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cognitive behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821668/sensory-biased-and-multiple-demand-processing-in-human-lateral-frontal-cortex
#1
Abigail L Noyce, Nishmar Cestero, Samantha W Michalka, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, David C Somers
The functionality of much of human lateral frontal cortex (LFC) has been characterized as 'multiple demand' as these regions appear to support a broad range of cognitive tasks. In contrast to this domain-general account, recent evidence indicates that portions of LFC are consistently selective for sensory modality. Michalka et al. (2015) reported two bilateral regions that are biased for visual attention, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), interleaved with two bilateral regions that are biased for auditory attention, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821657/fronto-parietal-structural-connectivity-in-childhood-predicts-development-of-functional-connectivity-and-reasoning-ability-a-large-scale-longitudinal-investigation
#2
Carter Wendelken, Emilio Ferrer, Simona Ghetti, Stephen Bailey, Laurie Cutting, Silvia A Bunge
Prior research points to a positive concurrent relationship between reasoning ability and both fronto-parietal structural connectivity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (e.g. Tamnes et al., 2010), and fronto-parietal functional connectivity, as measured by fMRI (e.g. Cocchi et al., 2014). Further, recent research demonstrates a link between reasoning ability and functional connectivity of two brain regions in particular: rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (Wendelken et al...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#3
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819922/therapeutic-alliance-client-need-for-approval-and-perfectionism-as-differential-moderators-of-response-to-ehealth-and-traditionally-delivered-treatments-for-comorbid-depression-and-substance-use-problems
#4
Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Amanda L Baker, Kerrin Palazzi, Terry J Lewin, Brian J Kelly
PURPOSE: This study sought to undertake an exploratory analysis of the impact of therapeutic alliance and dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and need for approval) on outcomes for participants receiving therapist-delivered and eHealth interventions for comorbid depression and alcohol/cannabis use problems. These factors have been shown in previous research to moderate response to psychological treatment for depression and related disorders. METHOD: Participants (N = 274) with concurrent depression and alcohol/cannabis misuse were randomized to 10 sessions of therapist-delivered cognitive behavior therapy/motivational interviewing (CBT/MI), computer-delivered CBT/MI with brief therapist assistance (SHADE CBT/MI), or supportive counseling (PCT)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817966/attitudes-and-barriers-to-healthy-diet-and-physical-activity-a-latent-profile-analysis
#5
Christine A Vaughan, Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Tamara Dubowitz
Healthy diet and physical activity (PA) prevent and reduce chronic disease. Social cognitive theory delineates multiple attitudes and barriers that influence these behaviors. Understanding covariation in these attitudes and barriers is complex. We examined whether individuals could be grouped into a small number of categories that are easier to study. Interviews were conducted with 982 adults from two low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in the same city. Social cognitive constructs, including self-efficacy, social norms, and internal and external barriers to diet and exercise, and walking were self-reported...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814807/psychological-impact-of-vehicle-exhaust-exposure-insights-from-an-animal-model
#6
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Hesong Liu, Samina Salim
Air pollution resulting from exhaust emissions of vehicles has risen in the recent years, reportedly causing major adverse effects on the heart, lungs and the brain. Though respiratory and cardiovascular effects of these emissions are well identified, psychological and neurobiological complications of prolonged exposure to vehicle emissions remain unknown. Pro-oxidants are considered as major constituents of vehicle emissions. This is important considering causal link between oxidative stress and behavioral and cognitive impairments...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810998/delayed-diagnosis-of-acromegaly-in-the-context-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-due-to-symptoms-mimicking-known-psychotropic-medication-side-effects
#7
Ray-Bernard Portier, Afshin Afarin, Sara Pope
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is caused by elevated secretion of human growth hormone, which is frequently because of intracranial tumors. This diagnosis is fairly uncommon with an incidence of 3 to 4 cases per million patients per year. We are presenting a case of acromegaly diagnosed in an active duty Chief Petty Officer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 38-year-old male Chief Petty Officer with no previous mental health diagnosis experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms in early 2012 after deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan from 2010 to 2011...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810491/the-body-compassion-scale-development-and-initial-validation
#8
Jennifer K Altman, Ken Linfield, Paul G Salmon, Abbie O Beacham
As the newer mindfulness and acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapies continue to grow, it is important that corresponding valid and reliable assessment tools are developed and evaluated. This article describes the initial development and validation of the body compassion scale. The body compassion scale is a theoretically derived measure designed to bridge the constructs of body image and self-compassion to provide a targeted measure of underlying mindfulness and acceptance-based constructs. Herein, two studies using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and examining subsequent relationships among other health-related constructs in college-age samples are presented...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810422/measurement-invariance-of-intuitive-cancer-risk-perceptions-across-diverse-populations-the-cognitive-causation-and-negative-affect-in-risk-scales
#9
Raymond E Baser, Yuelin Li, Debra Brennessel, M Margaret Kemeny, Jennifer L Hay
Intuitive cancer risk perceptions may inform strategies to motivate cancer prevention behaviors. This study evaluated factor structure and measurement invariance of two new measures of intuitive cancer risk, the Cognitive Causation and Negative Affect in Risk scales. Single- and multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to responses from three diverse samples. The confirmatory factor analysis models fit the data well, with all comparative fit indices (CFI) ≥ 0.94. Items flagged by chi-square difference tests as potentially non-invariant were largely invariant between samples according to practical fit indices (e...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810136/dysfunctional-posttraumatic-cognitions-as-a-mediator-of-symptom-reduction-in-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-with-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Elisa Pfeiffer, Cedric Sachser, Anke de Haan, Dunja Tutus, Lutz Goldbeck
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the change in dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) during Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a mediator of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) reduction in a sample of children and adolescents. METHOD: A bootstrap mediation analysis was performed to investigate the indirect effect of dysfunctional PTC on treatment outcome in a recently completed RCT study with children and adolescents (n = 123; 7-17 years old) that investigated the effectiveness of TF-CBT...
August 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#11
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#12
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805173/latent-traits-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-toward-dimensional-psychiatry
#13
S R Chamberlain, J Stochl, S A Redden, J E Grant
BACKGROUND: The concepts of impulsivity and compulsivity are commonly used in psychiatry. Little is known about whether different manifest measures of impulsivity and compulsivity (behavior, personality, and cognition) map onto underlying latent traits; and if so, their inter-relationship. METHODS: A total of 576 adults were recruited using media advertisements. Psychopathological, personality, and cognitive measures of impulsivity and compulsivity were completed...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802912/perceptions-of-brain-health-and-cognition-in-older-african-americans-and-caucasians-with-hiv-a-focus-group-study
#14
David E Vance, C Ann Gakumo, Gwendolyn D Childs, Comfort Enah, Pariya L Fazeli
As people age with HIV, cognitive problems may become more prevalent and severe, but lifestyle behaviors (i.e., physical activity) have been shown to protect brain health and cognition. We examined the perceptions that older adults living with HIV have about protecting and improving brain health and cognition through lifestyle behaviors. Qualitative data were analyzed from four focus groups (N = 30) of African Americans and Caucasians living with HIV and at least 50 years of age. An open-coding scheme using conventional content analysis was employed...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801973/cognitive-functioning-in-children-with-self-limited-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Steven Wickens, Stephen C Bowden, Wendyl D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: It is now well appreciated that benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS, or more recently, ECTS) is associated with a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Despite our improved understanding of cognitive functioning in ECTS, there have been to date no efforts to quantitatively synthesize the available literature within a comprehensive cognitive framework. METHODS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines...
August 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800717/multidimensional-inventory-of-hypochondriacal-traits-an-examination-of-a-bifactor-model-and-measurement-invariance-between-those-with-and-without-a-self-reported-medical-condition
#16
Joseph R Bardeen, Thomas A Fergus
The Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondriacal Traits (MIHT) is a self-report measure that assesses four interrelated domains of health anxiety (i.e., Cognitive, Behavioral, Perceptual, Affective). Prior research has supported a correlated four-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model, in which each of the four factors load onto the higher order health anxiety construct. However, a bifactor modeling approach has yet to be used to examine the factor structure of the MIHT. Results supported a bifactor model of the MIHT in three different samples (i...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798009/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-brief-web-and-mobile-phone-intervention-for-men-with-depression-men-s-positive-coping-strategies-and-associated-depression-resilience-and-work-and-social-functioning
#17
Andrea Susan Fogarty, Judy Proudfoot, Erin Louise Whittle, Janine Clarke, Michael J Player, Helen Christensen, Kay Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression...
August 10, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797847/cytokine-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-symptom-clusters-in-oncology-patients-undergoing-radiation-therapy
#18
Christine Miaskowski, Yvette P Conley, Judy Mastick, Steven M Paul, Bruce A Cooper, Jon D Levine, Mitchell Knisely, Kord M Kober
CONTEXT: Most of the reviews on the biological basis for symptom clusters suggest that inflammatory processes are involved in the development and maintenance of the symptom clusters. However, no studies have evaluated for associations between genetic polymorphisms and common symptom clusters (e.g., mood disturbance, sickness behavior). OBJECTIVES: Examine the associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and the severity of three distinct symptom clusters (i...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793983/how-do-ehealth-programs-for-adolescents-with-depression-work-a-realist-review-of-persuasive-system-design-components-in-internet-based-psychological-therapies
#19
Lori Wozney, Anna Huguet, Kathryn Bennett, Ashley D Radomski, Lisa Hartling, Michele Dyson, Patrick J McGrath, Amanda S Newton
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorders are common among adolescents and can impact all aspects of their daily life. Traditional therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) have been delivered face-to-face. However, Internet-based (online) delivery of these therapies is emerging as an option for adolescents. Internet-based CBT and IPT involve therapeutic content, interaction between the user and the system, and different technological features embedded into the online program (eg, multimedia)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793975/infant-gut-microbiome-associated-with-cognitive%C3%A2-development
#20
Alexander L Carlson, Kai Xia, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Barbara D Goldman, Mihye Ahn, Martin A Styner, Amanda L Thompson, Xiujuan Geng, John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer
BACKGROUND: Studies in rodents provide compelling evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut influence neurodevelopment. In particular, experimental manipulations that alter intestinal microbiota impact exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. In humans, the first years of life are a dynamic time in gut colonization and brain development, but little is known about the relationship between these two processes. METHODS: We tested whether microbial composition at 1 year of age is associated with cognitive outcomes using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and with global and regional brain volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 2 years of age...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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