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Pyruvate carboxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423281/moringa-olifera-leaves-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-hepatotoxicity-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Ahmed Shaban, Samy Abd Elaziz
This study was carried out to evaluate the possible mechanisms through which the Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract reveals its hepatoprotective effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Eighty albino rats were assigned into four groups. The control group was given sterile saline. The second group was injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg BW) i.p. The third group was given Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract (250 mg/kg BW) orally daily. The fourth group was injected with alloxan as the second group and administrated Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract as in the third group...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396658/characterisation-of-aerotolerant-forms-of-a-robust-chicken-colonizing-campylobacter-coli
#2
Peter M O'Kane, Ian F Connerton
Campylobacter contaminated poultry meat is a major source of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter coli strain OR12 is a robust colonizer of chickens that was previously shown to outcompete and displace other Campylobacter strains from the chicken's gastrointestinal tract. This strain is capable of aerobic growth on blood agar. Serial aerobic passage increased this aerotolerance as assessed by quantitative assays for growth and survival on solid media. Aerotolerance was also associated with increased peroxide stress resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374798/dynamic-metabolic-profiling-together-with-transcription-analysis-reveals-salinity-induced-starch-to-lipid-biosynthesis-in-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-jsc4
#3
Shih-Hsin Ho, Akihito Nakanishi, Yuichi Kato, Hiroaki Yamasaki, Jo-Shu Chang, Naomi Misawa, Yuu Hirose, Jun Minagawa, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Biodiesel production using microalgae would play a pivotal role in satisfying future global energy demands. Understanding of lipid metabolism in microalgae is important to isolate oleaginous strain capable of overproducing lipids. It has been reported that reducing starch biosynthesis can enhance lipid accumulation. However, the metabolic mechanism controlling carbon partitioning from starch to lipids in microalgae remains unclear, thus complicating the genetic engineering of algal strains. We here used "dynamic" metabolic profiling and essential transcription analysis of the oleaginous green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369629/responses-of-ottelia-alismoides-an-aquatic-plant-with-three-ccms-to-variable-co2-and-light
#4
Hui Shao, Brigitte Gontero, Stephen C Maberly, Hong Sheng Jiang, Yu Cao, Wei Li, Wen Min Huang
Ottelia alismoides is a constitutive C4 plant and bicarbonate user, and has facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) at low CO2. Acclimation to a factorial combination of light and CO2 showed that the ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) to ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (>5) is in the range of that of C4 plants. This and short-term response experiments showed that the activity of PEPC and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) was high even at the end of the night, consistent with night-time acid accumulation and daytime carbon fixation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366527/engineering-efficient-production-of-itaconic-acid-from-diverse-substrates-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Peiching Chang, Grey S Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Chu, Ken W Lu, Claire R Shen
Itaconic acid is an excellent polymeric precursor with wide range of industrial applications. Here, efficient production of itaconate from various renewable substrates was demonstrated by engineered Escherichia coli. Limitation in the itaconate precursor supply was revealed by feeding of the key intermediate citrate to the culture medium. Efforts of enhancing the cis-aconitate flux and preserving the isocitrate pool increased itaconate productivity by nearly 100-fold. Elimination of the isocitrate lyase lowered the itaconate production by 10-30%, suggesting the potential positive role of glyoxylate shunt...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#6
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323243/proteomics-of-facs-sorted-heterogeneous-corynebacterium-glutamicum-populations
#7
Andreas Harst, Stefan P Albaum, Tanja Bojarzyn, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch
The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#8
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303352/redirecting-carbon-flux-through-pgi-deficient-and-heterologous-transhydrogenase-toward-efficient-succinate-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#9
Chen Wang, Zhihui Zhou, Heng Cai, Zhongjun Chen, Hongtao Xu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is particularly known for its potentiality in succinate production. We engineered C. glutamicum for the production of succinate. To enhance C3-C4 carboxylation efficiency, chromosomal integration of the pyruvate carboxylase gene pyc resulted in strain NC-4. To increase intracellular NADH pools, the pntAB gene from Escherichia coli, encoding for transhydrogenase, was chromosomally integrated into NC-4, leading to strain NC-5. Furthermore, we deleted pgi gene in strain NC-5 to redirect carbon flux to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298384/correction-long-noncoding-rna-gcaspc-a-target-of-mir-17-3p-negatively-regulates-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-cell-proliferation-in-gallbladder-cancer
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288918/increased-carbon-dioxide-levels-stimulate-neutrophils-to-produce-microparticles-and-activate-the-nucleotide-binding-domain-like-receptor-3-inflammasome
#11
Stephen R Thom, Veena M Bhopale, JingPing Hu, Ming Yang
We hypothesized that elevations of carbon dioxide (CO2) commonly found in modern buildings will stimulate leukocytes to produce microparticles (MPs) and activate the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome due to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Human and murine neutrophils generate MPs with high interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content when incubated ex vivo in buffer equilibrated with 0.1-0.4% additional CO2. Enhanced MPs production requires mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is mediated by activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase...
March 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271481/-pyruvate-carboxylase-structure-and-function
#12
Mikel Valle
Pyruvate carboxylase is a metabolic enzyme that fuels the tricarboxylic acid cycle with one of its intermediates and also participates in the first step of gluconeogenesis. This large enzyme is multifunctional, and each subunit contains two active sites that catalyze two consecutive reactions that lead to the carboxylation of pyruvate into oxaloacetate, and a binding site for acetyl-CoA, an allosteric regulator of the enzyme. Pyruvate carboxylase oligomers arrange in tetramers and covalently attached biotins mediate the transfer of carboxyl groups between distant active sites...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241431/the-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-intestinal-and-hepatic-fructose-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229207/engineering-rtca-pathway-and-c4-dicarboxylate-transporter-for-l-malic-acid-production
#14
Xiulai Chen, Yuancai Wang, Xiaoxiang Dong, Guipeng Hu, Liming Liu
L-Malic acid is an important component of a vast array of food additives, antioxidants, disincrustants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we presented a pathway optimization strategy and a transporter modification approach to reconstruct the L-malic acid biosynthesis pathway and transport system, respectively. First, pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) from Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were combinatorially overexpressed to construct the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway for L-malic acid biosynthesis...
February 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223344/an-intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-ceramide-signaling-axis-modulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#15
Cen Xie, Changtao Jiang, Jingmin Shi, Xiaoxia Gao, Dongxue Sun, Lulu Sun, Ting Wang, Shogo Takahashi, Mallappa Anitha, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
Increasing evidence supports the view that intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose tolerance and that FXR signaling can be profoundly impacted by the gut microbiota. Selective manipulation of the gut microbiota-FXR signaling axis was reported to significantly impact glucose intolerance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an over-the-counter dietary supplement and an inhibitor of bacterial bile salt hydrolase, increased levels of intestinal tauro-β-muricholic acid, which selectively suppresses intestinal FXR signaling...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220676/cho-cells-adapted-to-inorganic-phosphate-limitation-show-higher-growth-and-higher-pyruvate-carboxylase-flux-in-phosphate-replete-conditions
#16
Vishwanathgouda Maralingannavar, Dharmeshkumar Parmar, Chetan Gadgil, Venkateswarlu Panchagnula, Mugdha Gadgil, Tejal Pant
Inorganic phosphate (Pi ) is an essential ion involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolism. Changes in cellular metabolism upon long term adaptation to Pi limitation have been reported in E. coli. Given the essential role of Pi , adaptation to Pi limitation may also result in metabolic changes in animal cells. In this study, we have adapted CHO cells producing recombinant IgG to limiting Pi conditions for 75 days. Not surprisingly, adapted cells showed better survival under Pi limitation. Here, we report the finding that such cells also showed better growth characteristics compared to control in batch culture replete with Pi (higher peak density and integral viable cell density), accompanied by a lower specific oxygen uptake rate and cytochrome oxidase activity towards the end of exponential phase...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179898/metatranscriptomic-analysis-reveals-unexpectedly-diverse-microbial-metabolism-in-a-biogeochemical-hot-spot-in-an-alluvial-aquifer
#17
Talia N M Jewell, Ulas Karaoz, Markus Bill, Romy Chakraborty, Eoin L Brodie, Kenneth H Williams, Harry R Beller
Organic matter deposits in alluvial aquifers have been shown to result in the formation of naturally reduced zones (NRZs), which can modulate aquifer redox status and influence the speciation and mobility of metals, affecting groundwater geochemistry. In this study, we sought to better understand how natural organic matter fuels microbial communities within anoxic biogeochemical hot spots (NRZs) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at the Rifle (CO) site. We conducted a 20-day microcosm experiment in which NRZ sediments, which were enriched in buried woody plant material, served as the sole source of electron donors and microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#18
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
April 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097538/the-role-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-energy-production-and-glutamine-metabolism-during-oxidative-stress
#19
Nohaiah Aldarini, Azhar A Alhasawi, Sean C Thomas, Vasu D Appanna
Oxidative stress is known to severely impede aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, the metabolically-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens survives this challenge by invoking alternative ATP-generating networks. When grown in a medium with glutamine as the sole organic nutrient in the presence of H2O2, the microbe utilizes glutamine synthetase (GS) to modulate its energy budget. The activity of this enzyme that mediates the release of energy stored in glutamine was sharply increased in the stressed cells compared to the controls...
May 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075062/specific-arabidopsis-thaliana-malic-enzyme-isoforms-can-provide-anaplerotic-pyruvate-carboxylation-function-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Mariana Beatriz Badia, Robert Mans, Alicia V Lis, Marcos Ariel Tronconi, Cintia Lucía Arias, Verónica Graciela Maurino, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Antonius J A van Maris, Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler
NAD(P)-malic enzyme (NAD(P)-ME) catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, CO2 , and NAD(P)H and is present as a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. The carboxylation reaction catalyzed by purified recombinant Arabidopsis NADP-ME proteins is faster than those reported for other animal or plant isoforms. In contrast, no carboxylation activity could be detected in vitro for the NAD-dependent counterparts. In order to further investigate their putative carboxylating role in vivo, Arabidopsis NAD(P)-ME isoforms, as well as the NADP-ME2del2 (with a decreased ability to carboxylate pyruvate) and NADP-ME2R115A (lacking fumarate activation) versions, were functionally expressed in the cytosol of pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc(-) ) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
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