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Transglutaminase 2

Takashi Kojima, Cem Simsek, Ayako Igarashi, Kazue Aoki, Kazunari Higa, Takahiko Shimizu, Murat Dogru, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
Purpose: The superoxide dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1-/-) mouse is an age-related dry eye mouse model. We evaluated the role of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the conjunctiva and ocular surface alterations in Sod1-/- mice. Methods: Rebamipide eye drops (2%) were instilled in six 50-week-old male Sod1-/- mice and six C57BL/6 strain wild-type (WT) male mice four times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity and tear film breakup time measurements as well as vital stainings were performed...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Eui Man Jeong, Chun Zi Jin, Ji Hyun Jang, Zai Hao Zhao, Chun Li Jin, Jin Hang Lee, Ki Baek Lee, Sung Joon Kim, In-Gyu Kim, Yin Hua Zhang
The myocardium in hypertensive heart exhibits decreased fatty acid utilization and contractile dysfunction, leading to cardiac failure. However, the causal relationship between metabolic remodeling and cardiomyocyte contractility remains unestablished. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been known to promote ATP production through the regulation of mitochondrial function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of TG2 in cardiomyocyte contraction under fatty acid supplementation. Using TG2 inhibitor and TG2-deficient mice, we demonstrated that fatty acid supplementation activated TG2 and increased ATP level and contractility of cardiac myocyte from the normal heart...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Ankit Chhoda, Deepanshu Jain, Mradul Kumar Daga, Vineeta Batra
We report a rare case of secondary renal amyloidosis in a patient with probable celiac disease presenting as nephrotic syndrome. A 30-year-old man with chronic diarrhea presented with progressive anasarca for 2 years. On further evaluation, he had hypoalbuminemia, significant nephrotic-range proteinuria, and elevated levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase. Renal biopsy suggested deposition of amorphous Congo red-positive material in the glomerular mesangium, positive for amyloid A amyloidosis. Endoscopic duodenal biopsy suggested blunting of the villous architecture and chronic inflammation of the lamina propria...
2018: ACG Case Reports Journal
William L Willis, Linan Wang, Takuma Tsuzuki Wada, Mark Gardner, Omar Abdouni, Jeffrey Hampton, Giancarlo Valiente, Nicholas Young, Stacy Ardoin, Sudha Agarwal, Michael A Freitas, Lai-Chu Wu, Wael N Jarjour
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-associated protein that in response to stress or injury, translocates from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu where it functions as an alarmin. HMGB1's function is in part determined by the complexes (HMGB1c) it forms with other molecules. However, structural modifications in the HMGB1 polypeptide that may regulate HMGB1c formation have not been previously described. In this report, we observed high-molecular weight, denaturing-resistant HMGB1c in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to a much lesser extent in healthy subjects...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
D Santi Swarupini, Abani K Bhuyan
Arabidopsis thaliana Phloem Protein 16-1 (AtPP16-1) is a 156-residue intrinsically disordered nucleic acid binding protein which is putatively involved in long-distance systemic transport of RNA to budding regions in plants. Dimerization or oligomerization of the protein at pH higher than about 4.1 leaves no apolar surface exposed for interaction with the dye 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS). The most stable monomeric state is found near pH 4 where the structure of the protein is determined to have three short β-strands and a single α-helix...
March 26, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Michael J Lentze, Salvatore Auricchio, Samy Cadranel, Peter J Milla, Deirdre Kelly, Alexander S McNeish, Jean Rey, Jacques Schmitz, Birgitta Strandvik, Jan Taminiau, Jarmo Visakorpi
Thirty-six founding members from Europe were present in 1968, when the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology (ESGA) had its first meeting in Paris. The aim was to create a forum for presentations and discussions of research activities in paediatric gastroenterology in Europe. At the second meeting of ESGA 1969 in Interlaken, an important landmark was set for all gastroenterologists in the world. In this conference, the first ever criteria for "the Diagnosis of Coeliac Disease" (CD) were established...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Paulo C Maffía, Diego Guerrieri, Ximena Villalonga, Fiorella Caro, Sonia Gómez, Nancy Tateosian, Betiana P Bogado, Mercedes L Sánchez, Nella Ambrosi, Eduardo Chuluyan
Secretory Leukocyte Proteinase Inhibitor (SLPI) is an antiinflammatory peptide that blocks the activity of serine proteases, primarily the neutrophil elastase. In an attempt to direct the activity of SLPI on inflamed sites, a chimera consisting of the transglutaminase II substrate domain of trappin 2 (cementoin), and the mature SLPI protein was constructed. Cell attachment and biological activity were compared between SLPI and this chimera. By using whole cell ELISA, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays we observed that the cementoin-SLPI fusion protein (FP) but not SLPI attached to a human lung epithelial cell line and monocytes...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elham Mohammad Zadeh, Sean F O'Keefe, Young-Teck Kim, Jin-Hun Cho
The effects of transglutaminase on soy protein isolate (SPI) film forming solution and films were investigated by rheological behavior and physicochemical properties based on different manufacturing conditions (enzyme treatments, enzyme incubation times, and protein denaturation temperatures). Enzymatic crosslinking reaction and changes in molecular weight distribution were confirmed by viscosity measurement and SDS-PAGE, respectively, compared to 2 controls: the nonenzyme treated and the deactivated enzyme treated...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Michael J Selig, B N Dar, Arkaye Kierulf, Raheleh Ravanfar, Syed S H Rizvi, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Treatment of whey protein isolate (WPI; 1 to 25% w/w) in heated κ-carrageenan (KC; 2% w/w) slurries with protease and/or transglutaminase modulated the properties of the hydrogels formed after cooling. Observation of peak compression stress and strain at gel rupture showed WPI incorporation at 1, 5 and 10% (w/w) significantly reduced the strength and deformability of 2% (w/w) KC gels. Treatment of WPI solutions in KC slurries with Alcalase 2.4L was shown by both SDS-Page and size exclusion HPLC to reduce protein/peptide molecular weight distributions below 10 kDa, with large portions below 1 kDa...
March 26, 2018: Food & Function
Brad Palanski, Chaitan Khosla
The catalytic activity of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a ubiquitously expressed mammalian enzyme, is regulated by multiple post-translational mechanisms. Because elevated activity of TG2 in the extracellular matrix is associated with organ-specific diseases such as celiac disease and renal fibrosis, there is growing therapeutic interest in inhibitors of this enzyme. Cystamine, a symmetric disulfide compound, is one of the earliest reported TG2 inhibitors. Despite its widespread use as a tool compound to block TG2 activity in vitro and in vivo, its mechanism of action has remained unclear...
March 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Breandan R Quinn, Laura Yunes-Medina, Gail V W Johnson
Members of the transglutaminase family catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between a polypeptide-bound glutamine and a low molecular weight amine (e.g., spermidine) or the ɛ-amino group of a polypeptide-bound lysine. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a prominent member of this family, is unique because in addition to being a transamidating enzyme, it exhibits numerous other activities. As a result, TG2 plays a role in many physiological processes, and its function is highly cell type specific and relies upon a number of factors, including conformation, cellular compartment location, and local concentrations of Ca2+ and guanine nucleotides...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
David P Perrault, Athanasios Bramos, Xingtian Xu, Songtao Shi, Alex K Wong
Impaired healing of the skin is a notable cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In diabetic individuals, dysregulated inflammation contributes to delayed wound healing. Specific immunomodulatory agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic wounds. One of these molecules is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.). Although interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, little is known about the local use this drug in cutaneous wound healing...
May 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Germán Errázuriz
INTRODUCTION: Rectal prolapse (RP) is related to an increase of intra-abdominal pressure, pelvic floor disease or anal sphincter. The most common causes of RP are constipation, cystic fibrosis, whooping cough and dysenteric diarrhea. However, celiac disease is not considered among the pathologies re lated to RP. OBJECTIVE: To present a scarcely described association between RP and celiac disease. CLINICAL CASES: We presented 2 preschoolers in whom the reason for consultation was RP, whose study was focused on as prolonged diarrhea, due to the antecedent of pasty consistency of stools...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Hyeon Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: The development of an alternative medicine to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) from natural sources is necessary. AIMS: To improve skin barrier dysfunction by enhancing the differentiation of human keratinocytes with the fermented Scutellaria baicalensis. METHODS: Scutellaria baicalensis was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and extracted with 70% ethanol (FE). Antioxidant activities and the regulation of the gene expression related to keratinocyte differentiation were measured as well as its proliferation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Monica Currò, Tiziana Russo, Nadia Ferlazzo, Daniela Caccamo, Pietro Antonuccio, Salvatore Arena, Saveria Parisi, Patrizia Perrone, Riccardo Ientile, Carmelo Romeo, Pietro Impellizzeri
Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, considered the male genital variant of lichen sclerosus. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in BXO. We evaluated the effects of an innovative formulation of ozonated olive oil with vitamin E acetate (OZOILE® ) on the inflammatory status and tissue remodeling in male children with BXO. The mRNA transcripts of proteins involved either in inflammation or in dynamics of tissue regeneration were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, in foreskins affected by BXO removed from patients untreated or treated with OZOILE® cream for 7 days before circumcision...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nicola Salvarese, Barbara Spolaore, Selena Marangoni, Anna Pasin, Alessandro Galenda, Sergio Tamburini, Gianfranco Cicoria, Fiorenzo Refosco, Cristina Bolzati
An assessment study involving the use of the transglutaminase (TGase) conjugation method and the nitride-technetium-99m labelling on a bis(thiosemicarbazone) (BTS) bifunctional chelating agent is presented. The previously described chelator diacetyl-2-(N4 -methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-(N4 -amino-3-thiosemicarbazone), H2 ATSM/A, has been functionalized with 6-aminohexanoic acid (ε-Ahx) to generate the bifunctional chelating agent diacetyl-2-(N4 -methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-[N4 -(amino)-(6-aminohexanoic acid)-3-thiosemicarbazone], H2 ATSM/A-ε-Ahx (1), suitable for conjugation to glutamine (Gln) residues of bioactive molecules via TGase...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Preeti Bharaj, Chunting Ye, Sean Petersen, Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, N Manjunath, Premlata Shankar, Guohua Yi
We have previously reported that overexpression of Programmed Death -1 Homolog (PD-1H) in human monocytes leads to activation and spontaneous secretion of multiple pro inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluate changes in monocytes gene expression after enforced PD-1H expression by gene array. The results show that there are significant alterations in 51 potential candidate genes that relate to immune response, cell adhesion and metabolism. Genes corresponding to pro-inflammatory cytokines showed the highest upregulation, 7, 3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Yang Ding, Pengfei Liu, Shengsheng Zhang, Lin Tao, Jianmin Han
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancies and its survival rate has barely improved over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to screen pathogenic genes of OSCC via microarray analysis. The mRNA expression microarray datasets (GSE2280 and GSE3524) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. In GSE2280, there were 22 OSCC samples without metastasis and 5 OSCC samples with lymph node metastasis. In GSE3524, there were 16 OSCC samples and 4 normal tissue samples...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Danish Abdul Aziz, Misha Kahlid, Fozia Memon, Kamran Sadiq
Objective: To determine clinical features and relevant laboratory investigations of patient with celiac disease (CD) and comparing classical celiac disease (CCD) with Non-diarrheal celiac disease (NDCD). Methods: This is a five years retrospective study conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan from January 2010 to December 2015, enrolling children from one year to 15 years of either gender diagnosed as celiac disease in accordance with revised ESPGHAN criteria...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
S Cavelier, A K Dastjerdi, M D McKee, F Barthelat
The most prominent structural components in bone are collagen and mineral. However, bone additionally contains a substantial amount of noncollagenous proteins (most notably of the SIBLING protein family), some of which may act as cohesive/adhesive "binders" for the composite hybrid collagen/mineral scaffolding, whether in the bulk phase of bone, or at its interfaces. One such noncollagenous protein - osteopontin (OPN) - appears to be critical to the deformability and fracture toughness of bone. In the present study, we used a reconstructed synthetic mineral-OPN-mineral interface, and a biogenic (natural tooth dentin) mineral/collagen-OPN-mineral/collagen interface, to measure the fracture toughness of OPN on mineralized substrates...
February 24, 2018: Bone
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