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Pyruvate carboxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#1
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908774/increased-incorporation-of-gaseous-co2-into-succinate-by-escherichia-coli-overexpressing-carbonic-anhydrase-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-genes
#2
Soohyun Park, Jae-Ung Lee, Sukhyeong Cho, Hyeonsoo Kim, Han Bin Oh, Seung Pil Pack, Jinwon Lee
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an abundant and cheap carbon source that is partly responsible for global warming in the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant E. coli strain that can show enhanced production of succinate derived from CO2. In this study, we confirmed the enhancement of utilization by analyzing succinate containing one carbon-13 ((13)C) derived from (13)CO2. Firstly, the carbonic anhydrase gene (SP(-)HCCA) derived from Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396 was over-expressed to enhance carbon flux toward bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) synthesis in E...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903807/concerted-changes-in-the-phosphoproteome-and-metabolome-under-different-co2-o2-gaseous-conditions-in-arabidopsis-rosettes
#3
Cyril Abadie, Samuel Mainguet, Marlène Davanture, Michael Hodges, Michel Zivy, Guillaume Tcherkez
Considerable efforts are currently devoted to understanding the regulation of primary carbon metabolism in plant leaves, which is known to change dramatically with environmental conditions, e.g. during light/dark transitions. Protein phosphorylation is believed to be a key factor in such a metabolic control. In fact, some studies have suggested modifications in the phosphorylation status of key enzymes in the dark compared with the light, or when photosynthesis varies. However, a general view of the phosphoproteome and reciprocal alterations in both the phosphoproteome and metabolome under a wide spectrum of CO2 and O2 conditions so as to vary both gross photosynthesis and photorespiration is currently lacking...
July 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898934/an-insufficient-glucose-supply-causes-reduced-lactose-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-rice-straw-instead-of-alfalfa-hay
#4
B Wang, F-Q Zhao, B-X Zhang, J-X Liu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the nutrient availability for milk production in the mammary gland of lactating cows fed different forage-based diets. The 3 diets contained 30% corn stover (CS), 30% rice straw (RS), or 23% alfalfa hay plus 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH) as a forage source. All diets contained 15% of DM as corn silage and 55% of DM as concentrate. The percentage of milk lactose was always lower in the RS-fed cows than in the cows fed AH or CS during the 12-wk feeding trial ( < 0...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885626/anaplerosis-for-glutamate-synthesis-in-the-neonate-and-in-adulthood
#6
Eva Brekke, Tora Sund Morken, Anne B Walls, Helle Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald
A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called glutamine-glutamate (GABA) cycle. The ketoacids α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate are removed from the cycle for this process. When something is removed from the TCA cycle it must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, a process termed anaplerosis...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872961/boosting-anaplerotic-reactions-by-pyruvate-kinase-gene-deletion-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-desensitization-for-glutamic-acid-and-lysine-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#7
Atsushi Yokota, Kazunori Sawada, Masaru Wada
In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS(L)), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC(R)), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC(R) (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869289/integration-of-parallel-13-c-labeling-experiments-and-in-silico-pathway-analysis-for-enhanced-production-of-ascomycin
#8
Haishan Qi, Mengmeng Lv, Kejing Song, Jianping Wen
Herein, the hyper-producing strain for ascomycin was engineered based on (13) C-labeling experiments and elementary flux modes analysis (EFMA). First, the metabolism of non-model organism Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus SA68 was investigated and an updated network model was reconstructed using (13) C- metabolic flux analysis. Based on the precise model, EFMA was further employed to predict genetic targets for higher ascomycin production. Chorismatase (FkbO) and pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) were predicted as the promising overexpression and deletion targets, respectively...
November 21, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856334/quantitative-metabolic-flux-analysis-reveals-an-unconventional-pathway-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-cancer-cells-deficient-for-the-mitochondrial-citrate-transport-protein
#9
Lei Jiang, Adam Boufersaoui, Chendong Yang, Bookyung Ko, Dinesh Rakheja, Gerardo Guevara, Zeping Hu, Ralph J DeBerardinis
The mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP), encoded by SLC25A1, accommodates bidirectional trafficking of citrate between the mitochondria and cytosol, supporting lipid biosynthesis and redox homeostasis. Genetic CTP deficiency causes a fatal neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with the accumulation of L- and D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid, and elevated CTP expression is associated with poor prognosis in several types of cancer, emphasizing the importance of this transporter in multiple human pathologies...
November 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765851/the-braf-inhibitor-vemurafenib-activates-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-inhibits-hyperpolarized-pyruvate-lactate-exchange-in-braf-mutant-human-melanoma-cells
#10
Teresa Delgado-Goni, Maria Falck Miniotis, Slawomir Wantuch, Harold G Parkes, Richard Marais, Paul Workman, Martin O Leach, Mounia Beloueche-Babari
Understanding the impact of BRAF signaling inhibition in human melanoma on key disease mechanisms is important for developing biomarkers of therapeutic response and combination strategies to improve long-term disease control. This work investigates the downstream metabolic consequences of BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib, the molecular and biochemical processes that underpin them, their significance for antineoplastic activity, and potential as noninvasive imaging response biomarkers. (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed that vemurafenib decreases the glycolytic activity of BRAF-mutant (WM266...
December 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744692/recycling-carbon-dioxide-during-xylose-fermentation-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739913/metabolic-interplay-between-cytosolic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-and-mitochondrial-alternative-oxidase-in-thermogenic-skunk-cabbage-symplocarpus-renifolius
#12
Md Abu Sayed, Yui Umekawa, Kikukatsu Ito
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732858/breast-cancer-derived-lung-metastases-show-increased-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-anaplerosis
#13
Stefan Christen, Doriane Lorendeau, Roberta Schmieder, Dorien Broekaert, Kristine Metzger, Koen Veys, Ilaria Elia, Joerg Martin Buescher, Martin Franz Orth, Shawn Michael Davidson, Thomas Georg Philipp Grünewald, Katrien De Bock, Sarah-Maria Fendt
Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis). The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis in breast-cancer-derived lung metastases compared to their primary cancers using in vivo (13)C tracer analysis...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716066/maize-plants-can-enter-a-standby-mode-to-cope-with-chilling-stress
#14
Laëtitia Riva-Roveda, Brigitte Escale, Catherine Giauffret, Claire Périlleux
BACKGROUND: European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide valuable clues for further improvement, which is required in the current context of climate change. We therefore compared six inbreds and two derived Flint x Dent hybrids for their response to one-week at low temperature (10 °C day/7 or 4 °C night) during steady-state vegetative growth...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708276/a-distinct-holoenzyme-organization-for-two-subunit-pyruvate-carboxylase
#15
Philip H Choi, Jeanyoung Jo, Yu-Cheng Lin, Min-Han Lin, Chi-Yuan Chou, Lars E P Dietrich, Liang Tong
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) has important roles in metabolism and is crucial for virulence for some pathogenic bacteria. PC contains biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. It is a single-chain enzyme in eukaryotes and most bacteria, and functions as a 500 kD homo-tetramer. In contrast, PC is a two-subunit enzyme in a collection of Gram-negative bacteria, with the α subunit containing the BC and the β subunit the CT and BCCP domains, and it is believed that the holoenzyme has α4β4 stoichiometry...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678117/metabolic-engineering-of-the-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-ifo0880-for-lipid-overproduction-during-high-density-fermentation
#16
Shuyan Zhang, Masakazu Ito, Jeffrey M Skerker, Adam P Arkin, Christopher V Rao
Natural lipids can be used to make biodiesel and many other value-added compounds. In this work, we explored a number of different metabolic engineering strategies for increasing lipid production in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880. These included increasing the expression of enzymes involved in different aspects of lipid biosynthesis-malic enzyme (ME), pyruvate carboxylase (PYC1), glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-and deleting the gene PEX10, required for peroxisome biogenesis...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625672/proteomic-studies-on-the-effects-of-lipo-chitooligosaccharide-and-thuricin-17-under-unstressed-and-salt-stressed-conditions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Plants, being sessile organisms, are exposed to widely varying environmental conditions throughout their life cycle. Compatible plant-microbe interactions favor plant growth and development, and help plants deal with these environmental challenges. Microorganisms produce a diverse range of elicitor molecules to establish symbiotic relationships with the plants they associate with, in a given ecological niche. Lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) and Thuricin 17 (Th17) are two such compounds shown to positively influence plant growth of both legumes and non-legumes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619889/functional-metabolic-interactions-of-human-neuron-astrocyte-3d-in-vitro-networks
#18
Daniel Simão, Ana P Terrasso, Ana P Teixeira, Catarina Brito, Ursula Sonnewald, Paula M Alves
The generation of human neural tissue-like 3D structures holds great promise for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine strategies. Promoting the establishment of complex cell-cell interactions, 3D culture systems enable the development of human cell-based models with increased physiological relevance, over monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate the establishment of neuronal and astrocytic metabolic signatures and shuttles in a human 3D neural cell model, namely the glutamine-glutamate-GABA shuttle...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564703/triheptanoin-protects-motor-neurons-and-delays-the-onset-of-motor-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Tesfaye W Tefera, Yide Wong, Mallory E Barkl-Luke, Shyuan T Ngo, Nicola K Thomas, Tanya S McDonald, Karin Borges
There is increasing evidence that energy metabolism is disturbed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients and animal models. Treatment with triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is a promising approach to provide alternative fuel to improve oxidative phosphorylation and aid ATP generation. Heptanoate can be metabolized to propionyl-CoA, which after carboxylation can produce succinyl-CoA and thereby re-fill the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). Here we tested the hypothesis that treatment with triheptanoin prevents motor neuron loss and delays the onset of disease symptoms in female mice overexpressing the mutant human SOD1G93A (hSOD1G93A) gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560934/a-proteomic-approach-to-lipo-chitooligosaccharide-and-thuricin-17-effects-on-soybean-germinationunstressed-and-salt-stress
#20
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Emily Ricci, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Salt stress is an important abiotic stressor affecting crop growth and productivity. Of the 20 percent of the terrestrial earth's surface available as agricultural land, 50 percent is estimated by the United Nations Environment Program to be salinized to the level that crops growing on it will be salt-stressed. Increased soil salinity has profound effects on seed germination and germinating seedlings as they are frequently confronted with much higher salinities than vigorously growing plants, because germination usually occurs in surface soils, the site of greatest soluble salt accumulation...
2016: PloS One
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