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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636532/a-novel-pan-nox-inhibitor-apx-115-protects-kidney-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-possible-role-of-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#1
Guideock Kwon, Md Jamal Uddin, Gayoung Lee, Songling Jiang, Ahreum Cho, Jung Hwa Lee, Sae Rom Lee, Yun Soo Bae, Sung Hwan Moon, Soo Jin Lee, Dae Ryong Cha, Hunjoo Ha
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly recognized as a key factor in inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic kidney disease. APX-115 (3-phenyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-propyl-1-5-hydroxypyrazol HCl) is a novel orally active pan-Nox inhibitor. The objective of this study was to compare the protective effect of APX-115 with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (losartan), the standard treatment against kidney injury in diabetic patients, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630634/moxibustion-alleviates-injury-in-a-rat-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-model
#2
Yi Li, Yuxia Sun, Chunling Zhang, Ke Wang, Peicheng Shen, Di Huang, Wen Ma, Jin Zhang, Lin Li, Liqun He
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of moxibustion at Shenshu (BL-23) and Geshu (BL-17) acupoints in a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) model in rats. METHODS: A FSGS rat model was established by single nephrectomy and repeated injection of doxorubicin. The FSGS rats were randomly divided into the model group, losartan (positive control) group, Shenshu moxibustion group, and Geshu moxibustion group. Molecular indicators of kidney function and renal pathological changes were monitored...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625546/the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-and-central-angiotensinergic-mechanisms-in-the-control-of-sodium-intake-induced-by-different-stimuli
#3
Camila F Roncari, Richard B David, Patrícia M De Paula, Débora S A Colombari, Laurival A De Luca, Eduardo Colombari, José V Menani
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a typical facilitatory stimulus for sodium appetite. Surprisingly, hyperosmolarity and central cholinergic stimulation, two classical antinatriorexigenic stimuli, also facilitate NaCl intake when they are combined with injections of the α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we tested the relative importance of central angiotensinergic and cholinergic mechanisms for the control of water and NaCl intake by combining different dipsogenic or natriorexigenic stimuli with moxonidine injection into the LPBN...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction%C3%A2-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#4
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula Katherine Bautista-Nino, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1(∆/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system ...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616433/medication-errors-in-patients-with-enteral-feeding-tubes-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Ehsan Mirzaei, Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili, Arefeh Dehghani Tafti, Behrooz Heydari
OBJECTIVE: Most patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU) have problems in using oral medication or ingesting solid forms of drugs. Selecting the most suitable dosage form in such patients is a challenge. The current study was conducted to assess the frequency and types of errors of oral medication administration in patients with enteral feeding tubes or suffering swallowing problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in the ICU of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614412/differential-effects-of-losartan-and-atorvastatin-in-partial-and-full-thickness-burn-wounds
#6
Johanneke J Akershoek, Katrien M Brouwer, Marcel Vlig, Bouke K H L Boekema, Rob H J Beelen, Esther Middelkoop, Magda M W Ulrich
Healing of burn wounds is often associated with scar formation due to excessive inflammation and delayed wound closure. To date, no effective treatment is available to prevent the fibrotic process. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was shown to be involved in fibrosis in various organs. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin), Angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. Losartan) and the combination of these drugs are able to reduce the local RAS activation, and reduced fibrosis in other organs. We investigated whether inhibition of the RAS could improve healing of burn wounds by treatment with Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination of both drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596754/angiotensins-and-huntington-s-disease-a-study-on-immortalized-progenitor-striatal-cell-lines
#7
Walmor C De Mello, Yamil Gerena, Sylvette Ayala-Peña
Neurons from mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit altered electrophysiological properties, potentially contributing to neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin (1-7) has not been characterized in HD. We investigated the influence of Ang II and angiotensin (1-7) on total potassium current using immortalized progenitor mutant huntingtin-expressing (Q111) and wild-type (Q7) cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596051/functions-of-at1-and-at2-angiotensin-receptors-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-correlating-single-unit-and-cardiovascular-responses
#8
Mehrangiz Khanmoradi, Ali Nasimi
The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a complex structure with both neuroendocrine and autonomic functions including cardiovascular control. The PVN contains angiotensin II (AngII) immunoreactive cells, fibers, as well as AT1 and AT2 receptors of AngII. We microinjected AngII into the PVN of normotensive anesthetized rats and simultaneously recorded blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and single-unit responses. The roles of AT1 and AT2 receptors in these responses were also evaluated. Microinjection of AngII into the PVN produced a short excitatory single-unit response and two types of pressor responses: short duration with a decrease in HR and long with an increase in HR...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595908/association-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-1-and-lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-mediates-the-cardiac-hypertrophy%C3%A2-induced-by-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein
#9
Yunzi Zhao, Yuqiu Li, Xiaohui Ning, Keping Chen, Shu Zhang
To date the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy has not been completely elucidated. Since oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a risk marker for early ventricular remodeling, we speculated that ox-LDL may be related to cardiac hypertrophy. We observed the significantly upregulation of plasma ox-LDL and hypertrophic responses, such as cardiomyocyte size and specific gene expressions in Apo E(-/-) mice fed with high fat diet, accompanied by the upregulation of AT1-R and lectin-like oxidized low-density protein receptor 1 (LOX-1)...
June 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589652/losartan-for-the-nephropathy-of-sickle-cell-anemia-a-phase-2-multi-center-trial
#10
Charles T Quinn, Santosh L Saraf, Victor R Gordeuk, Courtney D Fitzhugh, Susan E Creary, Prasad Bodas, Alex George, Ashok B Raj, Alecia C Nero, Catherine E Terrell, Lisa McCord, Adam Lane, Hans C Ackerman, Yu Yang, Omar Niss, Michael D Taylor, Prasad Devarajan, Punam Malik
Nephropathy is a common and progressive complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA). In SCA mice, we found that hyperangiotensinemia in the absence of hypertension underlies nephropathy, and its downregulation by losartan, an angiotensin-II-receptor-1 blocker, reduced albuminuria and progression of nephropathy. Therefore, we performed a phase-2 trial of oral losartan, given for 6 months, to explore whether it reduced albuminuria in children and adults with SCA. Participants were allocated to groups defined by class of baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR): no albuminuria (NoA), microalbuminuria (MicroA), and macroalbuminuria (MacroA)...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578904/role-of-ras-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-axis-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-podocyte-injury-and-tubulo-interstitial-nephropathy
#11
Lin Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Dan Liu, Hua Chen, Fang Dou, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ying-Yong Zhao
Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have demonstrated activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by RAS in CKD. However, the underlying mechanisms of RAS and Wnt/β-catenin signaling interaction and their contribution to the pathogenesis of CKD have not been fully elucidated. Present study is designed to investigate the role of RAS/Wnt/β-catenin axis activation in tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis by the cultured HK-2 and podocytes...
June 2, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577742/dual-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-for-nephroprotection
#12
Piero Ruggenenti
In experimental diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) combination therapy reduce proteinuria and prevent structural lesions more effectively than either drug alone. Consistently, in humans, a multidrug individually tailored antiproteinuric treatment based on combination therapy with maximum tolerated doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers ("Remission Clinic") reduced proteinuria and prevented end-stage renal disease more effectively than angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers monotherapy, in particular in subjects with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#13
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545667/arctigenin-suppresses-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-obstructive-nephropathy
#14
Ao Li, Xiaoxun Zhang, Mao Shu, Mingjun Wu, Jun Wang, Jingyao Zhang, Rui Wang, Peng Li, Yitao Wang
BACKGROUND: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is commonly the final result of a variety of progressive injuries and leads to end-stage renal disease. There are few therapeutic agents currently available for retarding the development of renal TIF. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of arctigenin (ATG), a lignan component derived from dried burdock (Arctium lappa L.) fruits, in protecting the kidney against injury by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544543/acute-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-impairs-rat-renal-microvascular-autoregulatory-behaviour
#15
Justin P Van Beusecum, Shali Zhang, Anthony K Cook, Edward W Inscho
AIM: Little is known about how toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) influences the renal microvasculature. We hypothesized that acute TLR4 stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour, partially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: We assessed afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour after LPS treatment (1 mg kg(-1) ; i.p.) using the in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Autoregulatory behaviour was assessed by measuring diameter responses to step-wise changes in renal perfusion pressure...
May 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542215/treatment-with-enalapril-and-not-diltiazem-ameliorated-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-rats-and-normalized-renal-at1-receptor-expression-as-measured-with-pet-imaging
#16
Basma Ismail, Rob A deKemp, Etienne Croteau, Tayebeh Hadizad, Kevin D Burns, Rob S Beanlands, Jean N DaSilva
ACE inhibitors are considered first line of treatment in patients with many forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other antihypertensives such as calcium channel blockers achieve similar therapeutic effectiveness in attenuating hypertension-related renal damage progression. Our objective was to explore the value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal AT1 receptor (AT1R) to guide therapy in the 5/6 subtotal-nephrectomy (Nx) rat model of CKD. Ten weeks after Nx, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 10mg/kg/d enalapril (NxE), 30mg/kg/d diltiazem (NxD) or left untreated (Nx) for an additional 8-10 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541956/nitric-oxide-pathway-presumably-does-not-contribute-to-antianxiety-and-memory-retrieval-effects-of-losartan
#17
Iraj Aghaei, Shokouh Arjmand, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh Chabok, Mahdi Tondar, Mohammad Shabani
Nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin (AT) receptors have demonstrated well-established interactions in various physiological phenomena. AT1 receptors can play a part in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; also, angiotensinergic neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in stress-evoked physiological responses. On the basis of the stress-modulating characteristics of NO, AT1, and AT2 receptors, the present study evaluated the roles of NO and AT1 receptors in the attenuation of stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors after administration of losartan, an AT1 antagonist...
May 24, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540409/angiotensin-ii-induces-calcium-calcineurin-signaling-and-podocyte-injury-by-downregulating-microrna-30-family-members
#18
Yue Zhao, Junnan Wu, Mingchao Zhang, Minlin Zhou, Feng Xu, Xiaodong Zhu, Xianguang Zhou, Yue Lang, Fan Yang, Shifeng Yun, Shaolin Shi, Zhihong Liu
Angiotensin II (AngII) is capable of inducing calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because we have previously demonstrated that microRNA-30s (miR-30s) inhibit calcium/calcineurin signaling in podocytes, we hypothesize that AngII may induce podocyte injury by downregulating miR-30s and thereby activating calcium/calcineurin signaling. To test this hypothesis, we used an AngII-induced podocyte injury mouse model. The mice were treated with AngII via infusion for 28 days, which resulted in hypertension, albuminuria, and glomerular damage...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535536/losartan-preserves-erectile-function-by-suppression-of-apoptosis-and-fibrosis-of-corpus-cavernosum-and-corporal-veno-occlusive-dysfunction-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Wen Ji Li, Mingxi Xu, Meng Gu, Da-Chao Zheng, Jianhua Guo, Zhikang Cai, Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays important roles in penile corporal fibrosis and veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD). Angiotensin II (Ang II) is critically involved in erectile dysfunction, and blocking of Ang II is more important than inhibition of TGF-β in non-penile tissue fibrosis. However, the role of Ang II in corporal fbrosis and CVOD in a diabetic condition has not been investigated. METHODS: Diabetic rats were treated with sildenafil or losartan (an Ang II antagonist) alone or in combination...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529582/angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-induce-autophagy-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#20
Yunseo Woo, Yu-Jin Jung
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are anti-hypertensive drugs that competitively inhibit the binding of angiotensin II to its receptor, resulting in blood vessel dilation and the reduction of blood pressure. These antagonists are also known as sartans, and are a group of pharmaceuticals that possess tetrazole or imidazole groups. In the present study, the anticancer and antimetastatic effects of the ARBs fimasartan, losartan, eprosartan and valsartan on the human prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap-LN3 cell lines were investigated in vitro...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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