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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303609/buffering-agent-induced-lactose-content-increases-via-growth-hormone-mediated-activation-of-gluconeogenesis-in-lactating-goats
#1
L Li, M L He, Y Liu, Y S Zhang
Dairy goats are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet their lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and leads to milk yield and lactose content decreases. Therefore, we tested whether a buffering agent is able to increase the output of glucose in the liver and influence lactose synthesis. Eight lactating goats were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received a HC diet (Concentrate : Forage = 6:4, HG) and the other group received the same diet with a buffering agent added (0...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302304/novel-mechanisms-for-organic-acid-mediated-aluminium-tolerance-in-roots-and-leaves-of-two-contrasting-soybean-genotypes
#2
Shou-Cheng Huang, Shu-Juan Chu, Yu-Min Guo, Ya-Jing Ji, Dong-Qing Hu, Jing Cheng, Gui-Hua Lu, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the most important limiting factors for crop yield in acidic soils. However, the mechanisms that confer Al tolerance still remain largely unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism that confers different tolerance to Al, we performed global transcriptome analysis to the roots and leaves of two contrasting soybean genotypes, BX10 (Al-tolerant) and BD2 (Al-sensitive) under 0 and 50 μM Al3+ treatments, respectively. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that the expression levels of the genes involved in lipid/carbohydrate metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signalling pathway were highly induced in the roots and leaves of both soybean genotypes...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301853/-pro-renin-receptor-inhibition-reprograms-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-protects-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity-and-hepatosteatosis
#3
Liwei Ren, Yuan Sun, Hong Lu, Dien Ye, Lijuan Han, Na Wang, Alan Daugherty, Furong Li, Miaomiao Wang, Fengting Su, Wenjun Tao, Jie Sun, Noam Zelcer, Adam E Mullick, Ah J Danser, Yizhou Jiang, Yongcheng He, Xiongzhong Ruan, Xifeng Lu
Rationale: An elevated level of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported that the (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR) regulates LDL metabolism in vitro via the LDL receptor (LDLR) and SORT1, independently of the renin-angiotensin system. Objective: To investigate the physiological role of [P]RR in lipid metabolism in vivo. Methods and Results: We used N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to specifically inhibit hepatic [P]RR expression in C57BL/6J mice, and studied the consequences this has on lipid metabolism...
January 4, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241575/dietary-supplementation-with-myo-inositol-reduces-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-and-expression-of-both-fructolytic-and-lipogenic-genes-in-rats-fed-a-high-fructose-diet
#4
Masaya Shimada, Masato Hibino, Anna Takeshita
Excessive fructose ingestion drastically enhances hepatic lipid accumulation. The most prominent form of inositol-myo-inositol (MI)-remarkably reduces high sucrose-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Because MI is a major and strong lipotrope, we hypothesized in this study that MI improves fatty liver more induced by excessive ingestion of fructose than sucrose. Rats were fed a high-glucose diet (HGD), a high-fructose diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 0.2% MI for 12 days. Hepatic levels of TG and mRNAs for fructolysis (ketohexokinase and aldolase B), lipogenesis (pyruvate kinase, liver, and RBC; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; fatty acid synthase; and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1), and a key transcription factor for lipogenesis-carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the HGD group, and the increase was markedly decreased by MI supplementation...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234335/metabolite-profiling-of-wheat-seedlings-induced-by-chitosan-revelation-of-the-enhanced-carbon-and-nitrogen-metabolism
#5
Xiaoqian Zhang, Kecheng Li, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan plays an important role in regulating growth and eliciting defense in many plant species. However, the exact metabolic response of plants to chitosan is still not clear. The present study performed an integrative analysis of metabolite profiles in chitosan-treated wheat seedlings and further investigated the response of enzyme activities and transcript expression related to the primary carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism. Metabolite profiling revealed that chitosan could induce significant difference of organic acids, sugars and amino acids in leaves of wheat seedlings...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224880/the-effect-of-different-treatments-for-early-lactation-hyperketonemia-on-liver-triglycerides-glycogen-and-expression-of-key-metabolic-enzymes-in-dairy-cattle
#6
S Mann, F A Leal Yepes, J J Wakshlag, E Behling-Kelly, J A A McArt
Despite the widespread use of treatments for postpartum hyperketonemia in dairy cows, there is currently a lack of evidence comparing their effects on both the resolution of hyperketonemia and the potential effects on the liver of affected animals. The objective of our work was to investigate the effect of commonly used hyperketonemia treatments on hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as well as on the mRNA and protein abundance of key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, and lipid metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222946/triheptanoin-protects-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-degeneration
#7
Kah Ni Tan, David Simmons, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Karin Borges
Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anaplerotic (refills deficient tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) via the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) pathway. It has been shown to be neuroprotective and anticonvulsant in several models of neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of triheptanoin against changes of hippocampal mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and cell death induced by pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in mice. Ten days of triheptanoin pre-treatment did not protect against SE, but it preserved hippocampal mitochondrial functions including state 2, state 3 ADP, state 3 uncoupled respiration, respiration linked to ATP synthesis along with the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex 24 h post-SE...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207025/anti-obesity-effects-of-pectinase-and-cellulase-enzyme%C3%A2-treated-ecklonia%C3%A2-cava-extract-in-high%C3%A2-fat-diet%C3%A2-fed-c57bl-6n-mice
#8
In-Hye Kim, Jung-Wook Choi, Min-Kyeong Lee, Chang-Ju Kwon, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the anti‑obesity effects of enzyme‑treated Ecklonia cava extract (EEc) in C57BL/6N mice with high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. The EEc was separated and purified with the digestive enzymes pectinase (Rapidase X‑Press L) and cellulase (Rohament CL) and its effects on the progression of HFD‑induced obesity were examined over 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 6 groups (n=10/group) as follows: Normal diet group, HFD group, mice fed a HFD with 25 mg/kg/day Garcinia cambogia extract and mice fed a HFD with 5, 25 or 150 mg/kg/day EEc (EHD groups)...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205418/transcriptional-regulation-of-acetyl-coa-and-lipid-synthesis-by-pii-protein-in-synechococcus-pcc-7942
#9
Ekta Verma, Sindhunath Chakraborty, Balkrishna Tiwari, Arun K Mishra
PII protein family is widespread in prokaryotes and plants. In this study, impacts of PII deficiency on the synthesis of acetyl CoA and acetyl CoA carboxylase enzyme (ACCase) was analyzed in the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 by evaluating the mRNA levels of pyruvate kinase (PK), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), citrate synthase (CS), biotin synthase (BS), biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), carboxyl transferase (CT) α and β subunits. The PII deficient Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 showed upregulation of all the above-mentioned genes, except CS...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196893/high-yield-production-of-four-carbon-dicarboxylic-acids-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#10
Irene Martinez, Haijun Gao, George N Bennett, Ka-Yiu San
Several metabolic engineered Escherichia coli strains were constructed and evaluated for four-carbon dicarboxylic acid production. Fumarase A, fumarase B and fumarase C single, double and triple mutants were constructed in a ldhA adhE mutant background overexpressing the pyruvate carboxylase from Lactococcus lactis. All the mutants produced succinate as the main four-carbon (C4) dicarboxylic acid product when glucose was used as carbon source with the exception of the fumAC and the triple fumB fumAC deletion strains, where malate was the main C4-product with a yield of 0...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172103/effect-of-cold-stress-on-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-respiratory-properties-in-chickpea
#11
Samaneh Karami-Moalem, Reza Maali-Amiri, Seyyedeh-Sanam Kazemi-Shahandashti
The present work aimed to characterize some of the mitochondrial and defense responses involved in tolerance to cold stress (CS) in tolerant (Sel96Th11439) and sensitive (ILC533) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. During CS, the tolerant genotype prevented the H2O2 accumulation significantly; led to a decrease in electrolyte leakage index (ELI), which was a sign of relative acclimation of this genotype compared to sensitive one. A significant positive correlation between ELI and H2O2 (r0.01 = 0.86) content confirmed these results...
November 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142828/metabolic-engineering-of-ustilago-trichophora-tz1-for-improved-malic-acid-production
#12
Thiemo Zambanini, Hamed Hosseinpour Tehrani, Elena Geiser, Christiane K Sonntag, Joerg M Buescher, Guido Meurer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
Ustilago trichophora RK089 has been found recently as a good natural malic acid producer from glycerol. This strain has previously undergone adaptive laboratory evolution for enhanced substrate uptake rate resulting in the strain U. trichophora TZ1. Medium optimization and investigation of process parameters enabled titers and rates that are able to compete with those of organisms overexpressing major parts of the underlying metabolic pathways. Metabolic engineering can likely further increase the efficiency of malate production by this organism, provided that basic genetic tools and methods can be established for this rarely used and relatively obscure species...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136931/understanding-regulation-in-substrate-dependent-modulation-of-growth-and-production-of-alcohols-in-clostridium-sporogenes-ncim-2918-through-metabolic-network-reconstruction-and-flux-balance-analysis
#13
Mehak Kaushal, K Venkata Narayana Chary, Saumya Ahlawat, Basavaraj Palabhanvi, Gargi Goswami, Debasish Das
Flux Balance Analysis was performed for Clostridium sporogenes NCIM 2918 grown on sole glucose and glycerol or glucose-glycerol combinations at varied concentrations. During acidogenesis, glucose and glucose-glycerol combinations favored improved growth and butyric acid production. Glycerol fermentation was however marked by reduced growth and predominant ethanol synthesis. Further, with increase of glycerol fraction in glucose-glycerol blend, flux towards ethanol synthesis linearly increased with simultaneous decrease in butanol flux...
November 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129786/mechanisms-by-which-a-very-low-calorie-diet-reverses-hyperglycemia-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Gary W Cline, Yongliang Wang, Aviva Rabin-Court, Joongyu D Song, Dongyan Zhang, Xian-Man Zhang, Yuichi Nozaki, Sylvie Dufour, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
Caloric restriction rapidly reverses type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism(s) of this reversal are poorly understood. Here we show that 3 days of a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, one-quarter their typical intake) lowered plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in a rat model of T2D without altering body weight. The lower plasma glucose was associated with a 30% reduction in hepatic glucose production resulting from suppression of both gluconeogenesis from pyruvate carboxylase (VPC), explained by a reduction in hepatic acetyl-CoA content, and net hepatic glycogenolysis...
November 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052269/control-of-biotin-biosynthesis-in-mycobacteria-by-a-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-metabolic-signal
#15
Nathaniel Lazar, Allison Fay, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Kerry E Boyle, Joao Xavier, Kyu Rhee, Michael S Glickman
Biotin is an essential cofactor utilized by all domains of life, but only synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants, making biotin biosynthesis a target for antimicrobial development. To understand biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we executed a genetic screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis for biotin auxotrophs and identified pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) as required for biotin biosynthesis. The biotin auxotrophy of the pyc::tn strain is due to failure to transcriptionally induce late stage biotin biosynthetic genes in low biotin conditions...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047296/in%C3%A2-vivo-13-c-mrs-in-the-mouse-brain-at-14-1-tesla-and-metabolic-flux-quantification-under-infusion-of-1-6-13-c2-glucose
#16
Marta Lai, Bernard Lanz, Carole Poitry-Yamate, Jackeline F Romero, Corina M Berset, Cristina Cudalbu, Rolf Gruetter
In vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the investigation of cerebral metabolic compartmentation while, e.g. infusing (13)C-labeled glucose. Metabolic flux analysis of (13)C turnover previously yielded quantitative information of glutamate and glutamine metabolism in humans and rats, while the application to in vivo mouse brain remains exceedingly challenging. In the present study, (13)C direct detection at 14.1 T provided highly resolved in vivo spectra of the mouse brain while infusing [1,6-(13)C2]glucose for up to 5 h...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024812/inhibition-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-by-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-promotes-oxidative-stress-in-early-breast-cancer-progression
#17
Tomasz Wilmanski, Xuanzhu Zhou, Wei Zheng, Aparna Shinde, Shawn S Donkin, Michael Wendt, John R Burgess, Dorothy Teegarden
Maintaining reductive-oxidative (redox) balance is an essential feature in breast cancer cell survival, with cellular metabolism playing an integral role in maintaining redox balance through its supply of reduced NADPH. In the present studies, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on redox balance was investigated in early stages of breast cancer. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D promoted oxidative stress in MCF10A-ras and MCF10A-ErbB2 breast epithelial cells, as measured by the decreased ratios of NADPH/NADP+ and reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG)...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024108/changes-in-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-related-parameters-in-domestic-pigeon-columba-livia-during-incubation-and-chick-rearing
#18
X P Wan, P Xie, Z Bu, X T Zou
This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988820/atf4-induced-metabolic-reprograming-is-a-synthetic-vulnerability-of-the-p62-deficient-tumor-stroma
#19
Juan F Linares, Thekla Cordes, Angeles Duran, Miguel Reina-Campos, Tania Valencia, Christopher S Ahn, Elias A Castilla, Jorge Moscat, Christian M Metallo, Maria T Diaz-Meco
Tumors undergo nutrient stress and need to reprogram their metabolism to survive. The stroma may play a critical role in this process by providing nutrients to support the epithelial compartment of the tumor. Here we show that p62 deficiency in stromal fibroblasts promotes resistance to glutamine deprivation by the direct control of ATF4 stability through its p62-mediated polyubiquitination. ATF4 upregulation by p62 deficiency in the stroma activates glucose carbon flux through a pyruvate carboxylase-asparagine synthase cascade that results in asparagine generation as a source of nitrogen for stroma and tumor epithelial proliferation...
September 27, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986936/in-ovo-feeding-of-creatine-pyruvate-modulates-growth-performance-energy-reserves-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-gluconeogenesis-and-glycogenesis-enzymes-in-liver-of-embryos-and-neonatal-broilers
#20
M M Zhao, D Q Gong, T Gao, L Zhang, J L Li, P A Lv, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the growth performance, energy reserves and mRNA expression levels of gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis enzymes in liver of late-term embryos and neonatal broilers were investigated. After candling on 16 day of incubation, a total of 960 eggs were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) non-injected control, (ii) saline group injected with 0.6 ml of 0.75% physiological saline and (iii) Creatine pyruvate group injected with 0.6 ml of physiological saline containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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