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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470618/tuning-of-acyl-acp-thioesterase-activity-directed-for-tailored-fatty-acid-synthesis
#1
Yanbin Feng, Yunxiu Zhang, Yayue Wang, Jiao Liu, Yinghui Liu, Xupeng Cao, Song Xue
Medium-chain fatty acids have attracted significant attention as sources of biofuels in recent years. Acyl-ACP thioesterase, which is considered as the key enzyme to determine the carbon chain length, catalyzes the termination of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Although recombinant medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) affects the fatty acid profile in heterologous cells, tailoring of the fatty acid composition merely by engineering a specific TE is still intractable. In this study, the activity of a C8-C10-specific thioesterase FatB2 from Cuphea hookeriana on C10-ACP was quantified twice as high as that on C8-ACP based on a synthetic C8-C16 acyl-ACP pool in vitro...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462888/microwave-assisted-extraction-for-microalgae-from-biofuels-to-biorefinery
#2
REVIEW
Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Thomas O Butler, Jagroop Pandhal, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
The commercial reality of bioactive compounds and oil production from microalgal species is constrained by the high cost of production. Downstream processing, which includes harvesting and extraction, can account for 70-80% of the total cost of production. Consequently, from an economic perspective extraction technologies need to be improved. Microalgal cells are difficult to disrupt due to polymers within their cell wall such as algaenan and sporopollenin. Consequently, solvents and disruption devices are required to obtain products of interest from within the cells...
February 15, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458672/optimization-of-triacylglycerol-and-starch-production-in-chlamydomonas-debaryana-nies-2212-with-regard-to-light-intensity-and-co2-concentration
#3
Masakazu Toyoshima, Naoki Sato
Triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch produced by micro-algae are potential sources of biofuel. Our previous studies showed that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212, which is a rare species of Chlamydomonas that possesses phosphatidylcholine (PC), is a seed organism for the development of biofuel producers. This alga accumulates large amounts of TAG and starch under completely photo-autotrophic conditions during stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. The present study was performed to optimize the growth conditions of this alga with regard to light intensity and CO2 concentration to improve the efficiency of TAG and starch production...
January 17, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456627/growth-and-lipid-accumulation-by-different-nutrients-in-the-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Lei Yang, Jun Chen, Shan Qin, Min Zeng, Yongguang Jiang, Lang Hu, Peng Xiao, Wenlong Hao, Zhangli Hu, Anping Lei, Jiangxin Wang
Background: Individual nutrient depletion is widely used to induce lipid accumulation in microalgae, which also causes cell growth inhibition and decreases the total biomass. Thus, improving the lipid accumulation without biomass loss in the nutrient deficiency cells becomes a potential cost-effective treatment for cheaper biofuels. Methods: In this study, the effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth and contents of lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were compared, and the metabolic profiles under different nutritional conditions were also investigated...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454276/use-of-mixed-wastewaters-from-piggery-and-winery-for-nutrient-removal-and-lipid-production-by-chlorella-sp-mm3
#5
Vimalkumar Ganeshkumar, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Rajarathnam Dharmarajan, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
The larger-scale generation of piggery and winery wastewaters and consequent eutrophication are quite alarming, necessitating the use of a cost-effective treatment. This study attempted to remediate wastewaters from piggery and winery mixed in the ratios of 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 100:0 and 0:100, in terms of nutrient removal and subsequent lipid accumulation by soil microalga, Chlorella sp. MM3. The per cent removal of total nitrogen and phosphates by the alga from mixed wastewaters within 10-days ranged between 51 and 89 and 26-49, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453614/screening-of-isochrysis-strains-and-utilization-of-a-two-stage-outdoor-cultivation-strategy-for-algal-biomass-and-lipid-production
#6
Zheng Sun, Hehong Wei, Zhi-Gang Zhou, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Jin Liu
Isochrysis is a genus of marine algae without cell wall and capable of accumulating lipids. In this study, the lipid production potential of Isochrysis was assessed by comparing 15 Isochrysis strains with respect to their growth rate, lipid production, and fatty acid profiles. Three best strains were selected (lipid productivity, 103.0~121.7 mg L -1 day -1 ) and their lipid-producing capacities were further examined under different controlled parameters, e.g., growth phase, medium nutrient, and light intensity in laboratory cultures...
February 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453513/simultaneous-cell-disruption-and-lipid-extraction-of-wet-aurantiochytrium-sp-krs101-using-a-high-shear-mixer
#7
Minsoo Kwak, Seul Gi Kang, Won-Kyung Hong, Jong-In Han, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgae are regarded as a promising source of biofuels, and the concept of a microalgae-based biorefinery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. From an economic perspective, however, the process remains far from competitive with fossil fuels. This is particularly true of lipid extraction, due in part to the energy-intensive drying step. As a result, wet extraction methods have been studied as an economic alternative. In the present study, a novel extraction approach which utilizes high shear stress mixing was adopted and demonstrated for simultaneous lipid extraction and cell disruption to enable the retrieval of lipids directly from concentrated wet biomass...
February 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449883/production-of-2r-3r-2-3-butanediol-using-engineered-pichia-pastoris-strain-construction-characterization-and-fermentation
#8
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
Background: 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is a bulk platform chemical with various potential applications such as aviation fuel. 2,3-BD has three optical isomers: (2R, 3R)-, (2S, 3S)- and meso-2,3-BD. Optically pure 2,3-BD is a crucial precursor for the chiral synthesis and it can also be used as anti-freeze agent due to its low freezing point. 2,3-BD has been produced in both native and non-native hosts. Several pathogenic bacteria were reported to produce 2,3-BD in mixture of its optical isomers including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449882/mathematical-models-of-lignin-biosynthesis
#9
Mojdeh Faraji, Luis L Fonseca, Luis Escamilla-Treviño, Jaime Barros-Rios, Nancy Engle, Zamin K Yang, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Richard A Dixon, Eberhard O Voit
Background: Lignin is a natural polymer that is interwoven with cellulose and hemicellulose within plant cell walls. Due to this molecular arrangement, lignin is a major contributor to the recalcitrance of plant materials with respect to the extraction of sugars and their fermentation into ethanol, butanol, and other potential bioenergy crops. The lignin biosynthetic pathway is similar, but not identical in different plant species. It is in each case comprised of a moderate number of enzymatic steps, but its responses to manipulations, such as gene knock-downs, are complicated by the fact that several of the key enzymes are involved in several reaction steps...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446847/lipidomic-analysis-from-archaea-to-mammals
#10
REVIEW
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Andrea Palyzová, Karel Sigler
Lipids are among the most important organic compounds found in all living cells, from primitive archaebacteria to flowering plants or mammalian cells. They form part of cell walls and constitute cell storage material. Their biosynthesis and metabolism play key roles in faraway topics such as biofuel production (third-generation biofuels produced by microorganisms, e.g. algae) and human diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger syndrome, or Refsum disease. Current lipidomic analysis requires fast and accurate processing of samples and especially their characterization...
February 15, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444757/a-review-on-the-applications-of-microbial-electrolysis-cells-in-anaerobic-digestion
#11
REVIEW
Zhengsheng Yu, Xiaoyun Leng, Shuai Zhao, Jing Ji, Tuoyu Zhou, Aman Khan, Apurva Kakde, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely used for biogas or biofuel generation from waste treatment. Because a low production rate and instability of AD occur frequently, various technologies have been applied to improvement of AD. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), an emerging technology, can convert organic matter into hydrogen, methane, and other value-added products. Recent studies showed that application of MEC to AD (MEC-AD) can accelerate degradation of a substrate (including recalcitrant compounds) and alter AD microbial community by enriching exoelectrogens and methanogens thus increasing biogas production...
February 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442171/the-role-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-stabilizing-emulsions-of-hexadecane-in-aqueous-media
#12
Aureliano Agostinho Dias Meirelles, Rosiane Lopes da Cunha, Andreas Karoly Gombert
During downstream operations involved in the purification of hydrophobic biofuels produced by microorganisms, undesired stable emulsions may be formed. Understanding the mechanisms behind this stability is a pre-requisite for designing cost-effective strategies to break these emulsions. In this work, we aimed at increasing our knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing yeast-containing oil-in-water emulsions. For this purpose, emulsions containing hexadecane and different yeast-based aqueous phases were prepared and analyzed for phase separation, surface charge density, particle size, and rheology...
February 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438850/secreted-protein-extract-analyses-present-the-plant-pathogen-alternaria-alternata-as-a-suitable-industrial-enzyme-toolbox
#13
L García-Calvo, R V Ullán, M Fernández-Aguado, A M García-Lino, R Balaña-Fouce, C Barreiro
Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source in the planet, which makes it a potential substrate for biorefinery. It consists of polysaccharides and other molecules with applications in pharmaceutical, food and feed, cosmetics, paper and textile industries. The exploitation of these resources requires the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall, which is a complex process. Aiming to discover novel fungal natural isolates with lignocellulolytic capacities, a screening for feruloyl esterase activity was performed in samples taken from different metal surfaces...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438404/xylem-specific-activation-of-5-upstream-regulatory-region-of-two-nac-transcription-factors-musavnd6-and-musavnd7-in-banana-is-regulated-by-snbe-like-sites
#14
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5' upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434668/quantitative-trait-loci-for-cell-wall-composition-traits-measured-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-model-c4-perennial-grass-panicum-hallii
#15
Elizabeth R Milano, Courtney E Payne, Ed Wolfrum, John Lovell, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Thomas E Juenger
Background: Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic plant material are an important component of current renewable energy strategies. Improvement efforts in biofuel feedstock crops have been primarily focused on increasing biomass yield with less consideration for tissue quality or composition. Four primary components found in the plant cell wall contribute to the overall quality of plant tissue and conversion characteristics, cellulose and hemicellulose polysaccharides are the primary targets for fuel conversion, while lignin and ash provide structure and defense...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431741/sugar-release-and-growth-of-biofuel-crops-are-improved-by-downregulation-of-pectin-biosynthesis
#16
Ajaya K Biswal, Melani A Atmodjo, Mi Li, Holly L Baxter, Chang Geun Yoo, Yunqiao Pu, Yi-Ching Lee, Mitra Mazarei, Ian M Black, Ji-Yi Zhang, Hema Ramanna, Adam L Bray, Zachary R King, Peter R LaFayette, Sivakumar Pattathil, Bryon S Donohoe, Sushree S Mohanty, David Ryno, Kelsey Yee, Olivia A Thompson, Miguel Rodriguez, Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Kim Winkeler, Cassandra Collins, Xiaohan Yang, Li Tan, Robert W Sykes, Erica L Gjersing, Angela Ziebell, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Michael G Hahn, Brian H Davison, Michael K Udvardi, Jonathan R Mielenz, Mark F Davis, Richard S Nelson, Wayne A Parrott, Arthur J Ragauskas, C Neal Stewart, Debra Mohnen
Cell walls in crops and trees have been engineered for production of biofuels and commodity chemicals, but engineered varieties often fail multi-year field trials and are not commercialized. We engineered reduced expression of a pectin biosynthesis gene (Galacturonosyltransferase 4, GAUT4) in switchgrass and poplar, and find that this improves biomass yields and sugar release from biomass processing. Both traits were maintained in a 3-year field trial of GAUT4-knockdown switchgrass, with up to sevenfold increased saccharification and ethanol production and sixfold increased biomass yield compared with control plants...
February 12, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424056/ultralong-discharge-time-biobattery-based-on-immobilized-enzymes-in-bilayer-rolled-up-enzymatic-nanomembranes
#17
Bo Liu, Chenglin Yan, Wenping Si, Xiaolei Sun, Xueyi Lu, Marion Ansorge-Schumacher, Oliver G Schmidt
Glucose biofuel cells (GBFCs) are highly promising power sources for implantable biomedical and consumer electronics because they provide a high energy density and safety. However, it remains a great challenge to combine their high power density with reliable long-term stability. In this study, a novel GBFC design based on the enzyme biocatalysts glucose dehydrogenase, diaphorase, and bilirubin oxidase immobilized in rolled-up titanium nanomembranes is reported. The setup delivers a maximum areal power density of ≈3...
February 9, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423882/growth-promotion-of-euglena-gracilis-by-ferulic-acid-from-rice-bran
#18
Jiangyu Zhu, Minato Wakisaka
A significant growth promotion of Euglena gracilis was achieved by simply adding ferulic acid from rice bran without diminishing the accumulation of valuable products like paramylon. E. gracilis is a freshwater microalga that is widely applied in cosmetics, food, medicine, and supplements, and it is considered a potential source of biofuel. It is therefore important to enhance its yield at a lower cost for its commercial viability. Introducing a growth regulator derived from agro waste is considered a cheaper and safer strategy to improve biomass productivity compared with other alternatives such as implementing genetic engineering or adding nutrients and plant hormones as growth stimulator...
February 8, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423634/critical-steps-in-carbon-metabolism-affecting-lipid-accumulation-and-their-regulation-in-oleaginous-microorganisms
#19
REVIEW
Marianna Dourou, Dimitra Aggeli, Seraphim Papanikolaou, George Aggelis
Oleaginous microorganisms are able to convert numerous agro-industrial and municipal wastes into storage lipids (single cell oil (SCO)) and are therefore considered as potential biofuel producers. While from an environmental and technological point of view the idea to convert waste materials into fuels is very attractive, the production cost of SCO is not currently competitive to that of conventional oils due to the low productivity of oleaginous microorganisms in combination with the high fermentation cost...
February 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422949/combinatorial-pretreatment-and-fermentation-optimization-enabled-a-record-yield-on-lignin-bioconversion
#20
Zhi-Hua Liu, Shangxian Xie, Furong Lin, Mingjie Jin, Joshua S Yuan
Background: Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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