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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739650/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-antagonism-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-type-2-diabetic-model
#2
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Haichun Yang, Agnes B Fogo, Brian J Murphy, Robert Kaltenbach, Peter Cheng, Bradley Zinker, Raymond C Harris
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) functions through activation of LPA receptors (LPARs). LPA-LPAR signaling has been implicated in development of fibrosis. However, the role of LPA-LPAR signaling in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been studied. We examined whether BMS002, a novel dual LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist, affects development of DN in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout db/db mice. Treatment of these mice with BMS002 from 8 to 20 weeks of age led to a significant reduction in albuminuria, similar to that observed with renin-angiotensin system inhibition (losartan plus enalapril)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738835/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-nephrolithiasis-in-patients-with-gout-and-the-general-population-a-cohort-study
#3
A J Landgren, L T H Jacobsson, U Lindström, T Z S Sandström, P Drivelegka, L Björkman, E Fjellstedt, M Dehlin
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis (NL) is known to be associated with gout, although there are few comparative studies on risk and risk factors for NL in gout compared to population cohorts. In this cohort study we investigated: (1) overall incidence of NL in gout (cases) and general population controls; (2) risk and risk factors (common comorbidities and medications) for first-time NL in cases and controls separately. METHODS: Cases (n = 29,968) and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n = 138,678) were identified from the regional healthcare database in western Sweden (VEGA)...
July 24, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734043/enabling-reduction-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-seniors-pilot-study-concept-rationale-and-design
#4
Todd M Manini, Stephen D Anton, Daniel P Beavers, Jane A Cauley, Mark A Espeland, Roger A Fielding, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Kristina H Lewis, Christine Liu, Mary M McDermott, Michael E Miller, Russell P Tracy, Jeremy D Walston, Barbara Radziszewska, Jane Lu, Cindy Stowe, Samuel Wu, Anne B Newman, Walter T Ambrosius, Marco Pahor
OBJECTIVES: To test two interventions to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation and an independent risk factor for impaired mobility and slow walking speed in older adults. DESIGN: The ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors (ENRGISE) Pilot Study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of two interventions to reduce IL-6 levels. SETTING: Five university-based research centers...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733707/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-inhibit-kat-ii-activity-in-the-brain-its-possible-clinical-applications
#5
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of the most frequently recommended antihypertensive drugs. Apart from their activity towards the circulatory system, ARBs also penetrate the blood-brain barrier and display neuroprotective effects. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan produced by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the brain. Antagonism towards all ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is the main mechanism of KYNA action. An elevated brain level of KYNA is linked with memory impairment and psychotic symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#6
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724036/clinical-pharmacology-profile-of-care-in-hepatology-clinic
#7
Talita Rocha Passos, Fabiana Silva Santos, Maria Cleusa Martins, Vanusa Barbosa Pinto, Flair José Carrilho, Suzane Kioko Ono
Since 2010, the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School (HC-FMUSP, in the Portuguese acronym) has been developing specialized electives assistance activities in the Outpatient Specialty Clinic, Secondary Level, in São Paulo NGA-63 Várzea do Carmo. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacotherapeutic profile of patients. This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study in which patients were seen at the Hepatology sector and the results were submitted to descriptive statistics...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721143/the-effect-of-antihypertensive-treatment-on-arterial-stiffness-and-serum-concentration-of-selected-matrix-metalloproteinases
#8
Marek Rajzer, Wiktoria Wojciechowska, Tomasz Kameczura, Agnieszka Olszanecka, Danuta Fedak, Michał Terlecki, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Danuta Czarnecka
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the arterial stiffness and serum levels of selected metalloproteinases (MMPs) in hypertensive patients and their changes following antihypertensive therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 95 patients with essential arterial hypertension (HT) stage 1 or 2 (mean age: 53.1 ±13.0 years). The control group consisted of 31 normotensives of the same age range. Hypertension patients were randomized to one of the following monotherapies for 6 months: quinapril, losartan, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide or bisoprolol...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720883/chronic-high-sodium-diet-intake-after-weaning-lead-to-neurogenic-hypertension-in-adult-wistar-rats
#9
Paula Magalhães Gomes, Renato Willian Martins Sá, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Milede Hanner Saraiva Paes, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Sean David Stocker, Vagner Roberto Antunes, Leonardo M Cardoso
In this study, we investigated some mechanisms involved in sodium-dependent hypertension of rats exposed to chronic salt (NaCl) intake from weaning until adult age. Weaned male Wistar rats were placed under high (0.90% w/w, HS) or regular (0.27% w/w, Cont) sodium diets for 12 weeks. Water consumption, urine output and sodium excretion were higher in HS rats compared to control. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured by the arterial catheter and found 13.8% higher in HS vs Cont rats. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium caused greater fall in the BP of HS rats (33%), and central antagonism of AT1 receptors (losartan) microinjected into the lateral ventricle reduced BP level of HS, but not of Cont group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716988/blood-pressure-lowering-and-safety-improvements-with-liver-angiotensinogen-inhibition-in-models-of-hypertension-and-kidney-injury
#10
Adam E Mullick, Steve T Yeh, Mark J Graham, Jeffery A Engelhardt, Thazha P Prakash, Rosanne M Crooke
Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade...
July 17, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712765/losartan-reverses-cox-2-dependent-vascular-dysfunction-in-offspring-of-hyperglycaemic-rats
#11
Diego Barbosa de Queiroz, Fernanda Elizabethe Ramos-Alves, Juliana Santos-Rocha, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Fabiano Elias Xavier
AIMS: This study examined whether chronic treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, might reverse COX-2-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from offspring of hyperglycaemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male 12-month-old offspring of hyperglycaemic (O-DR) and normoglycaemic (O-CR) rats were treated with losartan (15mg·kg·day(-1)) during 2months. Third order MRA of untreated and losartan-treated O-DR and O-CR were mounted in wire myograph for isometric tension measurements...
July 13, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707739/angiotensin-ii-preconditioning-is-associated-with-increased-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-pkc%C3%AE-ratio-and-prosurvival-kinases-in-mitochondria
#12
Rebeca E Nuñez, Sabzali Javadov, Nelson Escobales
Angiotensin II preconditioning (APC) has been shown to reproduce the cardioprotective effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), however, molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of APC remain unknown. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC or both (IPC/APC) followed by ischaemia-reperfusion (IR), to determine translocation of PKCε, PKCδ, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK and GSK-3β to mitochondria as an indicator of activation of the protein kinases. In agreement with previous observations, IPC, APC and IPC/APC increased the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), reduced infarct size (IS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, compared to controls...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703124/comparison-between-the-effects-of-hydrochlorothiazide-and-indapamide-on-the-kidney-in-hypertensive-patients-inadequately-controlled-with-losartan
#13
S Wang, J Li, X Zhou, K Liu, X Zhang, Q Meng, R Shi, D Shi, X Chen
The aim of the study is to compare the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide on the kidney in patients with hypertension inadequately controlled with losartan. A total of 140 patients who met the criteria and inadequately controlled with losartan 50 mg per day for 2 weeks were randomized in two groups and administered either hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg per day (n=70) or indapamide (sustained release) 1.5 mg per day (n=70) in combination with losartan 50 mg per day. Office blood pressure (BP) were collected at baseline and upon each follow-up visit...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700905/chronic-iron-overload-induces-functional-and-structural-vascular-changes-in-small-resistance-arteries-via-nadph-oxidase-dependent-o2-production
#14
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Dieli Oliveira Nunes, Ivanita Stefanon, Leonardo Dos Santos
Iron overload leads to excessive free radical formation and induces cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, our aim was to investigate the structural and endothelial modulation of vascular tone induced by chronic iron overload in mesenteric arteries. Rats were divided into two groups: the control (vehicle) group and the group treated with iron dextran for 28days (100mg/kg, 5days a week). Chronic iron overload altered the following morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries: decreased lumen and external diameters; increased wall/lumen ratio and wall thickness; decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; and increased pulse wave velocity...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700653/plasma-bradykinin-and-early-diabetic-nephropathy-lesions-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Kevin M Wheelock, Jian Cai, Helen C Looker, Michael L Merchant, Robert G Nelson, Gudeta D Fufaa, E Jennifer Weil, Harold I Feldman, Ramachandran S Vasan, Paul L Kimmel, Brad H Rovin, Michael Mauer, Jon B Klein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of bradykinin and related peptides with the development of diabetic nephropathy lesions in 243 participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study who, at baseline, were normoalbuminuric, normotensive and had normal or increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). DESIGN: Plasma concentrations of bradykinin and related peptides were measured at baseline by quantitative mass spectrometry. All participants were randomly assigned at baseline to receive placebo, enalapril or losartan during the 5 years between kidney biopsies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697804/ang-ii-at2r-increases-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-signaling-through-the-fak-and-rhoa-cdc42-pathways-in-vitro
#16
Xiu-Ping Xu, Hong-Li He, Shu-Ling Hu, Ji-Bin Han, Li-Li Huang, Jing-Yuan Xu, Jian-Feng Xie, Ai-Ran Liu, Yi Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319)...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691428/stat-proteins-as-intracellular-regulators-of-resistance-to-myocardial-injury-in-context-of-cardiac-remodeling-and-targeting-for-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Andrzej Wincewicz, Stanislaw Sulkowski
Roles of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are widely discussed in relation to other agents like IFN-γ that are involved in cardiovascular diseases. STAT3 protects cardiomyocytes during endotoxic shock and ischemia and prolongs survival of these cells by activation of antiapoptotic genes like bcl-2 and c-fos. Moreover, IL-6 dependent expression of STAT3 probably is responsible for hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. On the contrary STAT1 mediates cell death by induction of caspase-1...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679681/acute-effects-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-cardiac-sympathetic-activity-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#18
Eduardo R Azevedo, Susanna Mak, John S Floras, John D Parker
The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists in patients with heart failure secondary to reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are felt to result from prevention of the adverse effects of AII on systemic afterload and renal homeostasis. However, AII can activate the sympathetic nervous system and part of the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors and AII antagonists may result from their ability to inhibit such activation. We examined the acute effects of the ACE inhibitor captopril (25 mg, n = 9) and the AII receptor antagonist losartan (50 mg, n = 10) on hemodynamics as well as total body and cardiac norepinephrine spillover in patients with chronic HFrEF...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676018/can-serum-uric-acid-lowering-therapy-contribute-to-the-prevention-or-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Paschalis Paschos, Vasilios G Athyros, Achilleas Tsimperidis, Anastasia Katsoula, Nikolaos Grammatikos, Olga Giouleme
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries with potential progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Several studies have reported a relationship between uric acid and NAFLD/NASH and it seems that serum uric acid (SUA) is a significant independent factor for the development of NAFLD. Potential mediating mechanisms include insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of inflammasome, especially NLRP3...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674263/pharmacological-profiles-of-a-highly-potent-and-long-acting-angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonist-fimasartan-in-rats-and-dogs-after-oral-administration
#20
Soo Heui Paik, Yong Ha Chi, Joo Han Lee, Hee-Soo Han, Kyung-Tae Lee
The pharmacological profile of fimasartan, [2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (AT1)-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, fimasartan showed slow dissociation and irreversible binding to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with a Kd of 0.03 nM and a T1/2 of 63...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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