synthesis, and characterization of the synthetic iridocytes that recapitulated the salient forward-scattering behavior of the Tridacnid clam system are reported, which presents the first geometric solution to allow narrow, precise forward redistribution of flux, utilizing the solar resource at the maximum quantum efficiency possible in living cells...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Bo Yang, Jin Liu, Xiaonian Ma, Bingbing Guo, Bin Liu, Tao Wu, Yue Jiang, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic microalgae are emerging as potential biomass feedstock for sustainable production of biofuels and value-added bioproducts. CO2 biomitigation through these organisms is considered as an eco-friendly and promising alternative to the existing carbon sequestration methods. Nonetheless, the inherent relatively low photosynthetic capacity of microalgae has hampered the practical use of this strategy for CO2 biomitigation applications. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of improving photosynthetic capacity by the genetic manipulation of the Calvin cycle in the typical green microalga Chlorella vulgaris...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Muktak Aklujkar, Ching Leang, Pravin M Shrestha, Minita Shrestha, Derek R Lovley
Clostridium ljungdahlii derives energy by lithotrophic and organotrophic acetogenesis. C. ljungdahlii was grown organotrophically with fructose and also lithotrophically, either with syngas - a gas mixture containing hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), or with H2 and CO2. Gene expression was compared quantitatively by microarrays using RNA extracted from all three conditions. Gene expression with fructose and with H2/CO2 was compared by RNA-Seq. Upregulated genes with both syngas and H2/CO2 (compared to fructose) point to the urea cycle, uptake and degradation of peptides and amino acids, response to sulfur starvation, potentially NADPH-producing pathways involving (S)-malate and ornithine, quorum sensing, sporulation, and cell wall remodeling, suggesting a global and multicellular response to lithotrophic conditions...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Siti N M Rozali, Elham A Milani, Rebecca C Deed, Filipa V M Silva
Spores are the most resistant form of microbial cells, thus difficult to inactivate. The pathogenic or food spoilage effects of certain spore-forming microorganisms have been the primary basis of sterilization and pasteurization processes. Thermal sterilization is the most common method to inactivate spores present on medical equipment and foods. High pressure processing (HPP) is an emerging and commercial non-thermal food pasteurization technique. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of thermal and non-thermal spore inactivation, the in-depth mechanisms of spore inactivation are as yet unclear...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Anbarasu Karthikaichamy, Pranali Deore, Vineeta Rai, Dieter Bulach, John Beardall, Santosh Noronha, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Proteomics is a crucial postgenomic biotechnology for functional and systems scale analyses in cell and integrative biology, not to mention clinical and precision medicine research. However, a fundamental requirement for an accurate examination of the protein complement of cells is an efficient method for extracting the proteins. This study reports on the evaluation of three protein extraction methods: trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone, phenol, and TRIzol, in the eustigmatophyte alga Microchloropsis gaditana CCMP526 for proteomic analysis...
October 12, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Yik Siu, Jesse Fenno, Jessica M Lindle, Mary J Dunlop
Feedback control allows cells to dynamically sense and respond to environmental changes. However, synthetic controller designs can be challenging because of implementation issues, such as determining optimal expression levels for circuit components within a feedback loop. Here, we addressed this by coupling rational design with selection to engineer a synthetic feedback circuit to optimize tolerance of Escherichia coli to the biojet fuel pinene. E. coli can be engineered to produce pinene, but it is toxic to cells...
October 12, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
Ching Man Wai, Jisen Zhang, Tyler C Jones, Chifumi Nagai, Ray Ming
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. RESULTS: To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Saithip Pakapongpan, Adisorn Tuantranont, Rungtiva P Poo-Arporn
In this work, an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) based on a membraneless and mediatorless glucose enzymatic fuel cell system was constructed for operation in physiological conditions (pH 7.0 and temperature 37 °C). The new platform EBC made of nanocomposite, including magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), was used for the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) as bioanode and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) as biocathode. The EBC bioelectrodes were fabricated without binder or adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme and the first EBC using superparamagnetic properties with Fe3O4 NPs has been reported...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yasemin D Yilmazel, Xiuping Zhu, Kyoung-Yeol Kim, Dawn E Holmes, Bruce E Logan
Few microorganisms have been examined for current generation under thermophilic (40-65°C) or hyperthermophilic temperatures (≥80°C) in microbial electrochemical systems. Two iron-reducing archaea from the family Archaeoglobaceae, Ferroglobus placidus and Geoglobus ahangari, showed electro-active behavior leading to current generation at hyperthermophilic temperatures in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). A current density (j) of 0.68±0.11A/m(2) was attained in F. placidus MECs at 85°C, and 0...
October 2, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
K Komori, J Huang, N Mizushima, S Ko, T Tatsuma, Y Sakai
Graphene edge sites not only facilitate heterogeneous electron transfer reactions of redox species because of localization of electrons, but also allow sensitivities and selectivities to be tuned by controlling the atomic oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio. Here, we immobilized fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) onto the surface of cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), which provide highly ordered graphene edges with a controlled O/C ratio, and investigated the direct electron communication with FDH. As the O/C ratio decreased at the CSCNF surface, the negative zeta potential was mitigated and the electrochemical communication with FDH was facilitated...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ritu Verma, Rahul Kumar, Luv Mehan, Aradhana Srivastava
Microalgae, a renewable source for third generation biofuel production, have a great potential if cultivated in high concentration economically. Bottleneck lies with designing economical and efficient photobioreactor. In addition, proportional C and N inputs in the known media does not support high specific growth rate and high biomass build-up. Nitrates in fermentation media, f/2 for Nannochloropsis sp. and Zarrouk's for Arthrospiraplatensis, were modified. Aeration and agitation were altered in conventional bioreactor (BIOFLO 110) to reduce power consumption, increase mixing time and prevents settling...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yang Yang, Christoph Benning
Plant oil in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) is a major storage compound used as food, feed and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Recent findings suggest that TAGs are more than a carbon and energy reserve in seeds and other storage tissues. In vegetative tissues, TAG metabolism is involved in cell division and expansion, stomatal opening, and membrane lipid remodeling. Moreover, in reproductive tissues, TAGs are important for both organ formation and successful pollination. Here we provide a brief overview of the physiological function and contribution of TAGs during plant development under optimal and varying environmental conditions...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Joseph Miceli, Cesar I Torres, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are important biofuel precursors. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a sustainable electron and carbon donor for fatty acid elongation, since it is metabolized to MCFA precursors, it is toxic to most methanogens, and it is a waste product generated in the gasification of waste biomass. The main objective of this work was to determine if the inhibition of methanogenesis through the continuous addition of CO would lead to increased acetate or MCFA production during fermentation of ethanol...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Sufia Ul Haque, Inamuddin, Abu Nasar, B Rajender, Anish Khan, Abdullah M Asiri, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Polyaniline-silver (PANI-Ag)/ferritin (Frt)/glucose oxidase (GOx) biocompatible anode was utilized for creating power from glucose. The synthesized nanocomposite was investigated by EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (Scanning electron microscopy), CV (Cyclic voltammetry), and LSV (Linear sweep voltammetry) to know the morphology, crystallinity and electrochemical behaviour of the nanocomposite. The electroactive support (PANI-Ag) was utilized for the immobilization of the enzyme (GOx) and a biocompatible mediator (Frt) to enhance the electrical signals...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yindi Chu, Tao Tu, Leena Penttinen, Xianli Xue, Xiaoyu Wang, Zhuolin Yi, Li Gong, Juha Rouvinen, Huiying Luo, Nina Hakulinen, Bin Yao, Xiaoyun Su
Bifunctional glycoside hydrolases have potential for cost saving in enzymatic decomposition of plant cell wall polysaccharides for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. The N-terminal GH10 domain of a bifunctional multimodular enzyme CbXyn10C/Cel48B from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, is an enzyme able to degrade xylan and cellulose simultaneously. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its substrate promiscuity has not been elucidated. Herein, we discovered that the binding cleft of CbXyn10C would have at least six sugar binding subsites by using isothermal titration calorimetry analysis of the inactive E140Q/E248Q mutant with xylo- and cellooligosaccharides...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wei Xiong, Melissa Cano, Bo Wang, Damien Douchi, Jianping Yu
This opinion article aims to raise awareness of a fundamental issue which governs sustainable production of biofuels and bio-chemicals from photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Discussed is the plasticity of carbon metabolism, by which the cyanobacterial cells flexibly distribute intracellular carbon fluxes towards target products and adapt to environmental/genetic alterations. This intrinsic feature in cyanobacterial metabolism is being understood through recent identification of new biochemical reactions and engineering on low-throughput pathways...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
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