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biofuel cell

Xiaolan Rao, Richard A Dixon
Secondary cell walls mediate many crucial biological processes in plants including mechanical support, water and nutrient transport and stress management. They also provide an abundant resource of renewable feed, fiber, and fuel. The grass family contains the most important food, forage, and biofuel crops. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of secondary wall formation in grasses is necessary for exploiting these plants for agriculture and industry. Previous research has established a detailed model of the secondary wall regulatory network in the dicot model species Arabidopsis thaliana ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zakir Hossain, Bhinu V-S Pillai, Margaret Y Gruber, Min Yu, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops are cultivated widely for human consumption and animal feed purposes, and oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus and rapa) is the second most important oilseed worldwide. Because of its natural diversity and genetic complexity, genomics studies on oilseed rape will be a useful resource base to modify the quantity and quality of biomass in various crops, and therefore, should have a positive impact on lignocellulosic biofuel production. The objective of this study was to perform microarray analysis on two variable lignin containing oilseed rape cultivars to target novel genes and transcription factors of importance in Brassica lignin regulation for applied research...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tatsuhiro Nomaguchi, Yoshiaki Maeda, Yue Liang, Tomoko Yoshino, Toru Asahi, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Microalgal biofuels are desirable alternatives for traditional liquid fuels, but further improvements of productivity are necessary for microalgal biofuels to be economically feasible. As strategies for improving lipid productivity, repression of lipid degradation has a great potential because the lipid accumulation level is determined by a balance between lipid synthesis and degradation. However, studies of lipid degradation and its primary functioning enzyme triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases in microalgae are currently limited...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ryota Miyazaki, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Keiichi Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiro Kojima, Ryutaro Asano, Koji Sode, Wakako Tsugawa
Glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase (G3DH) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of the hydroxy group on the C-3 position of pyranose and shows broad substrate specificity by oxidizing many saccharides. Due to unique site specificity and wide substrate specificity, G3DHs can be used for synthesis of sugar derivatives, anodic catalysis in biofuel cells, multi-sugar analysis using enzyme electrode, and for enzymatic detection of 1,5‑anhydro‑d‑glucitol, a clinical marker for diabetes...
March 7, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Suhyung Cho, Jongoh Shin, Byung-Kwan Cho
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) adaptive immune system has been extensively used for gene editing, including gene deletion, insertion, and replacement in bacterial and eukaryotic cells owing to its simple, rapid, and efficient activities in unprecedented resolution. Furthermore, the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system including deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) with inactivated endonuclease activity has been further investigated for regulation of the target gene transiently or constitutively, avoiding cell death by disruption of genome...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiang Ji, Jie Cheng, Donghui Gong, Xiujuan Zhao, Yun Qi, Yongning Su, Wenchao Ma
Rapid industrialization and population growth have increased the world's energy demands, resulting in a shortage of conventional fossil fuels. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable and renewable forms of energy. Microalgae have emerged as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. Under stress conditions, lipid production is enhanced in algal cells due to changes in the lipid biosynthetic pathways that produce neutral lipids. In this study, we examined the physiological and biochemical effects of salinity stress (0...
March 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Robert L Dasher, Zheng-Hua Ye
Rice xylan is predominantly monoacetylated at O-2 and O-3, and 14 rice DUF231 proteins were demonstrated to be xylan acetyltransferases. Acetylated xylans are the principal hemicellulose in the cell walls of grass species. Because xylan acetylation impedes the conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels, knowledge on acetyltransferases catalyzing xylan acetylation in grass species will be instrumental for a better utilization of grass biomass for biofuel production. Xylan in rice (Oryza sativa) is predominantly monoacetylated at O-2 and O-3 with a total degree of acetylation of 0...
March 22, 2018: Planta
Liqun Jiang, Lijie Zhang, Changliang Nie, Haiyan Pei
Background: An economical strategy for producing microalgae as biofuel feedstock is driven by the freshwater and nutrients input. In this study, seawater was applied to limnetic algal cultivation and the behavior of algae in seawater media was observed including growth, lipid synthesis, and ultrastructure. To make seawater cater algae, a kind of wastewater, anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW), was used as nutrient sources. Results: Pure seawater cannot support the growth demand of freshwater microalga, due to high salinity and lack of nutrients...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaofei Zeng, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic compounds resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology to convert furanic and phenolic compounds to renewable H2 . The objective of the research presented here was to elucidate the processes and electron equivalents flow during the conversion of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds in the MEC bioanode...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Erqing Jin, Lynn Wong, Yun Jiao, Jake Engel, Benjamin Holdridge, Peng Xu
Engineering cell factories for producing biofuels and pharmaceuticals has spurred great interests to develop rapid and efficient synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering. Along the way, combinatorial gene expression control through modification of regulatory element offered tremendous opportunity for fine-tuning gene expression and generating digital-like genetic circuits. In this report, we present an efficient evolutionary approach to build a range of regulatory control elements...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Dong Liu, Zhengjiao Yang, Ping Wang, Huanqing Niu, Wei Zhuang, Yong Chen, Jinglan Wu, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying, Pingkai Ouyang
Microbial production of butanol by solventogenic Clostridium has long been complicated with the formation of acetone as an unwanted product, which causes poor product yields and creates a most important problem concerning substrate transformation. Intensive attempts concentrate on carbon conversion pathways to eliminate acetone, but have actually achieved little so far. Here, we believe microbial product distribution can largely depend on how the cell plays its energetic cofactors in central metabolism, and demonstrate that by introducing a synthetic 2,3-butanediol synthesis pathway in Clostridium acetobutylicum as an NADH-compensating module to readjust the reducing power at a systems level, the production of acetone can be selectively and efficiently eliminated (<0...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Marika Ziesack, Nathan Rollins, Aashna Shah, Brendon Dusel, Gordon Webster, Pamela A Silver, Jeffrey C Way
Medium-chain fatty acids are commodity chemicals. Increasing and modifying the activity of thioesterases (TEs) on medium chain fatty acyl-ACP esters may enable high yield microbial production of these molecules. The plant Cuphea palustris harbors two distinct TEs: Cp FatB1 (C8 -specificity, lower activity) and Cp FatB2 (C14 -specificity, higher activity) with 78% sequence identity. We combined structural features from these two enzymes to create several chimeric TEs, some of which showed non-natural fatty acid production as measured by an enzymatic assay and GC-MS...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Camila Carlos, Huan Fan, Cameron R Currie
Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Melissa Conte, Josselin Lupette, Khawla Seddiki, Coline Meï, Lina J Dolch, Valerie Gros, Caroline Barette, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for the production of triacylglycerol (TAG) for a variety of potential applications, ranging from food and human health to biofuels and green chemistry. However, obtaining high TAG yields is challenging. A phenotypic assay for accumulation of oil droplets was developed to screen a library of 1,200 drugs, annotated with pharmacology information, to select compounds that trigger TAG accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum. Using this screen, we identified 34 molecules acting in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Eun Jeong Lee, Ok Kyung Lee, Eun Yeol Lee
4-Deoxy-L-erythro-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH) reductase is a key enzyme in alginate utilizing metabolism, but the number of characterized DEH reductase is quite limited. In this study, novel two DEH reductases, VsRed-1 and VsRed-2, were identified in marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus, and the recombinant enzymes were expressed in an Escherichia coli system and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant VsRed-1 and VsRed-2 were pH 7.5, 30 °C, and pH 7.0, 35 °C, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Feriel Boussema, Andrew J Gross, Fatma Hmida, Brahim Ayed, Hatem Majdoub, Serge Cosnier, Abderrazak Maaref, Michael Holzinger
Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on heteropolyoxometalates (POMs): (C4 H10 N)6 [P2 Mo18 O62 ]·4H2 O (P2 Mo18 ) and (C6 H8 NO)4 [H2 P2 W18 O62 ]·6H2 O (P2 W18 ) are reported as mediators for electron transfer between FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) matrix for glucose biofuel cell and biosensor applications. These polyoxometalates were chosen due to their promising redox behavior in a potential range for mediated electron transfer with the glucose oxidizing enzyme, FAD-GDH...
February 28, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sebastian Heger, Miaomiao Du, Kevin Bauer, Andreas Schäffer, Henner Hollert
The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL-1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL-1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kamila C Pagnoncelli, Andressa R Pereira, Graziela C Sedenho, Thiago Bertaglia, Frank N Crespilho
Integrating in situ biofuel production and energy conversion into a single system ensures the production of more robust networks as well as more renewable technologies. For this purpose, identifying and developing new biocatalysts is crucial. Herein, is reported a bioelectrochemical system consisting of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wherein both function cooperatively for ethanol production and its bioelectrochemical oxidation. Here, it is shown that it is possible to produce ethanol and use it as a biofuel in a tandem manner...
February 27, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Takuya Sugawara, Mariko Chinzei, Setsuko Numano, Chifumi Kitazaki, Munehiko Asayama
OBJECTIVE: A novel filamentous cyanobacterium, a photosynthesizing microorganism, was isolated from a river, and its unique features of flocculation and pentadecane production were characterized. RESULTS: Microscopic observations and a phylogenetic analysis with 16S rDNA revealed that this strain was a Limnothrix species denoted as the SK1-2-1 strain. Auto cell-flocculation was observed when this strain was exposed to a two-step incubation involving a standing cultivation following a shaking preincubation...
March 5, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Xing Qin, Xiaoyun Su, Huiying Luo, Rui Ma, Bin Yao, Fuying Ma
Background: Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source. Results: Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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