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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439814/imaging-the-accumulated-intracellular-microalgal-lipids-as-a-response-to-temperature-stress
#1
Khaled N M Elsayed, Tatiana A Kolesnikova, Anja Noke, Gerd Klöck
Over the last few decades, many scientists considered microalgae as promising actors for future biofuels because of the high lipid productivity inside their cells. Moreover, much attention has been paid to algal lipids as they can be used in biodiesel production. In this study, we optimized the different suitable conditions such as incubation time, incubation temperature, Dimethylesulfoxide and Nile red concentrations of the lipophilic fluorescence dye Nile red as an excellent and fast vital stain to detect and quantify intracellular lipids...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439415/stretchable-biofuel-cells-as-wearable-textile-based-self-powered-sensors
#2
Itthipon Jeerapan, Juliane R Sempionatto, Adriana Pavinatto, Jung-Min You, Joseph Wang
Highly stretchable textile-based biofuel cells (BFCs), acting as effective self-powered sensors, have been fabricated using screen-printing of customized stress-enduring inks. Due to synergistic effects of nanomaterial-based engineered inks and the serpentine designs, these printable bioelectronic devices endure severe mechanical deformations, e.g., stretching, indentation, or torsional twisting. Glucose and lactate BFCs with the single enzyme and membrane-free configurations generated the maximum power density of 160 and 250 µW cm(-2) with the open circuit voltages of 0...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439294/impact-of-lignin-polymer-backbone-esters-on-ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-poplar
#3
Kwang Ho Kim, Tanmoy Dutta, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield, Blake A Simmons, Seema Singh
BACKGROUND: Biomass pretreatment remains an essential step in lignocellulosic biofuel production, largely to facilitate the efficient removal of lignin and increase enzyme accessibility to the polysaccharides. In recent years, there have been significant efforts in planta to reduce lignin content or modify its composition to overcome the inherent recalcitrance that it imposes on lignocellulosic biomass during processing. Here, transgenic poplar lines in which monolignol ferulate conjugates were synthesized during cell wall development to introduce, during lignification, readily cleavable ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone (i...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436149/transgenic-mir156-switchgrass-in-the-field-growth-recalcitrance-and-rust-susceptibility
#4
Holly L Baxter, Mitra Mazarei, Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Jiqing Gou, Chunxiang Fu, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Steven Brown, Brian Davison, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Sustainable utilization of lignocellulosic perennial grass feedstocks will be enabled by high biomass production and optimized cell wall chemistry for efficient conversion into biofuels. MicroRNAs are regulatory elements that modulate the expression of genes involved in various biological functions in plants, including growth and development. In greenhouse studies, overexpressing a microRNA (miR156) gene in switchgrass had dramatic effects on plant architecture and flowering, which appeared to be driven by transgene expression levels...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435444/role-of-trichoderma-reesei-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-mapks-in-cellulase-formation
#5
Mingyu Wang, Meiling Zhang, Ling Li, Yanmei Dong, Yi Jiang, Kuimei Liu, Ruiqin Zhang, Baojie Jiang, Kangle Niu, Xu Fang
BACKGROUND: Despite being the most important cellulase producer, the cellulase-regulating carbon source signal transduction processes in Trichoderma reesei are largely unknown. Elucidating these processes is the key for unveiling how external carbon sources regulate cellulase formation, and ultimately for the improvement of cellulase production and biofuel production from lignocellulose. RESULTS: In this work, the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways on cellulase formation was investigated...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432100/casein-kinase-i-isoform-hrr25-is-a-negative-regulator-of-haa1-in-the-weak-acid-stress-response-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Morgan E Collins, Joshua J Black, Zhengchang Liu
Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1-target genes, and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#7
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428822/in-muro-deacetylation-of-xylan-affects-lignin-properties-and-improves-saccharification-of-aspen-wood
#8
Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Sun-Li Chong, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Shamrat Shafiul Bashar, Tobias Sparrman, Patrik Ahvenainen, Mattias Hedenström, Merve Özparpucu, Markus Rüggeberg, Ritva Serimaa, Martin Lawoko, Maija Tenkanen, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose from fast growing hardwood species is a preferred source of polysaccharides for advanced biofuels and "green" chemicals. However, the extensive acetylation of hardwood xylan hinders lignocellulose saccharification by obstructing enzymatic xylan hydrolysis and causing inhibitory acetic acid concentrations during microbial sugar fermentation. To optimize lignocellulose for cost-effective saccharification and biofuel production, an acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 from Aspergillus niger was introduced into aspen and targeted to cell walls...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#9
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421330/regulation-of-coniferaldehyde-5-hydroxylase-expression-to-modulate-cell-wall-lignin-structure-in-rice
#10
Yuri Takeda, Taichi Koshiba, Yuki Tobimatsu, Shiro Suzuki, Shinya Murakami, Masaomi Yamamura, Md Mahabubur Rahman, Toshiyuki Takano, Takefumi Hattori, Masahiro Sakamoto, Toshiaki Umezawa
Regulation of a gene encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase leads to substantial alterations in lignin structure in rice cell walls, identifying a promising genetic engineering target for improving grass biomass utilization. The aromatic composition of lignin greatly affects utilization characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass and, therefore, has been one of the primary targets of cell wall engineering studies. Limited information is, however, available regarding lignin modifications in monocotyledonous grasses, despite the fact that grass lignocelluloses have a great potential for feedstocks of biofuel production and various biorefinery applications...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417376/identification-of-genes-involved-in-the-degradation-of-lignocellulose-using-comparative-transcriptomics
#11
Robert J Gruninger, Ian Reid, Robert J Forster, Adrian Tsang, Tim A McAllister
Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant, renewable resource that can be used to produce biofuels, low-cost livestock feed, and high-value chemicals. The potential of this resource has led to intensive research efforts to develop cost effective methods to breakdown lignocellulose. The efficiency with which the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) degrade plant biomass is well recognized and in recent years has received renewed interest. Transcriptomics has been used to identify enzymes that are expressed by these fungi and are involved in the degradation of a range of lignocellulose feedstocks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417371/analysis-of-complex-carbohydrate-composition-in-plant-cell-wall-using-fourier-transformed-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-ft-ir
#12
Ajay Badhan, Yuxi Wang, Tim A McAllister
Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412649/proinflammatory-effects-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-moderate-blend-concentrations-of-1st-and-2nd-generation-biodiesel-in-beas-2b-bronchial-epithelial-cells-the-fuelhealth-project
#13
Tonje S Skuland, Magne Refsnes, Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Marcin Kruszewski, Remigiusz Mruk, Oddvar Myhre, Anna Lankoff, Johan Øvrevik
Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO2-emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411637/armored-enzyme-nanohybrids-and-their-catalytic-function-under-challenging-conditions
#14
Omkar V Zore, Rajeswari M Kasi, Challa V Kumar
Synthesis and characterization of highly stable and functional bienzyme-polymer triads assembled on layered graphene oxide (GO) are described here. Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as model enzymes and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as model polymer to armor the enzymes. PAA-armored GOx and HRP covalent conjugates were further protected from denaturation by adsorption onto GO nanosheets. Structure and morphology of this enzyme-polymer-nanosheet hybrid biocatalyst (GOx-HRP-PAA/GO) were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis, zeta potential, circular dichroism, and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409092/the-search-for-a-lipid-trigger-the-effect-of-salt-stress-on-the-lipid-profile-of-the-model-microalgal-species-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-for-biofuels-production
#15
Emily Hounslow, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan, D James Gilmour, Phillip C Wright
BACKGROUND: Algal cells produce neutral lipid when stressed and this can be used to generate biodiesel. OBJECTIVE: Salt stressed cells of the model microalgal species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were tested for their suitability to produce lipid for biodiesel. METHODS: The starchless mutant of C. reinhardtii (CC-4325) was subjected to salt stress (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl) and transesterification and GC analysis were used to determine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and profile...
November 2016: Current Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403867/accelerated-triacylglycerol-production-and-altered-fatty-acid-composition-in-oleaginous-microalga-neochloris-oleoabundans-by-overexpression-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-2
#16
Paeka Klaitong, Sirirat Fa-Aroonsawat, Wipa Chungjatupornchai
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are promising sources of lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) for biodiesel production. However, to date, microalgal biodiesel is technically feasible, but not yet economically viable. Increasing TAG content and productivity are important to achieve economic viability of microalgal biodiesel. To increase TAG content, oleaginous microalga Neochloris oleoabundans was genetically engineered with an endogenous key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (NeoDGAT2) responsible for TAG biosynthesis...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401332/a-method-for-microalgae-proteomics-analysis-based-on-modified-filter-aided-sample-preparation
#17
Song Li, Xupeng Cao, Yan Wang, Zhen Zhu, Haowei Zhang, Song Xue, Jing Tian
With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports...
April 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399328/high-throughput-label-free-single-cell-microalgal-lipid-screening-by-machine-learning-equipped-optofluidic-time-stretch-quantitative-phase-microscopy
#18
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Takuro Ito, Yaxiaer Yalikun, Yiyue Jiang, Yo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner...
April 11, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393500/enhanced-direct-ethanol-production-by-cofactor-optimization-of-cell-surface-displayed-xylose-isomerase-in-yeast
#19
Yusuke Sasaki, Toshiyuki Takagi, Keisuke Motone, Kouichi Kuroda, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Xylose isomerase (XylC) from Clostridium cellulovorans can simultaneously perform isomerization and fermentation of d-xylose, the main component of lignocellulosic biomass, and is an attractive candidate enzyme. In this study, we optimized a specified metal cation in a previously established Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying XylC. We investigated the effect of each metal cation on the catalytic function of the XylC-displaying S. cerevisiae. Results showed that the divalent cobalt cations (Co(2+) ), especially enhanced the activity by 46-fold...
April 10, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386673/development-of-an-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-method-and-evaluation-of-two-exogenous-constitutive-promoters-in-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-starkeyi
#20
Xinping Lin, Sasa Liu, Ruiqi Bao, Ning Gao, Sufang Zhang, Rongqian Zhu, Zongbao Kent Zhao
Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L...
April 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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