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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926934/the-beneficial-effects-of-allicin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-are-comparable-to-losartan
#1
Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo, Abraham Said Arellano Buendía, Omegar Sánchez Reyes, Fernando Enrique García Arroyo, Raúl Arguello García, María Lilia Loredo Mendoza, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez Lozada, Horacio Osorio Alonso
Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923834/is-chronic-dialysis-the-right-hard-renal-end-point-to-evaluate-renoprotective-drug-effects
#2
Misghina Weldegiorgis, Dick de Zeeuw, Jamie P Dwyer, Peter Mol, Hiddo J L Heerspink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: RRT and doubling of serum creatinine are considered the objective hard end points in nephrology intervention trials. Because both are assumed to reflect changes in the filtration capacity of the kidney, drug effects, if present, are attributed to kidney protection. However, decisions to start RRT are not only on the basis of filtration capacity of the kidney, but also on other factors. We therefore compared the time to RRT with the time to a fixed eGFR threshold and assessed the effect of the renoprotective drug irbesartan on both components...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915536/protective-effect-of-the-standardized-extract-of-ginkgo-biloba-egb761-against-hypertension-with-hypercholesterolemia-induced-renal-injury-in-rats-insights-in-the-underlying-mechanisms
#3
Ahmed O Abdel-Zaher, Hanan S M Farghaly, Abeer E M El-Refaiy, Ahmed M Abd-Eldayem
The potential protective role of the standardized leaf extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb761) on hypertension with hypercholesterolemia-induced renal injury was investigated in rats. Hypertension was induced by L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats with a diet containing 1% cholesterol. In these animals repeated treatment with EGb761 produced a progressive reduction in the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (BP). EGb761 increased the progressive reduction in the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP induced by repeated administration of losartan with simvastatin...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904363/calcitriol-reduces-kidney-development-disorders-in-rats-provoked-by-losartan-administration-during-lactation
#4
Lucas Ferreira de Almeida, Heloísa Della Coletta Francescato, Cleonice Giovanini Alves da Silva, Roberto Silva Costa, Terezila Machado Coimbra
Calcitriol has important effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as on the regulation of the renin gene. Disturbances in renal development can be observed in rats exposed to angiotensin II (AngII) antagonists during lactation period. The lack of tubular differentiation in losartan-treated rats can affect calcitriol uptake. This study evaluated the effect of calcitriol administration in renal development disturbances in rats provoked by losartan (AngII type 1 receptor antagonist) administration during lactation...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892640/beneficial-effects-of-rosiglitazone-and-losartan-combination-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Hayam Ateyya, Manar Nader, Nagla Ahmad El-Sherbeeny
Diabetes with vascular complication needs strict interventions to retard possible serious complications. This research estimated the possible interaction of rosiglitazone (RGN) with losartan (Los) in diabetic rats. Male Spraque Dawly rats were randomly divided into: non-diabetic rats, diabetic rats, and diabetic rats received RGN, Los or combination of RGN and Los. Measurement of serum glucose, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor and (TNF)-α levels, and aortic lipid peroxide (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were done...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889965/losartan-counteracts-the-effects-of-cardiomyocyte-swelling-on-glucose-uptake-and-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-levels
#6
Yamil Gerena, Janice Griselle Lozada, Bryan Jael Collazo, Jarold Méndez-Álvarez, Jennifer Méndez-Estrada, Walmor C De Mello
A growing body of evidence demonstrates an association between Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers (ARBs) and enhanced glucose metabolism during ischemic heart disease. Despite these encouraging results, the mechanisms responsible for these effects during ischemia remain poorly understood. In this study we investigated the influence of losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, and secreted Ang II (sAng II) on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) levels during cardiomyocyte swelling. H9c2 cells were differentiated to cardiac muscle and the levels of myogenin, Myosin Light Chain (MLC), and membrane AT1 receptors were measured using flow cytometry...
September 7, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889964/hypotensive-effect-induced-by-microinjection-of-alamandine-a-derivative-of-angiotensin-1-7-into-caudal-ventrolateral-medulla-of-2k1c-hypertensive-rats
#7
E R Soares, C M Barbosa, M J Campagnole-Santos, R A S Santos, A C Alzamora
In the present study we evaluated the cardiovascular effects produced by microinjection of the new component of the renin-angiotensin system, alamandine, into caudal ventrolateral medulla of urethane-anesthetized normotensive and hypertensive 2K1C rats. The participation of different angiotensin receptors in the effects of alamandine was also evaluated. Microinjection of angiotensin-(1-7) was used for comparison. The microinjection of 4, 40 and 140pmol of alamandine or angiotensin-(1-7) into caudal ventrolateral medulla induced similar hypotensive effects in Sham-operated rats...
September 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884084/crocin-prevents-acute-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-in-anesthetized-rats
#8
Mohammad Naser Shafei, Abdolali Faramarzi, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Akbar Anaeigoudari
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main product of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a well-known role in cardiovascular regulation. Over-production of Ang II is one of the important underlying mechanisms of hypertension. In this study, the effect of crocin on cardiovascular responses in rats with acute hypertension induced by Ang II was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups (n = 6): 1) Control: rats that received saline, 2) Ang II: rats that received Ang II (300 ng/kg) infused in two min, 3) Losartan (Los) + Ang II : rats that received Los (10 mg/kg, i...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879040/comparison-of-effects-between-calcium-channel-blocker-and-diuretics-in-combination-with-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-on-24-h-central-blood-pressure-and-vascular-hemodynamic-parameters-in-hypertensive-patients-study-design-for-a-multicenter-double-blinded
#9
Gyu Chul Oh, Hae-Young Lee, Wook Jin Chung, Ho-Joong Youn, Eun-Joo Cho, Ki-Chul Sung, Shung Chull Chae, Byung-Su Yoo, Chang Gyu Park, Soon Jun Hong, Young Kwon Kim, Taek-Jong Hong, Dong-Ju Choi, Min Su Hyun, Jong Won Ha, Young Jo Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Myeong Chan Cho, Soon-Gil Kim, Jinho Shin, Sungha Park, Il-Suk Sohn, Chong-Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is one of the leading causes of death. Although over a billion people are affected worldwide, only half of them receive adequate treatment. Current guidelines on antihypertensive treatment recommend combination therapy for patients not responding to monotherapy, but as the number of pills increase, patient compliance tends to decrease. As a result, fixed-dose combination drugs with different antihypertensive agents have been developed and widely used in recent years...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878222/angiotensin-ii-induces-cholesterol-accumulation-and-injury-in-podocytes
#10
Yingjie Yang, Qian Yang, Jian Yang, Yiqiong Ma, Guohua Ding
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a risk factor for the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as elevated Ang II levels can lead to podocyte injury. However, there have been no studies on the role of Ang II in lipid metabolism or on podocyte injury caused by lipid dysfunction. Our study showed that Ang II induced lipid droplet (LD) accumulation and expression of the LD marker adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) in podocytes, and the extent of lipid deposition could be alleviated by losartan...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868298/case-report-of-spontaneous-remission-of-biopsy-proven-idiopathic-immune-complex-mediated-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis
#11
Rehan Shah, Mark S Segal, Michael J Wilkowski
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a histopathologic diagnosis causing microscopic hematuria, nephrotic range proteinuria, and chronic renal failure. Current understanding divides pathogenesis into two broad categories: immune complex mediated and complement mediated (now termed C3 glomerulopathy). The term idiopathic immune complex-mediated MPGN would apply to a patient without an identifiable source of immune complex production and no evidence of C3 glomerulopathy. Presented is a patient with idiopathic immune complex mediated MPGN and her clinical course...
May 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859786/effect-of-losartan-on-mitral-valve-changes-after-myocardial-infarction
#12
Philipp E Bartko, Jacob P Dal-Bianco, J Luis Guerrero, Jonathan Beaudoin, Catherine Szymanski, Dae-Hee Kim, Margo M Seybolt, Mark D Handschumacher, Suzanne Sullivan, Michael L Garcia, James S Titus, Jill Wylie-Sears, Whitney S Irvin, Emmanuel Messas, Albert A Hagège, Alain Carpentier, Elena Aikawa, Joyce Bischoff, Robert A Levine
BACKGROUND: After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851568/angiotensin-at1-receptors-modulate-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-angiotensin-5-8-injected-into-the-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#13
Karina Genaro, Débora Fabris, Helene A Fachim, Wiliam A Prado
Losartan and PD 123,319 are non-peptide angiotensin (Ang) receptor antagonists for the AT1 and AT2 subtypes of Ang II receptors, respectively. The tetrapeptide Ang (5-8) is the smallest Ang-peptide that elicits anxiogenic effects on unconditioned and conditioned experimental models upon injection into the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and Ang (5-8) can be synthesized (from Ang II or Ang III) and inactivated in this mesencephalic structure. The vlPAG is also known to play a central role in mechanisms of fear and anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844872/losartan-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-apoptosis-through-%C3%AE-arrestin1-mediated-phosphorylation-of-akt
#14
Lin Chen, Zhiping Ren, Xinbing Wei, Shuaishuai Wang, Yimeng Wang, Yanyan Cheng, Hua Gao, Huiqing Liu
Losartan, an angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has been revealed to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism by which losartan protect brain ischemia injury is still obscure. In this study, we investigated whether losartan protected against cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis and the possible signaling pathways. Wistar rats were pretreated for 14 days with 5mg/kg losartan, and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h followed by reperfusion...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843962/inhibition-of-angiotension-ii-type-1-receptor-reduced-human-endothelial-inflammation-induced-by-low-shear-stress
#15
Yuelin Chao, Linlin Zhu, Xinliang Qu, Junxia Zhang, Wen Wu, Peng Ye, Jie Luo, Hongfeng Yang, Shaoliang Chen
Low shear stress (LSS)-induced endothelial inflammation is the basis for the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying LSS-induced inflammation is not well understood. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a component of the renin-angiotensin system, participates in atherosclerotic plaque progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AT1R in LSS-induced endothelial activation. Using immunohistochemistry, we noted significant increases in AT1R, vascular endothelial adhesion cell-1 (VCAM1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) expression in the inner curvature of the aortic arch in C57BL/6 mice compared to the descending aorta in these mice...
August 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842434/enhanced-hemodynamic-responses-to-angiotensin-ii-in-diabetes-are-associated-with-increased-expression-and-activity-of-at1-receptors-in-the-afferent-arteriole
#16
Jie Zhang, Helena Y Qu, Jiangping Song, Jin Wei, Shan Jiang, Lei Wang, Liqing Wang, Jacentha Buggs, Ruisheng Liu
The prevalence of hypertension is about 2-fold higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects. Hypertension aggravates the progression of diabetic complications, especially diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms for the development of hypertension in diabetes have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that enhanced constrictive responsiveness of renal afferent arterioles (Af-Art) to angiotensin II (Ang II) mediated by Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors contributes to the development of hypertension in diabetes...
August 25, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836869/renin-angiotensin-system-as-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutic-approaches-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Santiago Perez-Lloret, Matilde Otero-Losada, Jorge E Toblli, Francisco Capani
Currently, available therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) are symptomatic. Therefore, the search for neuroprotective drugs remains a top priority. Areas covered: In this review, the potential symptomatic or disease-modifying effect of drugs targeting the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in PD will be explored. Expert opinion: The importance of nigrostriatal local RAS has only begun to be unraveled in the last decades. On one hand, there is a complex feedback cycle between RAS and dopamine (DA). On the other hand, RAS affects dopaminergic neurons vulnerability...
August 29, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827087/cerebrovascular-recovery-after-stroke-with-individual-and-combined-losartan-and-captopril-treatment-of-shrsp
#18
John S Smeda, Noriko Daneshtalab
We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment...
September 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805981/noncompetitive-inhibition-of-human-cyp2c9-in%C3%A2-vitro-by-a-commercial-rhodiola-rosea-product
#19
Ole Kristian Forstrønen Thu, Olav Spigset, Bent Hellum
A commercial Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) product has previously demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition in humans. The purpose of this study was to provide in vitro inhibitory data for this particular interaction and to classify the mechanism of the interaction. Another aim was to examine the in vitro influence of ethanol on the CYP2C9 activity. Human CYP2C9 (wild type) isolated from a baculovirus-infected cell system was incubated with 0.8 μmol/L losartan for 20 min. Sulfaphenazole was used as a positive control...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801620/a-novel-aldosterone-antagonist-limits-renal-injury-in-5-6-nephrectomy
#20
Clarice K Fujihara, M C Kowala, M D Breyer, Claudia R Sena, Mariliza V Rodrigues, Simone C A Arias, Camilla Fanelli, Denise M Malheiros, P K Jadhav, Chahrzad Montrose-Rafizadeh, Jose E Krieger, Roberto Zatz
Aldosterone antagonists slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their use is limited by hyperkalemia, especially when associated with RAS inhibitors. We examined the renoprotective effects of Ly, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker, through two experimental protocols: In Protocol 1, male Munich-Wistar rats underwent 5/6 renal ablation (Nx), being divided into: Nx+V, receiving vehicle, Nx+Eple, given eplerenone, 150 mg/kg/day, and Nx+Ly, given Ly, 20 mg/kg/day...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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