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Transglutaminase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018046/co-occurrence-of-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-autoimmunity
#1
William Hagopian, Hye-Seung Lee, Edwin Liu, Marian Rewers, Jin-Xiong She, Anette-G Ziegler, Åke Lernmark, Jorma Toppari, Stephen S Rich, Jeffrey P Krischer, Henry Erlich, Beena Akolkar, Daniel Agardh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few birth cohorts have prospectively followed development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) autoimmunities to determine timing, extent of co-occurrence, and associated genetic and demographic factors. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, 8676 children at high genetic risk of both diseases were enrolled and 5891 analyzed in median follow-up of 66 months. Along with demographic factors and HLA-DR-DQ, genotypes for HLA-DPB1 and 5 non-HLA loci conferring risk of both T1D and CD were analyzed...
October 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993020/corrigendum-to-crystal-structure-of-human-transglutaminase-2-in-complex-with-adenosine-triphosphate-int-j-biol-macromol-47-2010-190-195
#2
Byeong-Gu Han, Jea-Won Cho, Young Doo Cho, Kyung-Chae Jeong, Soo-Youl Kim, Byung Il Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991835/celiac-disease-diagnosis-without-biopsy-is-a-10x-uln-anti-transglutaminase-result-suitable-for-a-chemiluminescence-method
#3
Giulia Previtali, Lisa Licini, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Antonio Marseglia, Rudi Ravasio, Francesca Nembrini, Salvatore Greco, Aurelio Sonzogni, Giovanna Azzarà, Paolo Ravelli, Maria Grazia Alessio
OBJECTIVES: 2012 ESPGHAN guidelines allow to establish a celiac disease (CD) diagnosis without duodenal biopsy in symptomatic pediatric patients with anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) titers > 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). For some years now, new chemiluminescence immunoassays have been made available: it is important to establish the clinical performance of anti-tTG and to determine the cut-off best suited to predict Marsh ≥ 2 in order to avoid gastrointestinal endoscopy not only in children, but also in the adult population...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985731/screening-for-celiac-disease-in-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-worth-it-or-not
#4
Muhammed Kizilgul, Ozgur Ozcelik, Selvihan Beysel, Hakan Akinci, Seyfullah Kan, Bekir Ucan, Mahmut Apaydin, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that immune factors might have a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inappropriate glycemic control in patients with T2DM is an important risk factor for the occurrence of diabetes complications. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is high in type 1 diabetes mellitus however, there are scarce data about its prevalence in T2DM. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of celiac disease among insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients with inappropriate glycemic control...
October 6, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982193/cysteamine-mediated-clearance-of-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens-in-human-cystic-fibrosis-macrophages
#5
Chandra L Shrestha, Kaivon D Assani, Hannah Rinehardt, Florentina Albastroiu, Shuzhong Zhang, Richard Shell, Amal O Amer, Larry S Schlesinger, Benjamin T Kopp
Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2), which causes the sequestration (accumulation) of essential autophagy initiating proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957946/subcellular-localization-patterns-of-transglutaminase-2-in-astrocytes-and-neurons-are-differentially-altered-by-hypoxia
#6
Laura Yunes-Medina, Julianne Feola, Gail V W Johnson
The multifunctional protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been widely implicated as a modulator of cellular viability. Specifically, TG2 expression is beneficial to neuronal survival following an ischemic injury, whereas the opposite is true in astrocytes. Furthermore, its role in mediating cell death and survival processes has been suggested to be dependent on its subcellular localization. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the subcellular localization patterns of neuronal and astrocytic TG2 in ischemia-relevant conditions...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950706/efficacy-of-a-point-of-care-test-based-on-deamidated-gliadin-peptides-for-the-detection-of-celiac-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Isabel Polanco, Thabata Koester Weber, Eva Martínez-Ojinaga, Manuel Molina, Jesús Sarria
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a point-of-care test (POCT) based on deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) compared to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) criteria diagnosis in the early detection of celiac disease (CD) in pediatric patients. METHODS: One hundred children (≤ 18 years) with suspected CD were selected, including siblings of celiac children that underwent gastroscopy for other gastrointestinal conditions...
September 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943101/inhibition-of-transglutaminase-2-activity-increases-cisplatin-cytotoxicity-in-a-model-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-chemotherapy
#8
Dipak D Meshram, Claire V S Pike, Peter J Coussons
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme whose expression has been found to be altered in numerous studies of apoptosis and cell survival; its activity has been found to be increased in many types of cancer, where it is often over-expressed. Cisplatin has long been used as an effective therapeutic drug to treat numerous cancers. Although its activity is based on cross-linking of DNA, cisplatin may also operate via other mechanisms that involve modification and alteration in the activity of protein and RNA modulators of the cell cycle and apoptotic processes; these mechanisms are less well characterised...
September 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934109/intestinal-production-of-anti-tissue-transglutaminase-2-antibodies-in-patients-with-diagnosis-other-than-celiac-disease
#9
Mariantonia Maglio, Fabiana Ziberna, Rosita Aitoro, Valentina Discepolo, Giuliana Lania, Virginia Bassi, Erasmo Miele, Tarcisio Not, Riccardo Troncone, Renata Auricchio
It has been hypothesized that gluten-dependent production of anti-tissue-transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies may occur only at an intestinal level. We have investigated intestinal production of anti-TG2 antibodies in 136 patients with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. Intestinal deposits of anti-TG2 antibodies were evaluated by immunofluorescence and anti-TG2 antibodies released in organ culture supernatants measured by ELISA. Intestinal antibody libraries were obtained from 10 subjects...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915348/activation-of-factor-xiii-is-accompanied-by-a-change-in-oligomerization-state
#10
Boris A Anokhin, Vilius Stribinskis, William L Dean, Muriel C Maurer
Factor XIII A (FXIIIA) is a member of the transglutaminase enzyme family that cross-links both intra- and extracellular protein substrates. To prevent undesired cross-linking, FXIIIA is expressed as an inactive zymogen and exists intracellularly as an A2 homodimer. In plasma, FXIII A2 is complexed with two protective factor XIII B subunits (A2 B2 ) that dissociate upon activation of the zymogen. Based on limited experimental data, activated FXIII was considered a dimer of two catalytically active A subunits...
September 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914468/the-toxic-alpha-gliadin-peptide-31-43-enters-cells-without-a-surface-membrane-receptor
#11
Paolella Gaetana, Lepretti Marilena, Martucciello Stefania, Nanayakkara Merlin, Auricchio Salvatore, Esposito Carla, Barone Maria Vittoria, Caputo Ivana
Alpha-gliadin peptide 31-43 is considered to be the main peptide responsible for the innate immune response in celiac disease patients. Recent evidence indicates that peptide 31-43 rapidly enters cells and interacts with the early endocytic vesicular compartment. However, the mechanism of its uptake is not completely understood. Our aim is to characterize, isolate and identify possible cell surface proteins involved in peptide 31-43 internalization by Caco-2 cells. In this study, we used a chemical cross-linker to block peptide 31-43 on cell surface proteins, and pulled-down peptide-proteins complexes using antibodies raised against peptide 31-43...
September 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913337/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-celiac-disease
#12
REVIEW
Valli De Re, Raffaella Magris, Renato Cannizzaro
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune and multisystem gluten-related disorder that causes symptoms involving the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. Pathogenesis of CD is only partially known. It had been established that ingestion of gluten proteins present in wheat and other cereals are necessary for the disease and develops in individuals genetically predisposed carrying the DQ2 or DQ8 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. In this review, we had pay specific attention on the last discoveries regarding the three cellular components mainly involved in the development and maintenance of CD: T-cells, B-cells, and microbioma...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899816/enzyme-crosslinked-gene-activated-matrix-for-the-induction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteochondral-tissue-regeneration
#13
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Hsi-Chin Wu, Chia-Wei Yeh, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Han-Tsung Liao, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Jui-Che Tsai, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
The development of osteochondral tissue engineering is an important issue for the treatment of traumatic injury or aging associated joint disease. However, the different compositions and mechanical properties of cartilage and subchondral bone show the complexity of this tissue interface, making it challenging for the design and fabrication of osteochondral graft substitute. In this study, a bilayer scaffold is developed to promote the regeneration of osteochondral tissue within a single integrated construct...
September 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889146/celiac-disease-in-saudi-children-evaluation-of-clinical-features-and-diagnosis
#14
Anjum Saeed, Asaad Assiri, Hebah Assiri, Anhar Ullah, Mohsin Rashid
 Objectives: To characterize the clinical presentations and diagnosis including serological tests and histopathological findings in children with celiac disease. Methods: All children (less than 18 years) with confirmed celiac disease diagnosed over a 6 year period at a private tertiary care health care center in Riyadh,  Saudi Arabia were studied retrospectively. Information collected included demographics, clinical presentation and diagnostic modalities with serology and small intestinal histology reported by Marsh grading...
September 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886934/transglutaminase-6-antibodies-in-gluten-neuropathy
#15
Panagiotis Zis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Pascale Aeschlimann, Daniel P Aeschlimann, David Sanders, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: TG6 antibodies have been shown to be a marker of gluten ataxia but their presence in the context of other neurological manifestations of gluten sensitivity has not been explored. We investigated the presence of TG6 antibodies in gluten neuropathy (GN), defined as as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy associated with serological markers of gluten sensitivity (one or more of antigliadin IgG and/or IgA, endomysial and transglutaminase-2 antibodies). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Sheffield Institute of Gluten Related Diseases, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK...
August 10, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880274/the-functional-relationship-between-transglutaminase-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-in-the-regulation-of-angiogenesis-and-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition
#16
Zhuo Wang, Mileidys Perez, Eun-Seo Lee, Soichi Kojima, Martin Griffin
The importance of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in angiogenesis has been highlighted in recent studies, but other roles of this multi-functional enzyme in endothelial cell (EC) function still remains to be fully elucidated. We previously showed that the extracellular TG2 is involved in maintaining tubule formation in ECs by a mechanism involving matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling. Here, by using the ECs and fibroblast co-culture and ECs 3D culture models, we demonstrate a further role for TG2 in both endothelial tubule formation and in tubule loss, which involves its role in the regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and Smad signalling...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878266/transglutaminase-2-regulates-osteoclast-differentiation-via-a-blimp1-dependent-pathway
#17
Woo-Shin Kim, Haemin Kim, Eui Man Jeong, Hyung Joon Kim, Zang Hee Lee, In-Gyu Kim, Hong-Hee Kim
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) performs multiple reactions, including transamidation, and also plays a role in signal transduction as a GTP-binding protein. In this study, we reveal that TG2 controls osteoclast differentiation and bone homeostasis in mice. Osteoclasts specifically expressed the TG2 isoform among eight TG family members. Suppression in TG2 expression with siRNA led to increased osteoclast formation from primary mouse precursor cells in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878138/stereotyped-antibody-responses-target-posttranslationally-modified-gluten-in-celiac-disease
#18
Omri Snir, Xi Chen, Moriah Gidoni, M Fleur du Pré, Yuguang Zhao, Øyvind Steinsbø, Knut Ea Lundin, Gur Yaari, Ludvig M Sollid
The role of B cells and posttranslational modifications in pathogenesis of organ-specific immune diseases is increasingly envisioned but remains poorly understood, particularly in human disorders. In celiac disease, transglutaminase 2-modified (TG2-modified; deamidated) gluten peptides drive disease-specific T cell and B cell responses, and antibodies to deamidated gluten peptides are excellent diagnostic markers. Here, we substantiate by high-throughput sequencing of IGHV genes that antibodies to a disease-specific, deamidated, and immunodominant B cell epitope of gluten (PLQPEQPFP) have biased and stereotyped usage of IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-15 gene segments with modest somatic mutations...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877470/strong-clonal-relatedness-between-serum-and-gut-iga-despite-different-plasma-cell-origins
#19
Rasmus Iversen, Omri Snir, Maria Stensland, José E Kroll, Øyvind Steinsbø, Ilma R Korponay-Szabó, Knut E A Lundin, Gustavo A de Souza, Ludvig M Sollid
Mucosal antigens induce generation of lamina propria plasma cells (PCs) that secrete dimeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) destined for transport across the epithelium. In addition, blood contains monomeric IgA. To study the relationship between mucosal and systemic antibody responses, we took advantage of celiac disease patient samples for isolation of gut PCs as well as serum IgA and IgG reactive with a gluten-derived peptide or the autoantigen transglutaminase 2. Proteomic analysis of serum IgA revealed antigen-specific V-gene preferences, which matched those found in gut PCs...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866981/carpal-spasm-in-a-girl-as-initial-presentation-of-celiac-disease-a-case-report
#20
Atifete Ramosaj-Morina, A Keka-Sylaj, V Hasbahta, A Baloku-Zejnullahu, M Azemi, R Zunec
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder elicited by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. This disorder is characterized by specific histological changes of the small intestine mucosa resulting in malabsorption. This case was written up as it was an unusual and dramatic presentation of celiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 3-year-old Albanian girl who presented at our clinic with carpal spasms and hand paresthesia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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