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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029324/cadmium-exposure-impairs-cognition-and-olfactory-memory-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Hao Wang, Liang Zhang, Glen M Abel, Daniel R Storm, Zhengui Xia
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of high interest to the Superfund Initiative. Recent epidemiology studies have suggested a possible association between Cd exposure and cognitive as well as olfactory impairments in humans. However, studies in animal models are needed to establish a direct causal relationship between Cd exposure and impairments in cognition and olfaction. This study aims to investigate the toxic effect of Cd on cognition and olfactory function in mice. One group of 8-week old C57BL/6 male mice was exposed to 3 mg/L Cd (in the form of CdCl2) through drinking water for 20 weeks for behavior tests and final blood Cd concentration analysis...
September 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#2
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#3
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024490/categorization-of-abuse-potential-related-adverse-events
#4
Edward M Sellers, Myroslava K Romach
All drugs with central nervous system activity must undergo an assessment of their abuse potential, and these data must be included in a New Drug Application. Part of this assessment is an analysis of treatment-emergent adverse events that occur during clinical development. Using an iterative consensus strategy, we evaluated and grouped an available list of 213 flag terms for abuse potential from the Food and Drug Administration, into categories and assessed the relevance of the terms to primary abuse behavior...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018318/electrophysiological-correlates-of-change-detection-during-delayed-matching-task-a-comparison-of-different-references
#5
Tengfei Liang, Zhonghua Hu, Yuchen Li, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu
Detecting the changed information between memory representation and incoming sensory inputs is a fundamental cognitive ability. By offering the promise of excellent temporal resolution, event-related potential (ERP) technique has served as a primary tool for studying this process with reference of the linked mastoid (LM). However, given that LM may distort the ERP signals, it is still undetermined whether LM is the best reference choice. The goal of the current study was to systematically compare LM, reference electrode standardization technique (REST) and average reference (AR) for assessing the ERP correlates of change detection during a delayed matching task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016937/screening-for-insomnia-an-observational-study-examining-sleep-disturbances-headache-characteristics-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-visiting-a-headache-center
#6
Olivia Begasse de Dhaem, Elizabeth Seng, Mia T Minen
Objective: Effective treatments for insomnia exist, but few physicians treating headaches have routine methods for screening for insomnia. We sought to 1) describe the migraine characteristics and comorbid conditions that can affect sleep and 2) assess their relationships with positive screens on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of the migraine and sleep characteristics of new patients in our headache center (August 15, 2015-October 28, 2015) who were suspected of having migraines based on the new patient intake questionnaire...
July 21, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016275/effectiveness-of-psychoanalytic-interactional-group-therapy-vs-behavioral-group-therapy-in-routine-outpatient-treatment-of-alcohol-dependent-patients
#7
Peter W Nyhuis, Eva Niederhofer, Norbert Scherbaum, Fabrizio Schifano, Udo Bonnet, Nikolai Dembski, Anna Niederhofer, Michael Specka, Meike Tenbergen
BACKGROUND: The cognitive behavioral therapy has been extensively investigated to assess relapse prevention rates in patients with alcohol dependence. In contrast, only little is known regarding the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy in relapse prevention, although this treatment is widely used and especially so in Germany. The aim of this quasi-randomized study was to compare the effectiveness of these two group treatments' approaches under the condition of routine outpatient treatment in a non-university hospital...
October 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994307/alert-workplace-from-healthcare-workers-perspective-behavioral-and-environmental-strategies-to-improve-vigilance-and-alertness-in-healthcare-settings
#8
Rana Sagah Zadeh, Mardelle Shepley, Hessam Sadatsafavi, Arthur Hamie Owora, Ana C Krieger
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. BACKGROUND: Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. METHOD: We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993969/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-and-swimming-exercise-protects-against-cognitive-decline-a-study-on-m1-acetylcholine-receptors-in-aging-male-rat-brain
#9
Satpati Abhijit, Muthangi V V Subramanyam, Sambe Asha Devi
Decline in cognition is one of the earliest signs of normal brain aging. Several dietary and non-pharmacological approaches have been tested to slow down this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) either individually or in combination with swimming training on acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and m1 acetylcholine receptor (m1AChR) on the extent of cognitive decline with aging. The experimental protocol included the oral administration of GSPE (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 weeks to 4 (adult) and 18-month-old (middle-aged) male Wistar rats along with swimming training...
October 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#10
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#11
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987919/sedentary-behavior-and-anxiety-association-and-influential-factors-among-42-469-community-dwelling-adults-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
D Vancampfort, B Stubbs, M P Herring, M Hallgren, A Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between sedentary behavior (SB) and anxiety, and explored factors that influence this relationship in six low- and middle-income countries. METHOD: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between anxiety and self-reported SB. Potentially influential factors were examined with mediation analysis...
September 29, 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986463/hebbian-learning-in-a-random-network-captures-selectivity-properties-of-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Grace W Lindsay, Mattia Rigotti, Melissa R Warden, Earl K Miller, Stefano Fusi
Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear 'mixed' selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which PFC exhibits computationally-relevant properties such as mixed selectivity and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986206/frequency-dependent-hub-role-of-the-dorsal-and-ventral-right-anterior-insula
#14
Yifeng Wang, Lixia Zhu, Qijun Zou, Qian Cui, Wei Liao, Xujun Duan, Bharat Biswal, Huafu Chen
The right anterior insula (rAI) plays a crucial role in generating adaptive behavior by orchestrating multiple brain networks. Based on functional separation findings of the insula and spectral fingerprints theory of cognitive functions, we hypothesize that the hub role of the rAI is region and frequency dependent. Using the Human Connectome Project dataset and backtracking approach, we segregate the rAI into dorsal and ventral parts at frequency bands from slow 6 to slow 3, indicating the frequency dependent functional separation of the rAI...
October 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985245/heart-rate-variability-and-cognitive-function-in-middle-age-adults-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults
#15
Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Tali Elfassy, Mercedes R Carnethon, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Kristine Yaffe
BACKGROUND: Low heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, has been associated with major risk factors of cognitive impairment. Yet, the direct association of HRV with cognitive function remains relatively unexplored, particularly in midlife. METHODS: In 2005, 2 measures of short-term HRV, the SD of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), were calculated for participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, and then categorized into quartiles...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983279/tinnitus-treatment-with-oxytocin-a-pilot-study
#16
Andreia Aparecida Azevedo, Ricardo Rodrigues Figueiredo, Ana Belen Elgoyhen, Berthold Langguth, Norma De Oliveira Penido, Winfried Schlee
INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. It is a frequent condition for which there is as yet no pharmacological treatment approved. Auditory and non-auditory pathways are involved in tinnitus' pathophysiology. Oxytocin is a neurohormone and eventual neurotransmitter that plays a complex role in social cognition and behavior. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of oxytocin as a tinnitus treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Two studies were performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982708/the-reduction-of-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-grey-matter-volume-correlates-with-loss-of-economic-rationality-in-aging
#17
Hui-Kuan Chung, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul Glimcher
The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow and there is mounting evidence that as humans age, they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole brain voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982531/parental-perception-of-comorbidities-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome
#18
Kelly G Knupp, Sharon Scarbro, Greta Wilkening, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Allison Kempe, Amanda Dempsey
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that children with Dravet syndrome may have additional common features beyond seizures and cognitive impairment. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a survey of caregivers of children with Dravet syndrome to identify and quantify their perception of associated symptoms in this population. METHODS: An electronic survey was developed in REDcap (Research Electronic Data Capture) and sent via e-mail to the participants on the Dravet Syndrome Foundation e-mail list...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981595/x-chromosome-effects-on-attention-networks-insights-from-imaging-resting-state-networks-in-turner-syndrome
#19
Tamar Green, Manish Saggar, Alexandra Ishak, David S Hong, Allan L Reiss
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is strongly affected by sex, but sex chromosomes' effect on brain attention networks and cognition are difficult to examine in humans. This is due to significant etiologic heterogeneity among diagnosed individuals. In contrast, individuals with Turner syndrome (TS), who have substantially increased risk for ADHD symptoms, share a common genetic risk factor related to the absence of the X-chromosome, thus serving as a more homogeneous genetic model. Resting-state functional MRI was employed to examine differences in attention networks between girls with TS (n = 40) and age- sex- and Tanner-matched controls (n = 33)...
July 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981308/individual-differences-case-studies-of-rodent-and-primate-intelligence
#20
Louis D Matzel, Bruno Sauce
Early in the 20th century, individual differences were a central focus of psychologists. By the end of that century, studies of individual differences had become far less common, and attention to these differences played little role in the development of contemporary theory. To illustrate the important role of individual differences, here we consider variations in intelligence as a compelling example. General intelligence (g) has now been demonstrated in at least 2 distinct genera: primates (including humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and tamarins) and rodents (mice and rats)...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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