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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733420/sg2-type-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-myb15-controls-defense-induced-lignification-and-basal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#1
William R Chezem, Altamash Memon, Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng, Nicole Kho Clay
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725264/identification-of-developmental-stage-and-anatomical-fraction-contributions-to-cell-wall-recalcitrance-in-switchgrass
#2
Jacob D Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725263/modeling-and-simulation-of-the-redox-regulation-of-the-metabolism-in-escherichia-coli-at-different-oxygen-concentrations
#3
Yu Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Kurata
BACKGROUND: Microbial production of biofuels and biochemicals from renewable feedstocks has received considerable recent attention from environmental protection and energy production perspectives. Many biofuels and biochemicals are produced by fermentation under oxygen-limited conditions following initiation of aerobic cultivation to enhance the cell growth rate. Thus, it is of significant interest to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on redox regulation in Escherichia coli, a particularly popular cellular factory due to its high growth rate and well-characterized physiology...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725262/comparison-of-four-glycosyl-residue-composition-methods-for-effectiveness-in-detecting-sugars-from-cell-walls-of-dicot-and-grass-tissues
#4
Ajaya K Biswal, Li Tan, Melani A Atmodjo, Jaclyn DeMartini, Ivana Gelineo-Albersheim, Kimberly Hunt, Ian M Black, Sushree S Mohanty, David Ryno, Charles E Wyman, Debra Mohnen
BACKGROUND: The effective use of plant biomass for biofuel and bioproduct production requires a comprehensive glycosyl residue composition analysis to understand the different cell wall polysaccharides present in the different biomass sources. Here we compared four methods side-by-side for their ability to measure the neutral and acidic sugar composition of cell walls from herbaceous, grass, and woody model plants and bioenergy feedstocks. RESULTS: Arabidopsis, Populus, rice, and switchgrass leaf cell walls, as well as cell walls from Populus wood, rice stems, and switchgrass tillers, were analyzed by (1) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of alditol acetates combined with a total uronic acid assay; (2) carbodiimide reduction of uronic acids followed by GC-MS of alditol acetates; (3) GC-MS of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives; and (4) high-pressure, anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719999/comparison-of-anticancer-activity-of-biocompatible-zno-nanoparticles-prepared-by-solution-combustion-synthesis-using-aqueous-leaf-extracts-of-abutilon-indicum-melia-azedarach-and-indigofera-tinctoria-as-biofuels
#5
G K Prashanth, P A Prashanth, B M Nagabhushana, S Ananda, G M Krishnaiah, H G Nagendra, H M Sathyananda, C Rajendra Singh, S Yogisha, S Anand, Y Tejabhiram
Recently, there has been an upsurge in the use of naturally available fuels for solution combustion synthesis (SCS) of nanoparticles. Although many reports suggest that these biofuels pose less harm to the environment, their strategic advantages and reliability for making NPs has not been discussed. In the present work, we try to address this issue using plant extracts as biofuels for the SCS of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a model system. In the present work, combustion synthesis of ZnO NPs using lactose and aqueous leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum, Melia azedarach, Indigofera tinctoria as biofuels has been carried out...
July 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711029/an-oxygen-independent-and-membrane-less-glucose-biobattery-supercapacitor-hybrid-device
#6
Xinxin Xiao, Peter Ó Conghaile, Dónal Leech, Roland Ludwig, Edmond Magner
Enzymatic biofuel cells can generate electricity directly from the chemical energy of biofuels in physiological fluids, but their power density is significantly limited by the performance of the cathode which is based on oxygen reduction for in vivo applications. An oxygen-independent and membrane-less glucose biobattery was prepared that consists of a dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) supported glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) bioanode, immobilised with the assistance of conductive polymer/Os redox polymer composites, and a solid-state NPG/MnO2 cathode...
July 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710263/enzymatic-mechanism-for-arabinan-degradation-and-transport-in-the-thermophilic-bacterium-caldanaerobius-polysaccharolyticus
#7
Daniel Wefers, Jia Dong, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Hans Müller Paul, Gabriel V Pereira, Yejun Han, Dylan Dodd, Ramiya Baskaran, Beth Mayer, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan is an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 α-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endo-arabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 β-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B)...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704927/the-tor-signaling-network-in-the-model-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
REVIEW
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Inmaculada Couso, José L Crespo
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy...
July 12, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702371/hydrogen-from-algal-biomass-a-review-of-production-process
#9
REVIEW
Archita Sharma, Shailendra Kumar Arya
Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694846/synthetic-co2-fixation-enzyme-cascades-immobilized-on-self-assembled-nanostructures-that-enhance-co2-o2-selectivity-of-rubisco
#10
Sriram Satagopan, Yuan Sun, Jon R Parquette, F Robert Tabita
BACKGROUND: With increasing concerns over global warming and depletion of fossil-fuel reserves, it is attractive to develop innovative strategies to assimilate CO2, a greenhouse gas, into usable organic carbon. Cell-free systems can be designed to operate as catalytic platforms with enzymes that offer exceptional selectivity and efficiency, without the need to support ancillary reactions of metabolic pathways operating in intact cells. Such systems are yet to be exploited for applications involving CO2 utilization and subsequent conversion to valuable products, including biofuels...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694845/a-type-i-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-modulates-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-oleaginous-microalga-nannochloropsis-oceanica
#11
Hehong Wei, Ying Shi, Xiaonian Ma, Yufang Pan, Hanhua Hu, Yantao Li, Ming Luo, Henri Gerken, Jin Liu
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are considered promising feedstocks for biofuels. The marine microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica, has been attracting ever-increasing interest because of its fast growth, high triacylglycerol (TAG) content, and available genome sequence and genetic tools. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the last and committed step of TAG biosynthesis in the acyl-CoA-dependent pathway. Previous studies have identified 13 putative DGAT-encoding genes in the genome of N...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688047/assessment-of-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-lignin-from-corn-stover-residue-pretreated-with-low-moisture-anhydrous-ammonia-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-process
#12
Mingming Guo, Tony Jin, Nhuan P Nghiem, Xuetong Fan, Phoebe X Qi, Chan Ho Jang, Lingxiao Shao, Changqing Wu
Lignin accounts for 15-35% of dry biomass materials. Therefore, developing value-added co-products from lignin residues is increasingly important to improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources. The main objective of this work was to study the lignin extracts from corn stover residue obtained from a new and improved process for bioethanol production. Extraction conditions that favored high lignin yield were optimized, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the resulting lignin were investigated...
July 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683414/bioanode-with-alcohol-dehydrogenase-undergoing-a-direct-electron-transfer-on-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-for-an-application-in-biofuel-cells-for-glycerol-conversion
#13
D Ratautas, L Tetianec, L Marcinkevičienė, R Meškys, J Kulys
In this paper we designed and investigated bioanode with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalysing oxidation of glycerol and glyceraldehyde. The most effective bioanode was fabricated when ADH was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with 4-aminothiophenol. This electrode catalysed the oxidation of both glycerol and glyceraldehyde thus demonstrating a consecutive two-step process. The bioanode generated the current density of 510µAcm(-2) at pH 7.0 and 0V vs. SCE. It was demonstrated that the electrode acted effectively due to the direct electron exchange between heme of ADH and modified AuNPs...
June 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680479/a-novel-sugarcane-bacilliform-virus-promoter-confers-gene-expression-preferentially-in-the-vascular-bundle-and-storage-parenchyma-of-the-sugarcane-culm
#14
San-Ji Gao, Mona B Damaj, Jong-Won Park, Xiao-Bin Wu, Sheng-Ren Sun, Ru-Kai Chen, T Erik Mirkov
BACKGROUND: Saccharum species such as sugarcane and energy cane are key players in the expanding bioeconomy for sugars, bioenergy, and production of high-value proteins. Genomic tools such as culm-regulated promoters would be of great value in terms of improving biomass characteristics through enhanced carbon metabolism for sugar accumulation and/or fiber content for biofuel feedstock. Unlike the situation in dicots, monocot promoters currently used are limited and mostly derived from highly expressed constitutive plant genes and viruses...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680478/a-new-genome-scale-metabolic-model-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-and-its-application
#15
Yu Zhang, Jingyi Cai, Xiuling Shang, Bo Wang, Shuwen Liu, Xin Chai, Tianwei Tan, Yun Zhang, Tingyi Wen
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important platform organism for industrial biotechnology to produce amino acids, organic acids, bioplastic monomers, and biofuels. The metabolic flexibility, broad substrate spectrum, and fermentative robustness of C. glutamicum make this organism an ideal cell factory to manufacture desired products. With increases in gene function, transport system, and metabolic profile information under certain conditions, developing a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of C...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677390/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-potential-crosstalk-between-a-small-rna-coar-and-a-two-component-regulator-slr1037-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc6803
#16
Tao Sun, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) and two-component systems (TCSs) were two vital regulatory mechanisms employed by microorganisms to respond to environmental changes and stresses. As a promising "autotrophic cell factory", photosynthetic cyanobacteria have attracted a lot of concentrations these years. Though most studies focused on studying the roles of sRNAs or TCS regulators in stress response in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, limited work has elucidated their potential crosstalk. Our previous work has identified a negative sRNA regulator CoaR and a positive response regulator Slr1037 both related with 1-butanol stress regulation in Synechocystis sp...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676804/simultaneous-downregulation-of-mthfr-and-comt-in-switchgrass-affects-plant-performance-and-induces-lesion-mimic-cell-death
#17
Sijia Liu, Chunxiang Fu, Jiqing Gou, Liang Sun, David Huhman, Yunwei Zhang, Zeng-Yu Wang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675877/production-of-added-value-bacterial-lipids-through-valorisation-of-hydrocarbon-contaminated-cork-waste
#18
A R Castro, M Guimarães, J V Oliveira, M A Pereira
This work demonstrates that cork used as oil-spill sorbents, contaminated with liquid hydrocarbons, herein demonstrated with hexadecane, can be biologically treated by Rhodococcus opacus B4 with concomitant lipids production. R. opacus B4 consumed up to 96% of hexadecane (C16) impregnated in natural and regranulated cork sorbents after 48h incubation, producing 0.59±0.06g of triacylglycerol (TAG) g(-1) of C16 consumed with a TAG content of 0.60±0.06gg(-1) of cellular dry weight (CDW) and 0.54±0.05g TAG g(-1) of C16 consumed with a TAG content of 0...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674953/a-comparative-analysis-of-in-vitro-toxicity-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-combustion-of-1st-and-2nd-generation-biodiesel-fuels-in-relation-to-their-physicochemical-properties-the-fuelhealth-project
#19
Anna Lankoff, Kamil Brzoska, Joanna Czarnocka, Magdalena Kowalska, Halina Lisowska, Remigiusz Mruk, Johan Øvrevik, Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk, Mariusz Zuberek, Marcin Kruszewski
Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669588/gh62-arabinofuranosidases-structure-function-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Casper Wilkens, Susan Andersen, Claire Dumon, Jean-Guy Berrin, Birte Svensson
Motivated by industrial demands and ongoing scientific discoveries continuous efforts are made to identify and create improved biocatalysts dedicated to plant biomass conversion. α-1,2 and α-1,3 arabinofuranosyl specific α-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are debranching enzymes catalyzing hydrolytic release of α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues, which decorate xylan or arabinan backbones in lignocellulosic and pectin constituents of plant cell walls. The CAZy database classifies α-l-arabinofuranosidases in Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) families GH2, GH3, GH43, GH51, GH54 and GH62...
June 29, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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