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Pyruvate carboxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642769/histone-acetylation-modifications-affect-tissue-dependent-expression-of-poplar-homologs-of-c4-photosynthetic-enzyme-genes
#1
Yuan Li, Xiu-Mei Dong, Feng Jin, Zhuo Shen, Qing Chao, Bai-Chen Wang
Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) homologs of maize (Zea mays) C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622709/spirulina-platensis-prevents-hyperglycemia-in-rats-by-modulating-gluconeogenesis-and-apoptosis-via-modification-of-oxidative-stress-and-mapk-pathways
#2
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Sherif M Nasr, Moustafa Shoukry
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a microalga with antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study explored the ability and potential mechanism(s) by which SP induced glucose lowering impact in diabetic rat model. Forty rats were allocated into four groups: control; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (STZ, 45mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally); SP (500mg/kg b.w., orally twice weekly for 2 months) and STZ-induced diabetes+SP group. In the STZ-induced diabetic rats, SP significantly decreased (P>0...
June 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617592/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-analysis-of-acetyl-coa-activation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-pyruvate-carboxylase
#3
Lauren E Westerhold, Lance C Bridges, Saame Raza Shaikh, Tonya Nicole Zeczycki
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer...
June 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601069/acetate-metabolism-in-the-purple-non-sulfur-bacterium-rhodobacter-capsulatus
#4
E P Petushkova, A A Tsygankov
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 can grow on acetate as the sole carbon source under photoheterotrophic conditions. It is known that the bacterium can use the glyoxylate cycle and, in addition to it, or alternatively to it, an unknown pathway for acetate assimilation. We analyzed the genetic potential for functioning of additional metabolic pathways of oxaloacetic acid (OAA) pool replenishment in R. capsulatus. Using published microarray data of more than 4000 transcripts of genes for R...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570075/comparative-proteome-reveals-metabolic-changes-during-the-fruiting-process-in-flammulina-velutipes
#5
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Hui Zhao, Ming-Liang Zhang
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the fruiting process in macro-fungi, especially industrially cultivated mushrooms, has long been a goal in mycological research. To gain insights into the events accompanying the transformation of mycelia into fruit-bodies in Flammulina velutipes, proteins expressed characteristically and abundantly at primordium and fruit-body stages were investigated by using the iTRAQ labeling technique. Among the 171 differentially expressed proteins, a total of 68 displayed up-regulated expression levels that were associated with 84 specific KEGG pathways...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539187/heterologous-expression-of-bacterial-phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxylase-and-entner-doudoroff-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-improvement-of-isobutanol-production
#6
Keisuke Morita, Yuta Nomura, Jun Ishii, Fumio Matsuda, Akihiko Kondo, Hiroshi Shimizu
Bacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and enzymes in the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the NADPH supply required for the bio-production of chemicals such as isobutanol. The heterologous expression of PPC from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 increased in the isobutabol titer 1.45-fold (93.2±1.6 mg/L) in metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains producing isobutanol. This result suggested that the pyruvate and NADPH supply for isobutanol biosynthesis was activated by PPC overexpression...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506930/rewiring-the-reductive-tricarboxylic-acid-pathway-and-l-malate-transport-pathway-of-aspergillus-oryzae-for-overproduction-of-l-malate
#7
Jingjing Liu, Zhipeng Xie, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Aspergillus oryzae finds wide application in the food, feed, and wine industries, and is an excellent cell factory platform for production of organic acids. In this work, we achieved the overproduction of L-malate by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway and L-malate transport pathway of A. oryzae NRRL 3488. First, overexpression of native pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in the rTCA pathway improved the L-malate titer from 26.1gL(-1) to 42.3gL(-1) in shake flask culture. Then, the oxaloacetate anaplerotic reaction was constructed by heterologous expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli, increasing the L-malate titer to 58...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483921/lack-of-liver-glycogen-causes-hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-steatosis-in-mice
#8
Jose M Irimia, Catalina M Meyer, Dyann M Segvich, Sneha Surendran, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Nuria Morral, Peter J Roach
Disruption of the Gys2 gene that encodes the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse (LGSKO mouse) with an almost complete lack of hepatic glycogen, impaired glucose disposal and a pre-disposition to enter the fasted state. This study explores how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice is reduced in liver, but not in muscle, suggesting an organ specific defect. Phosphorylation of several components of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, were decreased in LGSKO mice and, after insulin stimulation, their responses were significantly suppressed, both temporally and in an insulin dose response...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479191/isotopically-nonstationary-13-c-flux-analysis-of-cyanobacterial-isobutyraldehyde-production
#9
Lara J Jazmin, Yao Xu, Yi Ern Cheah, Adeola O Adebiyi, Carl Hirschie Johnson, Jamey D Young
We applied isotopically nonstationary (13)C metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) to compare the pathway fluxes of wild-type (WT) Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to an engineered strain (SA590) that produces isobutyraldehyde (IBA). The flux maps revealed a potential bottleneck at the pyruvate kinase (PK) reaction step that was associated with diversion of flux into a three-step PK bypass pathway involving the enzymes PEP carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and malic enzyme (ME). Overexpression of pk in SA590 led to a significant improvement in IBA specific productivity...
May 4, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423281/moringa-olifera-leaves-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-hepatotoxicity-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Ahmed Shaban, Samy Abd Elaziz
This study was carried out to evaluate the possible mechanisms through which the Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract reveals its hepatoprotective effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Eighty albino rats were assigned into four groups. The control group was given sterile saline. The second group was injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg BW) i.p. The third group was given Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract (250 mg/kg BW) orally daily. The fourth group was injected with alloxan as the second group and administrated Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract as in the third group...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396658/characterisation-of-aerotolerant-forms-of-a-robust-chicken-colonizing-campylobacter-coli
#11
Peter M O'Kane, Ian F Connerton
Campylobacter contaminated poultry meat is a major source of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter coli strain OR12 is a robust colonizer of chickens that was previously shown to outcompete and displace other Campylobacter strains from the chicken's gastrointestinal tract. This strain is capable of aerobic growth on blood agar. Serial aerobic passage increased this aerotolerance as assessed by quantitative assays for growth and survival on solid media. Aerotolerance was also associated with increased peroxide stress resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374798/dynamic-metabolic-profiling-together-with-transcription-analysis-reveals-salinity-induced-starch-to-lipid-biosynthesis-in-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-jsc4
#12
Shih-Hsin Ho, Akihito Nakanishi, Yuichi Kato, Hiroaki Yamasaki, Jo-Shu Chang, Naomi Misawa, Yuu Hirose, Jun Minagawa, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Biodiesel production using microalgae would play a pivotal role in satisfying future global energy demands. Understanding of lipid metabolism in microalgae is important to isolate oleaginous strain capable of overproducing lipids. It has been reported that reducing starch biosynthesis can enhance lipid accumulation. However, the metabolic mechanism controlling carbon partitioning from starch to lipids in microalgae remains unclear, thus complicating the genetic engineering of algal strains. We here used "dynamic" metabolic profiling and essential transcription analysis of the oleaginous green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369629/responses-of-ottelia-alismoides-an-aquatic-plant-with-three-ccms-to-variable-co2-and-light
#13
Hui Shao, Brigitte Gontero, Stephen C Maberly, Hong Sheng Jiang, Yu Cao, Wei Li, Wen Min Huang
Ottelia alismoides is a constitutive C4 plant and bicarbonate user, and has facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) at low CO2. Acclimation to a factorial combination of light and CO2 showed that the ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) to ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (>5) is in the range of that of C4 plants. This and short-term response experiments showed that the activity of PEPC and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) was high even at the end of the night, consistent with night-time acid accumulation and daytime carbon fixation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366527/engineering-efficient-production-of-itaconic-acid-from-diverse-substrates-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Peiching Chang, Grey S Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Chu, Ken W Lu, Claire R Shen
Itaconic acid is an excellent polymeric precursor with wide range of industrial applications. Here, efficient production of itaconate from various renewable substrates was demonstrated by engineered Escherichia coli. Limitation in the itaconate precursor supply was revealed by feeding of the key intermediate citrate to the culture medium. Efforts of enhancing the cis-aconitate flux and preserving the isocitrate pool increased itaconate productivity by nearly 100-fold. Elimination of the isocitrate lyase lowered the itaconate production by 10-30%, suggesting the potential positive role of glyoxylate shunt...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#15
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323243/proteomics-of-facs-sorted-heterogeneous-corynebacterium-glutamicum-populations
#16
Andreas Harst, Stefan P Albaum, Tanja Bojarzyn, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch
The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#17
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303352/redirecting-carbon-flux-through-pgi-deficient-and-heterologous-transhydrogenase-toward-efficient-succinate-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#18
Chen Wang, Zhihui Zhou, Heng Cai, Zhongjun Chen, Hongtao Xu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is particularly known for its potentiality in succinate production. We engineered C. glutamicum for the production of succinate. To enhance C3-C4 carboxylation efficiency, chromosomal integration of the pyruvate carboxylase gene pyc resulted in strain NC-4. To increase intracellular NADH pools, the pntAB gene from Escherichia coli, encoding for transhydrogenase, was chromosomally integrated into NC-4, leading to strain NC-5. Furthermore, we deleted pgi gene in strain NC-5 to redirect carbon flux to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298384/correction-long-noncoding-rna-gcaspc-a-target-of-mir-17-3p-negatively-regulates-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-cell-proliferation-in-gallbladder-cancer
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288918/increased-carbon-dioxide-levels-stimulate-neutrophils-to-produce-microparticles-and-activate-the-nucleotide-binding-domain-like-receptor-3-inflammasome
#20
Stephen R Thom, Veena M Bhopale, JingPing Hu, Ming Yang
We hypothesized that elevations of carbon dioxide (CO2) commonly found in modern buildings will stimulate leukocytes to produce microparticles (MPs) and activate the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome due to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Human and murine neutrophils generate MPs with high interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content when incubated ex vivo in buffer equilibrated with 0.1-0.4% additional CO2. Enhanced MPs production requires mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is mediated by activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase...
March 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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