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Pyruvate carboxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#1
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#2
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718507/gene-expression-analyses-reveal-metabolic-specifications-in-acute-o2-sensing-chemoreceptor-cells
#3
Lin Gao, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Paula García-Flores, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
Acute O2 sensing is a fundamental property of cells in the peripheral chemoreceptors, e.g. glomus cells in the carotid body (CB) and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (AM), and is necessary for adaptation to hypoxia. These cells contain O2 -sensitive ion channels, which mediate membrane depolarization and transmitter release upon exposure to hypoxia. However, the mechanisms underlying the detection of changes in O2 tension by cells are still poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that CB glomus cells have specific metabolic features that favour the accumulation of reduced quinone and the production of mitochondrial NADH and reactive oxygen species during hypoxia...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#4
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710665/physical-exercise-reduces-pyruvate-carboxylase-pcb-and-contributes-to-hyperglycemia-reduction-in-obese-mice
#5
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, José Diego Botezelli, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701865/processed-panax-ginseng-sun-ginseng-inhibits-the-differentiation-and-proliferation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-and-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Hyejin Lee, Jinhee Kim, Jun Yeon Park, Ki Sung Kang, Joeng Hill Park, Gwi Seo Hwang
BACKGROUND: Heat-processed ginseng, sun ginseng (SG), has been reported to have improved therapeutic properties compared with raw forms, such as increased antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effects of SG through the suppression of cell differentiation and proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and the lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SG on adipocyte differentiation, levels of stained intracellular lipid droplets were quantified by measuring the oil red O signal in the lipid extracts of cells on differentiation Day 7...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695065/-13-c-based-proteinogenic-amino-acid-paa-and-metabolic-flux-ratio-analysis-of-lactococcus-lactis-reveals-changes-in-pentose-phosphate-pp-pathway-in-response-to-agitation-and-temperature-related-stresses
#7
Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Habtom W Ressom, Eduardo R Mendoza, Syarul Nataqain Baharum
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, (13)C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688166/triheptanoin-for-the-treatment-of-brain-energy-deficit-a-14-year-experience
#8
REVIEW
Fanny Mochel
Triheptanoin is an odd-chain triglyceride with anaplerotic properties-that is, replenishing the pool of metabolic intermediates in the Krebs cycle. Unlike even-chain fatty acids metabolized to acetyl-CoA only, triheptanoin can indeed provide both acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, two key carbon sources for the Krebs cycle. Triheptanoin was initially used in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. The first demonstration of the possible benefit of triheptanoin for brain energy deficit came from a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, a severe metabolic disease that affects anaplerosis in the brain...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683917/striking-diversity-in-holoenzyme-architecture-and-extensive-conformational-variability-in-biotin-dependent-carboxylases
#9
Liang Tong
Biotin-dependent carboxylases are widely distributed in nature and have central roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and other compounds. The last decade has seen the accumulation of structural information on most of these large holoenzymes, including the 500-kDa dimeric yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the 750-kDa α6β6 dodecameric bacterial propionyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and geranyl-CoA carboxylase, the 720-kDa hexameric bacterial long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase, the 500-kDa tetrameric bacterial single-chain pyruvate carboxylase, the 370-kDa α2β4 bacterial two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase, and the 130-kDa monomeric eukaryotic urea carboxylase...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681393/the-relationship-of-metabolic-burden-to-productivity-levels-in-cho-cell-lines
#10
Wu Zou, Raihana Edros, Mohamed Al-Rubeai
The growing demand for recombinant therapeutics has driven biotechnologists to develop new production strategies. One such strategy for increasing the expression of heterologous proteins has focused on enhancing cell-specific productivity through environmental perturbations. In this work, the effects of hypothermia, hyperosmolarity, high shear stress, and sodium butyrate treatment on growth and productivity were studied using three (low-, medium-, and high-producing) CHO cell lines that differed in their specific productivities of monoclonal antibody...
July 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642769/histone-acetylation-modifications-affect-tissue-dependent-expression-of-poplar-homologs-of-c4-photosynthetic-enzyme-genes
#11
Yuan Li, Xiu-Mei Dong, Feng Jin, Zhuo Shen, Qing Chao, Bai-Chen Wang
Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) homologs of maize (Zea mays) C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622709/spirulina-platensis-prevents-hyperglycemia-in-rats-by-modulating-gluconeogenesis-and-apoptosis-via-modification-of-oxidative-stress-and-mapk-pathways
#12
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Sherif M Nasr, Moustafa Shoukry
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a microalga with antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study explored the ability and potential mechanism(s) by which SP induced glucose lowering impact in diabetic rat model. Forty rats were allocated into four groups: control; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (STZ, 45mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally); SP (500mg/kg b.w., orally twice weekly for 2 months) and STZ-induced diabetes+SP group. In the STZ-induced diabetic rats, SP significantly decreased (P>0...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617592/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-analysis-of-acetyl-coa-activation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-pyruvate-carboxylase
#13
Lauren E Westerhold, Lance C Bridges, Saame Raza Shaikh, Tonya N Zeczycki
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer...
June 28, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601069/acetate-metabolism-in-the-purple-non-sulfur-bacterium-rhodobacter-capsulatus
#14
E P Petushkova, A A Tsygankov
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 can grow on acetate as the sole carbon source under photoheterotrophic conditions. It is known that the bacterium can use the glyoxylate cycle and, in addition to it, or alternatively to it, an unknown pathway for acetate assimilation. We analyzed the genetic potential for functioning of additional metabolic pathways of oxaloacetic acid (OAA) pool replenishment in R. capsulatus. Using published microarray data of more than 4000 transcripts of genes for R...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570075/comparative-proteome-reveals-metabolic-changes-during-the-fruiting-process-in-flammulina-velutipes
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Hui Zhao, Ming-Liang Zhang
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the fruiting process in macro-fungi, especially industrially cultivated mushrooms, has long been a goal in mycological research. To gain insights into the events accompanying the transformation of mycelia into fruit-bodies in Flammulina velutipes, proteins expressed characteristically and abundantly at primordium and fruit-body stages were investigated by using the iTRAQ labeling technique. Among the 171 differentially expressed proteins, a total of 68 displayed up-regulated expression levels that were associated with 84 specific KEGG pathways...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539187/heterologous-expression-of-bacterial-phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxylase-and-entner-doudoroff-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-improvement-of-isobutanol-production
#16
Keisuke Morita, Yuta Nomura, Jun Ishii, Fumio Matsuda, Akihiko Kondo, Hiroshi Shimizu
Bacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and enzymes in the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the NADPH supply required for the bio-production of chemicals such as isobutanol. The heterologous expression of PPC from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 increased in the isobutabol titer 1.45-fold (93.2±1.6 mg/L) in metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains producing isobutanol. This result suggested that the pyruvate and NADPH supply for isobutanol biosynthesis was activated by PPC overexpression...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506930/rewiring-the-reductive-tricarboxylic-acid-pathway-and-l-malate-transport-pathway-of-aspergillus-oryzae-for-overproduction-of-l-malate
#17
Jingjing Liu, Zhipeng Xie, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Aspergillus oryzae finds wide application in the food, feed, and wine industries, and is an excellent cell factory platform for production of organic acids. In this work, we achieved the overproduction of L-malate by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway and L-malate transport pathway of A. oryzae NRRL 3488. First, overexpression of native pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in the rTCA pathway improved the L-malate titer from 26.1gL(-1) to 42.3gL(-1) in shake flask culture. Then, the oxaloacetate anaplerotic reaction was constructed by heterologous expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli, increasing the L-malate titer to 58...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483921/lack-of-liver-glycogen-causes-hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-steatosis-in-mice
#18
Jose M Irimia, Catalina M Meyer, Dyann M Segvich, Sneha Surendran, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Nuria Morral, Peter J Roach
Disruption of the Gys2 gene encoding the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse strain (LGSKO) that almost completely lacks hepatic glycogen, has impaired glucose disposal, and is pre-disposed to entering the fasted state. This study investigated how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice was reduced in liver, but not muscle, suggesting an organ-specific defect. Phosphorylation of components of the hepatic insulin-signaling pathway, namely IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, was decreased in LGSKO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479191/isotopically-nonstationary-13-c-flux-analysis-of-cyanobacterial-isobutyraldehyde-production
#19
Lara J Jazmin, Yao Xu, Yi Ern Cheah, Adeola O Adebiyi, Carl Hirschie Johnson, Jamey D Young
We applied isotopically nonstationary (13)C metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) to compare the pathway fluxes of wild-type (WT) Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to an engineered strain (SA590) that produces isobutyraldehyde (IBA). The flux maps revealed a potential bottleneck at the pyruvate kinase (PK) reaction step that was associated with diversion of flux into a three-step PK bypass pathway involving the enzymes PEP carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and malic enzyme (ME). Overexpression of pk in SA590 led to a significant improvement in IBA specific productivity...
May 4, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423281/moringa-olifera-leaves-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-hepatotoxicity-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Ahmed Shaban, Samy Abd Elaziz
This study was carried out to evaluate the possible mechanisms through which the Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract reveals its hepatoprotective effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Eighty albino rats were assigned into four groups. The control group was given sterile saline. The second group was injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg BW) i.p. The third group was given Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract (250 mg/kg BW) orally daily. The fourth group was injected with alloxan as the second group and administrated Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract as in the third group...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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