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Transglutaminase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242757/differential-gene-transcription-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-response-to-in-vivo-corneal-crosslinking-cxl-in-rabbit-corneas
#1
Sabine Kling, Arthur Hammer, Emilio A Torres Netto, Farhad Hafezi
Purpose: We studied changes in gene transcription after corneal crosslinking (CXL) in the rabbit cornea in vivo and identified potential molecular signaling pathways. Methods: A total of 15 corneas of eight male New-Zealand-White rabbits were de-epithelialized and equally divided into five groups. Group 1 served as an untreated control. Groups 2 to 5 were soaked with 0.1% riboflavin for 20 minutes, which in Groups 3 to 5 was followed by UV-A irradiation at a fluence of 5...
December 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242118/activation-of-transglutaminase-2-by-nerve-growth-factor-in-differentiating-neuroblastoma-cells-a-role-in-cell-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth
#2
Alanood S Algarni, Alan J Hargreaves, John M Dickenson
NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239690/antibody-drug-conjugates-design-and-development-for-therapy-and-imaging-in-and-beyond-cancer-labex-mabimprove-industrial-workshop-july-27-28-2017-tours-france
#3
Camille Martin, Claire Kizlik-Masson, André Pèlegrin, Hervé Watier, Marie-Claude Viaud-Massuard, Nicolas Joubert
The annual "Antibody Industrial Symposium", co organized by LabEx MAbImprove, MabDesign and Polepharma, was held in Tours, France on June 27-28, 2017. The focus was on antibody-drug-conjugates (ADCs), new entities which realize the hope of Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet. ADCs result from the bioconjugation of a highly cytotoxic drug to a selective monoclonal antibody, which acts as a vector. Building on knowledge gained during the development of three approved ADCs, brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®), ado trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla®) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa®), and the many ADCs in development, this meeting addressed strategies and the latest innovations in the field from fundamental research to manufacturing...
December 14, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222550/tissue-transglutaminase-elevates-intraocular-pressure-in-mice
#4
Urmimala Raychaudhuri, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is elevated in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. We investigated whether increased expression of TGM2 increases extracellular matrix crosslinking in the TM, thereby increasing aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) in mouse eyes. Methods: GTM3, primary human GTM 125-05, and cultured mouse TM cells were transduced with adenovirus serotype 5 expressing human transglutaminase 2 (Ad5...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210921/celiac-disease-by-the-age-of-13-years-is-not-associated-with-probiotics-administration-in-infancy
#5
Emma Merike Savilahti, Jorma Ilonen, Anna Kaarina Kukkonen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen
Probiotics are theoretically promising in primary prevention of celiac disease (CD), but research evidence on the topic is scarce. We used the data and material of a clinical double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on primary allergy prevention (n = 1223) to investigate in an exploratory study whether administration of a mix of pro- and prebiotics during late pregnancy and first 6 months of life was associated with prevalence of CD during 13-year follow-up. Children who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for CD (n = 11) and subjects with a serum sample available for analyzing CD-antibodies (n = 867) were included...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208472/role-of-transglutaminase-2-in-a1-adenosine-receptor-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-mediated-pharmacological-pre-and-post-conditioning-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cell-death-in-h9c2-cells
#6
Falguni S Vyas, Carl P Nelson, John M Dickenson
Pharmacologically-induced pre- and post-conditioning represent attractive therapeutic strategies to reduce ischaemia/reperfusion injury during cardiac surgery and following myocardial infarction. We have previously reported that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activity is modulated by the A1 adenosine receptor and β2-adrenoceptor in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The primary aim of this study was to determine the role of TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor and β2-adrenoceptor-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning in the H9c2 cells...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205566/transglutaminase-type-2-plays-a-key-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
I Palucci, I Matic, L Falasca, M Minerva, G Maulucci, M De Spirito, E Petruccioli, D Goletti, F Rossin, M Piacentini, G Delogu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the aetiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is capable of interfering with the phagosome maturation pathway, by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion and the autophagic process to ensure survival and replication in macrophages. Thus, it has been proposed that the modulation of autophagy may represent a therapeutic approach to reduce MTB viability by enhancing its clearance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is involved in the pathogenesis of MTB...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204051/intestinal-epithelium-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-the-gut-microbiota-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-celiac-disease
#8
REVIEW
Bożena Cukrowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Joanna Beata Bierła, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Anna Rybak, Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Before activating the immune system, gluten peptides are transferred by the epithelial barrier to the mucosal lamina propria, where they are deamidated by intestinal tissue transglutaminase 2. As a result, they strongly bind to human leucocyte antigens (HLAs), especially HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. This induces an inflammatory response, which results in small bowel enteropathy...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198166/improvement-of-the-activity-and-thermostability-of-microbial-transglutaminase-by-multiple-site-mutagenesis
#9
Dongdong Mu, Jiaojiao Lu, Chang Shu, Haowen Li, Xingjiang Li, Jing Cai, Shuizhong Luo, Peizhou Yang, Shaotong Jiang, Zhi Zheng
Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme widely used in the food industry. Mutiple-site mutagenesis of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase was performed in Escherichia coli. According to enzymatic assay and thermostability study, among three penta-site MTG mutants (DM01-03), DM01 exhibited the highest enzymatic activity of 55.7 ± 1.4 U/mg and longest half-life at 50 °C (418.2 min) and 60 °C (24.8 min).
December 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197584/depletion-of-transglutaminase-2-in-neurons-alters-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-and-signal-transduction-genes-and-compromises-cell-viability
#10
Laura Yunes-Medina, Alex Paciorkowski, Yan Nuzbrokh, Gail V W Johnson
The protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated as a modulator of neuronal viability. TG2's role in mediating cell survival processes has been suggested to involve its ability to alter transcriptional events. The goal of this study was to examine the role of TG2 in neuronal survival and to begin to delineate the pathways it regulates. We show that depletion of TG2 significantly compromises the viability of neurons in the absence of any stressors. RNA sequencing revealed that depletion of TG2 dysregulated the expression of 86 genes with 59 of these being upregulated...
November 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187283/new-insights-into-transglutaminase-2-and-links-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
Boram Min, Kwang Chul Chung
Formation of toxic protein aggregates is a common feature and mainly contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases. The transglutaminase 2 (TG2) gene encodes a multifunctional enzyme, displaying four types of activity, such as transamidation, GTPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase activities. Many studies demonstrated that the calcium-dependent transamidation activity of TG2 affected the formation of insoluble and toxic amyloid aggregates that mainly consisted of NDD-related proteins...
November 29, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182792/ex-vivo-culture-of-duodenal-biopsies-from-patients-with-dermatitis-herpetiformis-indicates-that-transglutaminase-3-antibody-production-occurs-in-the-gut
#12
Minna Hietikko, Kaisa Hervonen, Tuire Ilus, Teea Salmi, Heini Huhtala, Kaija Laurila, Tiina Rauhavirta, Timo Reunala, Katri Kaukinen, Katri Lindfors
Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) are characterized by autoantibodies targeting transglutaminase (TG)2 and TG3, respectively. Previous studies show that TG2 antibodies are produced in the gut and can be assessed in organ culture of small-intestinal biopsies from patients with coeliac disease. Thus far, no studies have investigated TG3 antibodies in organ culture of biopsies from patients with DH, or exploited the method in DH. The aim of this study was to investigate TG3 and TG2 antibody responses in serum and small-intestinal biopsies from patients with DH with active disease, and from those in remission...
November 28, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178246/effects-of-the-antagomirs-15b-and-200b-on-the-altered-healing-pattern-of-diabetic-mice
#13
Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Federica Galfo, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Angelica D'amore, Enrica Pellegrino, Antonio Ieni, Giuseppina T Russo, Marco Calapai, Domenica Altavilla, Francesco Squadrito, Alessandra Bitto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetic subjects with non-healing ulcers have a reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Genetically diabetic mice have an altered expression pattern of VEGF and its receptor, VEGFR-2. In diabetic wounds, miR15b and miR200b which respectively inhibit VEGF and VEGF-R2 mRNAs are up-regulated, further affecting the impaired angiogenesis. We investigated whether anti-miRs directed toward miR15b and miR200b could improve wound repair in genetically diabetic mice...
November 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135820/avoiding-small-intestinal-biopsies-for-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-children-a-reliable-strategy-for-all-patients
#14
Magdalena Araya, Julia Díaz, Amaya Oyarzun, Yalda Lucero, Teresa Alarcon, Mónica González, Paulina Canales, Liliana Fierro, Francisco Pérez-Bravo
BACKGROUND: Current reports applying ESPGHAN exception criteria (EEC) to diagnose celiac disease (CD) without duodenal biopsies indicate that a high percentage of patients with CD may be identified when applied correctly in specialized settings. However, application of the EEC in "daily life conditions" at the different levels of medical services is not clear. METHODS: EEC was applied to 130 pediatric patients evaluated for CD at five public hospitals in Santiago, Chile, during 2010-2015...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112123/down-regulation-of-transglutaminase-2-stimulates-redifferentiation-of-dedifferentiated-chondrocytes-through-enhancing-glucose-metabolism
#15
Kyoung-Won Ko, Bogyu Choi, Sunghyun Park, Yoshie Arai, Won Chul Choi, Joong-Myung Lee, Hojae Bae, In-Bo Han, Soo-Hong Lee
Expansion of chondrocytes for repair of articular cartilage can lead to dedifferentiation, making it difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of chondrocytes. Although previous studies have suggested that culture in a three-dimensional environment induces redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes, its underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood in terms of metabolism compared with a two-dimensional environment. In this study, we demonstrate that attenuation of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a multifunctional enzyme, stimulates redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109091/transcriptomic-profiling-of-mda-mb-231-cells-exposed-to-boswellia-serrata-and-3-o-acetyl-b-boswellic-acid-er-upr-mediated-programmed-cell-death
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mazzio, Charles A Lewis, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of hormone receptors (estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) and a relatively poor prognosis due to inefficacy of hormone receptor-based chemotherapies. It is imperative that we continue to explore natural products with potential to impede growth and metastasis of TNBC. In this study, we screened over 1,000 natural products for capacity to induce cell death in TNBC (MDA-MB -231) cells...
November 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097276/purification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-transglutaminase-from-mythimna-separata-larvae-noctuidae-lepidoptera
#17
Lei Zhang, Wenbing Rao, Solange Muhayimana, Xianfei Zhang, Jiuyong Xu, Ciying Xiao, Qingchun Huang
A novel transglutaminase (MsTGase) from Mythimna separata larvae was separated and purified; its biochemical property and enzymatic catalytic activities were investigated. MsTGase was obtained chromatographically by the precipitation of Sephadex G-100 gel and DEAE-Cellulose-52 ion-exchange column with 48-fold purification and a reproducible yield of approximately 12%. Molecular weight of the MsTGase was 63.5 KDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was GKIEEG-LVI. Michaelis constant of the MsTGase for the substrate N-CBZ-Gln-Gly was 12...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089856/pepsin-assisted-transglutaminase-modification-of-%C3%A2-functional-properties-of-a-protein-isolate-obtained-%C3%A2-from-industrial-sunflower-meal
#18
Petya Ivanova, Vesela I Chalova, Hristo Kalaydzhiev, Mariana Perifanova-Nemska, Turid Rustad, Lidia Koleva
The utilization of industrial sunflower meal to produce protein-rich products for the food industry is an alternative approach for better and more efficient use of this agricultural by-product. Sunflower meal proteins possess specific functional properties, which however need improvement to broaden their potential as supplements for delivering high--quality products for human nutrition. The aim of the study is to evaluate the combined influence of low-degree pepsin hydrolysis and transglutaminase (TG) modification on industrial sunflower meal protein isolate functionality at pH=2 to 10...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080168/determination-of-transglutaminase-activity-in-plants
#19
S Del Duca, P L R Bonner, I Aloisi, D Serafini-Fracassini, G Cai
Transglutaminase (TGase:E.C. 2.3.2.13) catalyzes the acyl-transfer reaction between one or two primary amino groups of polyamines and protein-bound Gln residues giving rise to post-translational modifications. One increasing the positive charge on a proteins surface and the other results in the covalent crosslinking of proteins. Pioneering studies on TGase in plants started in the middle of the 1980's but the methodology designed for use with animal extracts was not directly applicable to plant extracts. Here we describe radioactive and colorimetric methods adapted to study plant TGase, as well as protocols to analyze the involvement of TGase and polyamines in the functionality of cytoskeletal proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072680/transglutaminase-2-mediates-uv-induced-skin-inflammation-by-enhancing-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#20
Seok-Jin Lee, Ki Baek Lee, Young Hoon Son, Jiwoong Shin, Jin-Haeng Lee, Hyo-Jun Kim, Ah-Young Hong, Hee Won Bae, Mee-Ae Kwon, Won Jong Lee, Jin-Hee Kim, Dong Hun Lee, Eui Man Jeong, In-Gyu Kim
UV irradiation elicits acute inflammation in the skin by increasing proinflammatory cytokine production in keratinocytes. However, the downstream protein target(s) that link UV radiation to the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cytokine expression have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report a novel role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a member of the TG enzyme family whose activities are critical for cornified envelope formation, in mediating UV-induced inflammation. Our results showed that TG2-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammatory responses to UV irradiation, including reduced erythema, edema, dilation of blood vessels, inflammatory cell infiltration, and levels of inflammatory cytokines...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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