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Pyruvate carboxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893177/integrated-application-of-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-provides-insights-into-glycogen-content-regulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#1
Busu Li, Kai Song, Jie Meng, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important marine fishery resource, which contains high levels of glycogen that contributes to the flavor and the quality of the oyster. However, little is known about the molecular and chemical mechanisms underlying glycogen content differences in Pacific oysters. Using a homogeneous cultured Pacific oyster family, we explored these regulatory networks at the level of the metabolome and the transcriptome. RESULTS: Oysters with the highest and lowest natural glycogen content were selected for differential transcriptome and metabolome analysis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867301/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-nexus-of-metabolic-and-hepatic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Varman T Samuel, Gerald I Shulman
NAFLD is closely linked with hepatic insulin resistance. Accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol activates PKC-ε, impairing insulin receptor activation and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. Peripheral insulin resistance indirectly influences hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing flux of substrates that promote lipogenesis (glucose and fatty acids) and gluconeogenesis (glycerol and fatty acid-derived acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase). Weight loss with diet or bariatric surgery effectively treats NAFLD, but drugs specifically approved for NAFLD are not available...
August 29, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808024/structural-and-functional-studies-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-regulation-by-cyclic-di-amp-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#3
Philip H Choi, Thu Minh Ngoc Vu, Huong Thi Pham, Joshua J Woodward, Mark S Turner, Liang Tong
Cyclic di-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a broadly conserved bacterial second messenger that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes. Our earlier studies showed that c-di-AMP regulates central metabolism in Listeria monocytogenes by inhibiting its pyruvate carboxylase (LmPC), a biotin-dependent enzyme with biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT) activities. We report here structural, biochemical, and functional studies on the inhibition of Lactococcus lactis PC (LlPC) by c-di-AMP...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769797/over-expression-of-a-codon-optimized-yeast-cytosolic-pyruvate-carboxylase-pyc2-in-cho-cells-for-an-augmented-lactate-metabolism
#4
Sanjeev K Gupta, Ankit Sharma, Hiralal Kushwaha, Pratyoosh Shukla
Monoclonal antibodies are the most demanding biotherapeutic drugs now a days used for the cure of various critical illnesses. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the main hosts used for the large scale production of these antibodies. However, the cell line and production processes are the key factors to determine the cost and affordability of these antibodies. The metabolic waste lactic acid and ammonium are accumulated during a cell culture process and adversely affects productivity as well as product quality...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763459/metabolic-engineering-of-cho-cells-for-the-development-of-a-robust-protein-production-platform
#5
Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Santosh K Srivastava, Ankit Sharma, Vaibhav H H Nalage, Darshita Salvi, Hiralal Kushwaha, Nikhil B Chitnis, Pratyoosh Shukla
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most preferred mammalian host used for the bio-pharmaceutical production. A major challenge in metabolic engineering is to balance the flux of the tuned heterogonous metabolic pathway and achieve efficient metabolic response in a mammalian cellular system. Pyruvate carboxylase is an important network element for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolic pathway and efficiently contributes in enhancing the energy metabolism. The lactate accumulation in cell culture can be reduced by re-wiring of the pyruvate flux in engineered cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755262/physicochemical-and-microbial-responses-of-streptomyces-natalensis-hw-2-to-fungal-elicitor
#6
Dahong Wang, Lanlan Wei, Ying Zhang, Mengjuan Zhang, Shaobin Gu
The effects of fungal elicitor on the physicochemical and microbial responses of Streptomyces natalensis HW-2 were investigated. The results showed that the elicitor could decrease dry cell weight (DCW) by 17.7% and increase the utilization of glucose, while the curve of pH was not obviously altered. The elicitor enhanced the yield of natamycin from 1.33 to 2.49 g/L. The morphology of the colony and the mycelium treated with elicitor showed significant differences from that of control. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased to 333...
July 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#7
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#8
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718507/gene-expression-analyses-reveal-metabolic-specifications-in-acute-o2-sensing-chemoreceptor-cells
#9
Lin Gao, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Paula García-Flores, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
KEY POINTS: Glomus cells in the carotid body (CB) and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (AM) are essential for reflex cardiorespiratory adaptation to hypoxia. However, the mechanisms whereby these cells detect changes in O2 tension are poorly understood. The metabolic properties of acute O2 -sensing cells have been investigated by comparing the transcriptomes of CB and AM cells, which are O2 -sensitive, with superior cervical ganglion neurons, which are practically O2 -insensitive...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#10
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710665/physical-exercise-reduces-pyruvate-carboxylase-pcb-and-contributes-to-hyperglycemia-reduction-in-obese-mice
#11
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, José Diego Botezelli, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701865/processed-panax-ginseng-sun-ginseng-inhibits-the-differentiation-and-proliferation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-and-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Hyejin Lee, Jinhee Kim, Jun Yeon Park, Ki Sung Kang, Joeng Hill Park, Gwi Seo Hwang
BACKGROUND: Heat-processed ginseng, sun ginseng (SG), has been reported to have improved therapeutic properties compared with raw forms, such as increased antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effects of SG through the suppression of cell differentiation and proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and the lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SG on adipocyte differentiation, levels of stained intracellular lipid droplets were quantified by measuring the oil red O signal in the lipid extracts of cells on differentiation Day 7...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695065/-13-c-based-proteinogenic-amino-acid-paa-and-metabolic-flux-ratio-analysis-of-lactococcus-lactis-reveals-changes-in-pentose-phosphate-pp-pathway-in-response-to-agitation-and-temperature-related-stresses
#13
Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Habtom W Ressom, Eduardo R Mendoza, Syarul Nataqain Baharum
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, (13)C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688166/triheptanoin-for-the-treatment-of-brain-energy-deficit-a-14-year-experience
#14
REVIEW
Fanny Mochel
Triheptanoin is an odd-chain triglyceride with anaplerotic properties-that is, replenishing the pool of metabolic intermediates in the Krebs cycle. Unlike even-chain fatty acids metabolized to acetyl-CoA only, triheptanoin can indeed provide both acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, two key carbon sources for the Krebs cycle. Triheptanoin was initially used in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. The first demonstration of the possible benefit of triheptanoin for brain energy deficit came from a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, a severe metabolic disease that affects anaplerosis in the brain...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683917/striking-diversity-in-holoenzyme-architecture-and-extensive-conformational-variability-in-biotin-dependent-carboxylases
#15
Liang Tong
Biotin-dependent carboxylases are widely distributed in nature and have central roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and other compounds. The last decade has seen the accumulation of structural information on most of these large holoenzymes, including the 500-kDa dimeric yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the 750-kDa α6β6 dodecameric bacterial propionyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and geranyl-CoA carboxylase, the 720-kDa hexameric bacterial long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase, the 500-kDa tetrameric bacterial single-chain pyruvate carboxylase, the 370-kDa α2β4 bacterial two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase, and the 130-kDa monomeric eukaryotic urea carboxylase...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681393/the-relationship-of-metabolic-burden-to-productivity-levels-in-cho-cell-lines
#16
Wu Zou, Raihana Edros, Mohamed Al-Rubeai
The growing demand for recombinant therapeutics has driven biotechnologists to develop new production strategies. One such strategy for increasing the expression of heterologous proteins has focused on enhancing cell-specific productivity through environmental perturbations. In this work, the effects of hypothermia, hyperosmolarity, high shear stress, and sodium butyrate treatment on growth and productivity were studied using three (low, medium, and high producing) CHO cell lines that differed in their specific productivities of monoclonal antibody...
July 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642769/histone-acetylation-modifications-affect-tissue-dependent-expression-of-poplar-homologs-of-c4-photosynthetic-enzyme-genes
#17
Yuan Li, Xiu-Mei Dong, Feng Jin, Zhuo Shen, Qing Chao, Bai-Chen Wang
Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) homologs of maize (Zea mays) C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622709/spirulina-platensis-prevents-hyperglycemia-in-rats-by-modulating-gluconeogenesis-and-apoptosis-via-modification-of-oxidative-stress-and-mapk-pathways
#18
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Sherif M Nasr, Moustafa Shoukry
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a microalga with antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study explored the ability and potential mechanism(s) by which SP induced glucose lowering impact in diabetic rat model. Forty rats were allocated into four groups: control; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (STZ, 45mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally); SP (500mg/kg b.w., orally twice weekly for 2 months) and STZ-induced diabetes+SP group. In the STZ-induced diabetic rats, SP significantly decreased (P>0...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617592/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-analysis-of-acetyl-coa-activation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-pyruvate-carboxylase
#19
Lauren E Westerhold, Lance C Bridges, Saame Raza Shaikh, Tonya N Zeczycki
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer...
July 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601069/acetate-metabolism-in-the-purple-non-sulfur-bacterium-rhodobacter-capsulatus
#20
E P Petushkova, A A Tsygankov
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 can grow on acetate as the sole carbon source under photoheterotrophic conditions. It is known that the bacterium can use the glyoxylate cycle and, in addition to it, or alternatively to it, an unknown pathway for acetate assimilation. We analyzed the genetic potential for functioning of additional metabolic pathways of oxaloacetic acid (OAA) pool replenishment in R. capsulatus. Using published microarray data of more than 4000 transcripts of genes for R...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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