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biofuel cell

Isabel C Jaramillo, Anne Sturrock, Hossein Ghiassi, Diana J Woller, Cassandra E Deering-Rice, JoAnn S Lighty, Robert Paine, Christopher Reilly, Kerry E Kelly
The physicochemical properties of combustion particles that promote lung toxicity are not fully understood, hindered by the fact that combustion particles vary based on the fuel and combustion conditions. Real-world combustion-particle properties also continually change as new fuels are implemented, engines age, and engine technologies evolve. This work used laboratory-generated particles produced under controlled combustion conditions in an effort to understand the relationship between different particle properties and the activation of established toxicological outcomes in human lung cells (H441 and THP-1)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
Secondary-wall deposition in xylem vessel elements is regulated by vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). We show that three banana VNDs (MusaVND1, MusaVND2 and MusaVND3) directly regulate multiple secondary-wall associated genes by binding to their 5'-upstream regulatory region. Transgenic banana harboring either PMusaVND1:GUS, PMusaVND2:GUS or PMusaVND3:GUS showed specific GUS staining in lignified tissues. MusaVND1, MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 encodes transcriptional-activators as its C-terminal region drive expression of reporter genes in vivo in yeast...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Isao Shitanda, Misaki Momiyama, Naoto Watanabe, Tomohiro Tanaka, Seiya Tsujimura, Yoshinao Hoshi, Masayuki Itagaki
A novel paper-based biofuel cell with a series/parallel array structure has been fabricated, in which the cell voltage and output power can easily be adjusted as required by printing. The output of the fabricated 4-series/4-parallel biofuel cell reached 0.97±0.02 mW at 1.4 V, which is the highest output power reported to date for a paper-based biofuel cell. This work contributes to the development of flexible, wearable energy storage device.
October 2017: ChemElectroChem
Jong-Jin Park, Chang Geun Yoo, Amy Flanagan, Yunqiao Pu, Smriti Debnath, Yaxin Ge, Arthur J Ragauskas, Zeng-Yu Wang
Background: The development of genome editing technologies offers new prospects in improving bioenergy crops like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Switchgrass is an outcrossing species with an allotetraploid genome (2n = 4x = 36), a complexity which forms an impediment to generating homozygous knock-out plants. Lignin, a major component of the plant cell wall and a contributor to cellulosic feedstock's recalcitrance to decomposition, stands as a barrier to efficient biofuel production by limiting enzyme access to cell wall polymers during the fermentation process...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaolan Rao, Hui Shen, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G Hahn, Ivana Gelineo-Albersheim, Debra Mohnen, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas, Xin Chen, Fang Chen, Richard A Dixon
Background: Plant cell walls contribute the majority of plant biomass that can be used to produce transportation fuels. However, the complexity and variability in composition and structure of cell walls, particularly the presence of lignin, negatively impacts their deconstruction for bioenergy. Metabolic and genetic changes associated with secondary wall development in the biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have yet to be reported. Results: Our previous studies have established a cell suspension system for switchgrass, in which cell wall lignification can be induced by application of brassinolide (BL)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chelsea R Johnson, Reginald J Millwood, Yuhong Tang, Jiqing Gou, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Yi Sang, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetic engineering has been effective in altering cell walls for biofuel production in the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). However, regulatory issues arising from gene flow may prevent commercialization of engineered switchgrass in the eastern United States where the species is native. Depending on its expression level, microRNA156 (miR156) can reduce, delay, or eliminate flowering, which may serve to decrease transgene flow. In this unique field study of transgenic switchgrass that was permitted to flower, two low (T14 and T35) and two medium (T27 and T37) miR156-overexpressing 'Alamo' lines with the transgene under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin 1 promoter, along with nontransgenic control plants, were grown in eastern Tennessee over two seasons...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
David Macaya-Sanz, Jin-Gui Chen, Udaya C Kalluri, Wellington Muchero, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Lee E Gunter, Sandra J Simon, Ajaya K Biswal, Anthony C Bryan, Raja Payyavula, Meng Xie, Yongil Yang, Jin Zhang, Debra Mohnen, Gerald A Tuskan, Stephen P DiFazio
Background: One of the major barriers to the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of plant cell walls to deconstruction and saccharification. Recalcitrance can be reduced by targeting genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, but this can have unintended consequences that compromise the agronomic performance of the trees under field conditions. Here we report the results of a field trial of fourteen distinct transgenic Populus deltoides lines that had previously demonstrated reduced recalcitrance without yield penalties under greenhouse conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Angelo G Peralta, Sivasankari Venkatachalam, Sydney C Stone, Sivakumar Pattathil
Background: Xylan is a major hemicellulosic component in the cell walls of higher plants especially in the secondary walls of vascular cells which are playing important roles in physiological processes and overall mechanical strength. Being the second most abundant cell wall polymer after cellulose, xylan is an abundant non-cellulosic carbohydrate constituent of plant biomass. Xylan structures have been demonstrated to contribute to plant biomass recalcitrance during bioenergy applications...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jonathan D Willis, Joshua N Grant, Mitra Mazarei, Lindsey M Kline, Caroline S Rempe, A Grace Collins, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Mark F Davis, Nicole Labbe, Juan L Jurat-Fuentes, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetically engineered biofuel crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), that produce their own cell wall-digesting cellulase enzymes would reduce costs of cellulosic biofuel production. To date, non-bioenergy plant models have been used in nearly all studies assessing the synthesis and activity of plant-produced fungal and bacterial cellulases. One potential source for cellulolytic enzyme genes is herbivorous insects adapted to digest plant cell walls. Here we examine the potential of transgenic switchgrass-produced TcEG1 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay DiMarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse McAtee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L Richard
Commercial scale production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feed stocks has been hampered by the resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic conversion, primarily owing to lignin. This study investigated whether DypB, the lignin-degrading peroxidase from Rodococcus jostii, depolymerizes lignin and reduces recalcitrance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The protein was targeted to the cytosol or the ER using ER-targeting and retention signal peptides. For each construct, five independent transgenic lines were characterized phenotypically and genotypically...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lin-Rui Tan, Peng-Fei Xia, Qian Li, Xian-Zheng Yuan, Shu-Guang Wang
One barrier inhibiting further progress in biofuel production is the toxicity of biofuels towards their producers. It is promising to apply gene-based intracellular techniques to engineer better strains with higher organic solvent tolerance. These methods are, however, complex. In the present study, we developed a simple, manageable, and commercial extracellular prototypal strategy to alleviate n-butanol (n-BuOH) stress on Escherichia coli via a micelle-mediated transport disturbance. When the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a typical anionic surfactant, is high enough to form micelles, n-BuOH will be trapped into/onto the micelles, and the negative charge prevents the n-BuOH from approaching the cells...
December 5, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Valentin Roustan, Shiva Bakhtiari, Pierre-Jean Roustan, Wolfram Weckwerth
Background: Nitrogen deprivation and replenishment induces massive changes at the physiological and molecular level in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, including reversible starch and lipid accumulation. Stress signal perception and acclimation involves transient protein phosphorylation. This study aims to provide the first experimental phosphoprotein dataset for the adaptation of C. reinhardtii during nitrogen depletion and recovery growth phases and its impact on lipid accumulation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Demao Li, Chunxiao Meng, Guanxun Wu, Bintao Xie, Yifan Han, Yaqiong Guo, Chunhui Song, Zhengquan Gao, Zhiyong Huang
Renewable energy, including biofuels such as ethanol and butanol from syngas bioconversed by Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, has been drawing extensive attention due to the fossil energy depletion and global eco-environmental issues. Effects of zinc on the growth and metabolites of C. carboxidivorans P7 were investigated with model syngas as the carbon source. The cell concentration was doubled, the ethanol content increased 3.02-fold and the butanol content increased 7.60-fold, the hexanol content increased 44...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
H P S Makkar
The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D Strieth, R Ulber, K Muffler
Biotechnological production of valuables by microorganisms is commonly achieved by cultivating the cells as suspended solids in an appropriate liquid medium. However, the main portion of these organisms features a surface-attached growth in their native habitats. The utilization of such biofilms shows significant challenges, e.g. concerning control of pH, nutrient supply, and heat/mass transfer. But the use of biofilms might also enable novel and innovative production processes addressing robustness and strength of the applied biocatalyst, for example if variable conditions might occur in the process or a feedstock (substrate) is changed in its composition...
December 2, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Allison J Pieja, Molly C Morse, Andrew J Cal
Methanotrophs have been studied since the 1970s, but interest has increased tremendously in recent years due to their potential to transform methane into valuable bioproducts. The vast quantity of available methane and the low price of methane as natural gas have helped to spur this interest. The most well-studied, biologically-derived products from methane include methanol, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and single cell protein. However, many other high-interest chemicals such as biofuels or high-value products such as ectoine could be made industrially relevant through metabolic engineering...
November 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Ashkan Koushanpour, María Gamella, Zhong Guo, Elham Honarvarfard, Arshak Poghossian, Michael J Schoening, Kirill Alexandrov, Evgeny Katz
An artificial Ca2+-regulated PQQ glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) enzyme was electrically connected to conducting electrodes and semiconductor interfaces. Direct electron transfer from the enzyme to the conducting electrode support was stimulated by the addition of Ca2+ cations resulting in reversible enzyme activation. A signal-switchable biofuel cell and biomolecular release have been realized using the Ca2+-activated enzyme immobilized on conducting electrodes. Interfacing the signal-switchable enzyme with a semiconductor chip allowed electronic read out of the enzyme ON-OFF states...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yating Hu, Zhiwei Zhu, Jens Nielsen, Verena Siewers
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for industrial scale production of biofuels including fatty alcohols due to its robustness and tolerance towards harsh fermentation conditions. Many metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to generate high fatty alcohol production strains. However, impaired growth caused by fatty alcohol accumulation and high cost of extraction are factors limiting large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate that the use of heterologous transporters is a promising strategy to increase fatty alcohol production...
November 25, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Puja Tandon, Qiang Jin, Limin Huang
In order to reduce the consumption of traditional fossil fuels and their impact on the environment, strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions especially carbon dioxide needs exploration. Microalgae-based biofuels can be the best-fit plant based feed-stocks for diminishing a majority of the Universe's energy problems. Interestingly, the eukaryotic microalgae aid in fixation of almost 50% of the global carbon in the environment. Thus, determination of parameters that will enhance microalgal growth and productivity is crucial, if they are to be used as future renewable energy sources...
November 28, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Gintautas Bagdžiūnas, Šarūnas Žukauskas, Arūnas Ramanavičius
This manuscript describes a bioelectrochemical application of a new class of electrochemically generated hole-transporting (p-type) polymeric semiconductors (HTPS), which are based on a carbazole core and the oxiran and thiiran reactive groups. Electrode based on transparent layer of indium tin oxide was electrochemically modified with a layer of HTPS and a monolayer of covalently immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx). The HTPS/GOx-based electrode was investigated for an evaluation of direct hole-transfer between the enzyme and electrode at a bio-electrochemically relevant potential via HTPS layer...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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