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cognitive behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088652/convergence-of-interoception-emotion-and-social-cognition-a-twofold-fmri-meta-analysis-and-lesion-approach
#1
Federico Adolfi, Blas Couto, Fabian Richter, Jean Decety, Jessica Lopez, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Agustín Ibáñez
Guided by indirect evidence, recent approaches propose a tripartite crosstalk among interoceptive signaling, emotional regulation, and low-level social cognition. Here we examined the neurocognitive convergence of such domains. First, we performed three meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to identify which areas are consistently coactivated by these three systems. Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) revealed major overlaps in the right anterior insular and frontotemporal regions (viz...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088506/linguistic-indicators-of-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain
#2
Doerte U Junghaenel, Stefan Schneider, Joan E Broderick
: The present study examined markers of pain catastrophizing in the word use of patients with chronic pain. Patients (n = 71) completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and wrote about their life with pain. Quantitative word count analysis examined whether the essays contained linguistic indicators of catastrophizing. Bivariate correlations showed that catastrophizing was associated with greater use of first person singular pronouns, such as "I" (r = .27, p≤ .05) and pronouns referencing other people (r = 28, p≤ ...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#3
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079460/development-of-a-version-of-the-self-ordered-pointing-task-a-working-memory-task-for-brazilian-preschoolers
#4
Isabela Sallum, Fernanda Gomes da Mata, Nathália Falcone Cheib, Charles W Mathias, Débora Marques Miranda, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz
OBJECTIVE: Working memory is a fundamental cognitive function and is predictive of outcomes and achievement in a wide range of domains from an early age. The focus of this study was to develop a computerized Brazilian version of the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) for preschoolers and to provide initial normative and validation data for this task. METHODS: The sample of the present study was composed of 248 children aged 3 (n = 41), 4 (n = 88) and 5 (n = 119) years from 13 private and public schools in Belo Horizonte...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077965/distinct-profiles-of-reactive-and-proactive-aggression-in-adolescents-associations-with-cognitive-and-affective-empathy
#5
Felix Euler, Célia Steinlin, Christina Stadler
BACKGROUND: Aggression comprises a heterogeneous set of behavioral patterns that aim to harm and hurt others. Empathy represents a potential mechanism that inhibits aggressive conduct and enhances prosocial behavior. Nevertheless, research results on the relationship between empathy and aggression are mixed. Subtypes of aggressive behavior, such as reactive and proactive aggression might be differently related to empathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interrelations of cognitive and affective empathy with reactive and proactive aggression...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077832/-frailty-and-its-related-factors-in-vulnerable-elderly-population-by-age-groups
#6
Eunok Park, Mi Yu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate factors affecting frailty by age groups among vulnerable elders in Korea. METHODS: In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 22,868 eldesr registered in the Visiting Health Management program of Publci Health Centers in 2012. Health behaviors, clinically diagnosed disease, frailty, depression and cognitive condition were assessed. Data were analyzed using stepwise regression to determine the associated factors of frailty by age group...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077345/tips-and-traps-lessons-from-codesigning-a-clinician-e-monitoring-tool-for-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#7
Frederick Sundram, Susan J Hawken, Karolina Stasiak, Mathijs Fg Lucassen, Theresa Fleming, Matthew Shepherd, Andrea Greenwood, Raechel Osborne, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) is an acceptable and promising treatment modality for adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression. Many cCBT programs are standalone packages with no way for clinicians to monitor progress or outcomes. We sought to develop an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) tool in consultation with clinicians and adolescents to allow clinicians to monitor mood, risk, and treatment adherence of adolescents completing a cCBT program called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts)...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#8
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077222/prediction-of-relapse-after-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-in-individuals-with-chronic-schizophrenia-a-survival-analysis
#9
Enrique Echeburúa, Montserrat Gómez, Montserrat Freixa
Gambling disorder (GD) in individuals with chronic schizophrenia is relevant because there are higher rates of GD in schizophrenic populations (10%) than in the nonschizophrenic population (1%-5%). In addition, these patients have more severe alcohol use disorder (i.e., meeting at least 6 of the DSM-5 11 criteria for diagnosis of this disorder), higher depression scores, a poor adherence to treatment, and more frequent use of outpatient mental health care. One of the main problems in GD is therapeutic failure (defined as three or more lapse episodes during treatment) or relapse (three or more lapse episodes in the follow-up period)...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077221/interpersonal-problems-predict-differential-response-to-cognitive-versus-behavioral-treatment-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Michelle G Newman, Nicholas C Jacobson, Thane M Erickson, Aaron J Fisher
OBJECTIVE: We examined dimensional interpersonal problems as moderators of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy [CT] and behavioral therapy [BT]). We predicted that people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) whose interpersonal problems reflected more dominance and intrusiveness would respond best to a relaxation-based BT compared to CT or CBT, based on studies showing that people with personality features associated with a need for autonomy respond best to treatments that are more experiential, concrete, and self-directed compared to therapies involving abstract analysis of one's problems (e...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076406/the-development-and-validation-of-the-empathy-components-questionnaire-ecq
#11
Laurie Batchelder, Mark Brosnan, Chris Ashwin
Key research suggests that empathy is a multidimensional construct comprising of both cognitive and affective components. More recent theories and research suggest even further factors within these components of empathy, including the ability to empathize with others versus the drive towards empathizing with others. While numerous self-report measures have been developed to examine empathy, none of them currently index all of these wider components together. The aim of the present research was to develop and validate the Empathy Components Questionnaire (ECQ) to measure cognitive and affective components, as well as ability and drive components within each...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#12
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#13
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073651/i-know-i-ve-seen-you-before-distinguishing-recent-single-exposure-based-familiarity-from-pre-existing-familiarity
#14
Sarah I Gimbel, James B Brewer, Anat Maril
This study examines how individuals differentiate recent-single-exposure-based familiarity from pre-existing familiarity. If these are two distinct cognitive processes, are they supported by the same neural bases? This study examines how recent-single-exposure-based familiarity and multiple-previous-exposure-based familiarity are supported and represented in the brain using functional MRI. In a novel approach, we first behaviorally show that subjects can divide retrieval of items in pre-existing memory into judgments of recollection and familiarity...
January 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073322/effects-of-group-focused-cognitive-behavioral-coaching-program-on-depressive-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-inmates-in-a-nigerian-prison
#15
Chiedu Eseadi, Mabel A Obidoa, Shulamite E Ogbuabor, Amaka B Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya
This study investigated the effects that a group-focused cognitive-behavioral coaching program had on depressive symptoms of a sample of inmates from Nsukka Prisons, Enugu State, Nigeria. The design of the study was pretest-posttest control group . The participants were 30 male inmates, experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms, and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The primary outcome measure was depression symptoms as measured using Beck's Depression Inventory. Repeated-measures ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U Test were used for data analysis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073309/psychometric-evaluation-of-a-new-instrument-to-evaluate-school-nurses-perceptions-on-concussion-care-management
#16
Kathleen H Schneider
The rate of concussions in adolescents has risen over the last decade, resulting in cognitive and emotional problems. Neurologists recommend cognitive and physical rest during the recovery period, followed by a transitional return-to-classroom protocol. The purpose of the study was to develop and test an instrument that explores the beliefs and roles of school nurses in concussion care management. The instrument was a cross-sectional descriptive survey based on the theory of planned behavior, using Qualtrics®...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072701/pathophysiology-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-study-of-visual-search-combined-with-overactive-performance-monitoring
#17
Qingxiao Liu, Bo Tan, Jing Zhou, Zhong Zheng, Ling Li, Yanchun Yang
Based on both functional and structural studies of excessive activity, fronto-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits have been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD refractory to medication and therapy remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate neuroanatomical abnormalities of the whole brain and to evaluate visual processing in patients with refractory OCD.This study was comprised of 2 experiments...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072681/effects-of-a-group-focused-cognitive-behavioral-health-education-program-on-cigarette-smoking-in-a-sample-of-nigerian-prisoners
#18
Kay C N Onyechi, Chiedu Eseadi, Prince C I Umoke, Amaka B Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Mkpoikanke S Otu, Jaachimma C Obidoa, Fedinand U Agu, Okechukwu O Nwaubani, Anthonia N Utoh-Ofong, Chijioke D Ncheke, Felix O Ugwuozor
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. METHODS: The study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072459/client-retrospective-accounts-of-corrective-experiences-in-motivational-interviewing-integrated-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#19
Christianne Macaulay, Lynne Angus, Jasmine Khattra, Henny Westra, Jennifer Ip
A corrective experience (CE) is one "in which a person comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2012, p. 5). CEs disconfirm clients' expectations based on past problematic experiences, and can be emotional, relational, behavioral, and/or cognitive. This qualitative study explored corrective shifts among recovered participants (N = 8) who had received motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT alone to MI-CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#20
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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