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Transglutaminase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454954/preparation-and-characterization-of-c-phycocyanin-peptide-grafted-n-succinyl-chitosan-by-enzyme-method
#1
Wenyan Xu, Yao Xiao, Pengfeng Luo, Lihong Fan
C‑phycocyanin peptide (CPC) grafted N‑succinyl chitosan (NSC) was prepared via the catalysis of Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). The single factor experiment displayed that the degree of substitution (DS) of N‑succinyl chitosan‑C‑phycocyanin peptide (NSC‑CPC) depended on the reaction time, the reaction temperature and the reaction pH value. The CS, synthesized NSC and NSC‑CPC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). NSC‑CPC showed excellent moisture absorption and retention ability...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449533/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-severity-is-modulated-by-transglutaminase-type-2
#2
Mauro Piacentini, Andrea Baiocchini, Franca Del Nonno, Gerry Melino, Nickolai A Barlev, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Laura Falasca
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important liver diseases worldwide. Currently, no effective treatment is available, and NAFLD pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous enzyme whose dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Here we examined the impact of TG2 on NAFLD progression using the high-fat-diet-induced model in both wild-type and TG2-deficient mice. Animals were fed with a standard chow diet or a high-fat diet (42% of the energy from fat) for 16 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431870/a-quarter-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-have-co-existing-non-islet-autoimmunity-the-findings-of-a-uk-population-based-family-study
#3
Aizhan Kozhakhmetova, Rebecca C Wyatt, Claire Caygill, Claire Williams, Anna E Long, Kyla Chandler, Rachel J Aitken, Janet M Wenzlau, Howard W Davidson, Kathleen M Gillespie, Alistair J K Williams
Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk of coeliac disease (CD), autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune gastritis, but the absolute risks are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA), thyroid peroxidase (TPOA), and gastric H+ /K+ -ATPase (ATPA) and their genetic associations in a well-characterised population-based cohort of individuals with T1D from the Bart's-Oxford family study for whom islet autoantibody prevalence data were already available...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424456/characterization-of-paroxysmal-gluten-sensitive-dyskinesia-in-border-terriers-using-serological-markers
#4
M Lowrie, O A Garden, M Hadjivassiliou, D S Sanders, R Powell, L Garosi
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422338/linear-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-6-d-glucan-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-bim-%C3%B0-733d-is-low-molecular-mass-biopolymer-with-unique-immunochemical-properties
#5
Elena P Kiseleva, Konstantin I Mikhailopulo, Evelina L Zdorovenko, Yuriy A Knirel, Galina I Novik
Role of microorganisms in induction of/protection from autoimmune diseases is proven though molecular mechanisms and bacterial/viral/yeast biopolymers responsible for these effects are in the research stage. Autoantobodies (AAbs) to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) as well as AAbs to transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) and antibodies to gliadins (anti-gliadins) are serological markers of autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease, respectively, and players in pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases...
December 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382685/proteomic-profiling-reveals-the-transglutaminase-2-externalization-pathway-in-kidneys-after-unilateral-ureteric-obstruction
#6
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374703/transglutaminase-2-regulates-self-renewal-and-stem-cell-marker-of-human-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Sanghee Kang, Sang Cheul Oh, Byung Wook Min, Dae-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) in colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the TU12 cell line possessing CD133-expressing CCSCs. After isolating CD133 (-) and CD133 (+) CCSCs, we overexpressed and knocked-down TGM2 to investigate its role in human CCSCs. RESULTS: The expression level of TGM2 was 25-fold higher in tumorigenic cells than non-tumorigenic cells...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355739/nicotine-induces-apoptosis-in-human-osteoblasts-via-a-novel-mechanism-driven-by-h2o2-and-entailing-glyoxalase-1-dependent-mg-h1-accumulation-leading-to-tg2-mediated-nf-kb-desensitization-implication-for-smokers-related-osteoporosis
#8
Lorella Marinucci, Stefania Balloni, Katia Fettucciari, Maria Bodo, Vincenzo N Talesa, Cinzia Antognelli
Nicotine contained in cigarette smoke contributes to the onset of several diseases, including osteoporosis, whose emerging pathogenic mechanism is associated with osteoblasts apoptosis. Scanty information is available on the molecular mechanisms of nicotine on osteoblasts apoptosis and, consequently, on an important aspect of the pathogenesis of smokers-related osteoporosis. Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is the detoxification enzyme of methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), potent pro-apoptotic agents...
January 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352658/role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-the-development-of-renal-fibrosis-in-mouse-obstructed-kidney-special-references-to-hif-1-dependent-gene-expression-of-profibrogenic-molecules
#9
Kazuya Kabei, Yu Tateishi, Masakazu Nozaki, Masako Tanaka, Masayuki Shiota, Mayuko Osada-Oka, Shunji Nishide, Junji Uchida, Tatsuya Nakatani, Shuhei Tomita, Katsuyuki Miura
The aim of the study is to clarify the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in the development of renal fibrosis in mouse obstructive nephropathy. We used mice with floxed HIF-1α alleles and tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under ubiquitin C promoter to induce global HIF-1α deletion. Following tamoxifen administration, mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). At 3, 7 and 14 days after UUO, renal gene expression profiles and interstitial fibrosis were assessed. HIF-1 dependent up-regulation of prolyl hydroxylase 3 and glucose transporter-1 was observed in the obstructed kidney at 3 and 7 days but not at 14 days after UUO...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344582/factor-xiii-in-plasma-but-not-in-platelets-mediates-red-blood-cell-retention-in-clots-and-venous-thrombus-size-in-mice
#10
Sravya Kattula, James R Byrnes, Sara M Martin, Lori A Holle, Brian C Cooley, Matthew J Flick, Alisa S Wolberg
The transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) stabilizes clots against mechanical and biochemical disruption and is essential for hemostasis. In vitro and in vivo models of venous thrombosis demonstrate that FXIII mediates clot size by promoting red blood cell (RBC) retention. However, the key source of FXIII and whether FXIII activity can be reduced to suppress thrombosis without imposing deleterious hemostatic consequences are 2 critical unresolved questions. FXIII is present in multiple compartments, including plasma (FXIIIplasma) as a heterotetramer of A2 and B2 subunits and platelets (FXIIIplt) as an A2 homodimer...
January 9, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322079/fibroblast-and-keratinocyte-gene-expression-following-exposure-to-extracts-of-neem-plant-azadirachta-indica
#11
Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R G S Wijesekara
This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name "Kohomba" in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3)...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316635/skin-protective-effect-of-epigallocatechin-gallate
#12
Eunji Kim, Kyeonghwan Hwang, Jongsung Lee, Sang Yun Han, Eun-Mi Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and an abundant polyphenol in green tea. Although several papers have evaluated EGCG as a cosmetic constituent, the skin hydration effect of EGCG is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which EGCG promotes skin hydration by measuring hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, luciferase assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313085/a-long-non-coding-rna-inside-the-type-2-transglutaminase-gene-tightly-correlates-with-the-expression-of-its-transcriptional-variants
#13
Linda Minotti, Federica Baldassari, Marco Galasso, Stefano Volinia, Carlo M Bergamini, Nicoletta Bianchi
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are matter of intense investigation as potential regulators of gene expression. In the case of the transglutaminase 2 gene (TGM2) the databases of genome sequence indicate location of a lncRNA (LOC107987281) within the first intron. This lncRNA is 1000 bp long, arises from 2 exons and starts few nucleotides 3' of the first splicing site of translated TGM2. We have analysed correlations between expression of LOC107987281 lncRNA and TGM2 mRNA by real-time PCR in K562 cell line untreated or treated with the anticancer drugs TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), Docetaxel and Doxorubicin...
January 8, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305423/endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-protein-57-erp57-oxidatively-inactivates-human-transglutaminase-2
#14
Michael C Yi, Arek V Melkonian, James A Ousey, Chaitan Khosla
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed, intracellular as well as extracellular protein with multiple modes of posttranslational regulation, including an allosteric disulfide bond between Cys370-Cys371 that renders the enzyme inactive in the extracellular matrix. Although recent studies have established that extracellular TG2 is switched "on" by the redox cofactor protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX), it is unclear how TG2 is switched "off". Here, we demonstrate that TG2 oxidation by biological small-molecule biological oxidants, including glutathione, cystine, and hydrogen peroxide, is unlikely to be the inactivation mechanism...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302503/celiac-disease-in-south-jordan
#15
Eyad Altamimi
Purpose: Celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by exposure to gluten, is not uncommon in South Jordan. However, its prevalence is underestimated due to lack of physician awareness of the diversity of disease presentation. The clinical spectrum includes classic gastrointestinal manifestations, as well as rickets, iron-deficiency anemia, short stature, elevated liver enzymes, and edema. Our goal was to evaluate celiac disease presentation in clinically diagnosed children. Methods: Retrospective study included all children diagnosed with celiac disease between September 2009 and September 2015...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301592/transglutaminase-2-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-lung-cancer-cells
#16
Hung-Tsung Lee, Cheng-Hsieh Huang, Wuan-Chun Chen, Chi-Shan Tsai, Yu-Lin Chao, Szu-Han Liu, Jun-Hong Chen, Yi-Ying Wu, Yi-Ju Lee
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Given that the major threat of cancer is metastasis, delineation of the molecular mechanism underlying it would help devise therapeutic strategies. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), belonging to the transglutaminase superfamily, is a versatile protein with enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions. It mainly localizes inside the cell, but also appears extracellularly. Recent findings have demonstrated the involvement of TG2 in cancer development. Here we examine the role of TG2 in metastasis of lung cancer using a lung cancer cell line CL1-0 which exhibits low invasiveness, and its invasive subline CL1-5...
January 4, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286587/designing-novel-dual-transglutaminase-2-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-effective-in-halting-neuronal-death
#17
Manuela Basso, Huan Huan Chen, Debasmita Tripathy, Mariarosaria Conte, Kim Y P Apperley, Angela De Simone, Jeffrey W Keillor, Rajiv Ratan, Angela Nebbioso, Federica Sarno, Lucia Altucci, Andrea Milelli
In recent years there has been a clear consensus that neurodegenerative conditions can be better treated through concurrent modulation of different targets. Herein, we report that combined inhibition of Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) protects synergistically against toxic stimuli mediated by glutamate. Based on these findings, we designed and synthesized a series of novel dual TG2-HDAC binding agents. Compound 3 emerges as the most interesting of the series being able to inhibit TG2 and HDACs both in vitro (TG2, IC50 = 13...
December 29, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277903/impact-of-food-processing-and-simulated-gastro-intestinal-digestion-on-gliadin-immunoreactivity-in-rolls
#18
Bartosz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic modification of wheat proteins during dough fermentation, and its digestion supported by peptidases of microbiological origin can cause degradation of important peptides in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. However, baking bread and the high temperature associated with could change a physicochemical and immunological properties of proteins. Thermal changes in spatial structure of proteins and its hydrolysis can lead to masking or degrading immunoreactive peptides...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275927/e-healthcare-for-celiac-disease-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Sabine Vriezinga, Annelise Borghorst, Elske van den Akker-van Marle, Marc Benninga, Elvira George, Danielle Hendriks, Erica Hopman, Tim de Meij, Andrea van der Meulen-de Jong, Hein Putter, Edmond Rings, Maaike Schaart, Joachim Schweizer, Margot Smit, Merit Tabbers, Michel Weijerman, Margreet Wessels, M Luisa Mearin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness of online consultations in follow-up of patients with celiac disease (CD). STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter randomized, controlled trial involving 304 patients aged ≤25 years with CD for ≥1 year, randomized to an online (n = 156) or outpatient consultation (n = 148). An online consultation included questionnaires for symptom and growth measurement. Antitransglutaminase-type-2 antibodies were determined using a point-of-care (POC) test...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273062/enhanced-expressions-of-neurodegeneration-associated-factors-ups-impairment-and-excess-a%C3%AE-accumulation-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice-with-persistent-cerebral-toxocariasis
#20
Chia-Mei Chou, Yueh-Lun Lee, Chien-Wei Liao, Ying-Chieh Huang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease mainly caused by Toxocara canis. Humans can be infected by accidental ingestion of T. canis embryonated ovum-contaminated food, water, or encapsulated larvae in paratenic hosts' viscera or meat. Since humans and mice are paratenic hosts of T. canis, the wandering larvae might cause mechanical tissue damage and excretory-secretory antigens may trigger inflammatory injuries to local organs. Long-term residence of T. canis larvae in a paratenic host's brain may cause cerebral toxocariasis (CT) that contributes to cerebral damage, neuroinflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders in mice and clinical patients...
December 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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