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cognitive behavioral analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451994/stroop-task-related-brain-activity-in-patients-with-insomnia-changes-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#1
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Nambeom Kim, Soohyun Kim, Juhyun Park, Jae-Won Choi, Seog Ju Kim, Chang-Ki Kang, Yu Jin Lee
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: In the present study, we compared differences in brain activity during the Stroop task between patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID) and good sleepers (GS). Furthermore, we evaluated changes in Stroop task-related brain activity after cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The final analysis included 21 patients with CID and 25 GS. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the color-word Stroop task...
February 16, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451967/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Joseph K Carpenter, Leigh A Andrews, Sara M Witcraft, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0...
February 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450793/the-quality-of-response-time-data-inference-a-blinded-collaborative-assessment-of-the-validity-of-cognitive-models
#3
Gilles Dutilh, Jeffrey Annis, Scott D Brown, Peter Cassey, Nathan J Evans, Raoul P P P Grasman, Guy E Hawkins, Andrew Heathcote, William R Holmes, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Colin N Kupitz, Fábio P Leite, Veronika Lerche, Yi-Shin Lin, Gordon D Logan, Thomas J Palmeri, Jeffrey J Starns, Jennifer S Trueblood, Leendert van Maanen, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ingmar Visser, Andreas Voss, Corey N White, Thomas V Wiecki, Jörg Rieskamp, Chris Donkin
Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processing, 2) response caution, 3) response bias, and 4) non-decision time. Inferences about these psychological factors hinge upon the validity of the models' parameters...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448852/memantine-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-alzheimer-s-disease-meta-analysis-of-multiple-index-responder-analyses
#4
Kaoru Okuizumi, Teruyoshi Kamata, Daiju Matsui, Kengo Saito, Takuyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Fukuchi
BACKGROUND: Responder analyses assessing clinical worsening have attempted to clarify clinically meaningful drug efficacy enhancements in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 24-week studies of 633 Japanese patients with moderate to severe AD receiving memantine 20 mg/day (n = 318) or placebo (n = 315). The clinical trial registration number is UMIN000026013...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445348/taekwondo-fighting-in-training-does-not-simulate-the-affective-and-cognitive-demands-of-competition-implications-for-behavior-and-transfer
#5
Michael A Maloney, Ian Renshaw, Jonathon Headrick, David T Martin, Damian Farrow
Enhancing practice design is critical to facilitate transfer of learning. Considerable research has focused on the role of perceptual information in practice simulation, yet has neglected how affect and cognition are shaped by practice environments and whether this influences the fidelity of behavior (Headrick et al., 2015). This study filled this gap by examining the fidelity of individual (cognition, affect, and actions) and interpersonal behavior of 10 highly skilled Australian Taekwondo athletes fighting in training compared to competition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444137/anxiety-is-not-enough-to-drive-me-away-a-latent-profile-analysis-on-math-anxiety-and-math-motivation
#6
Zhe Wang, Nicholas Shakeshaft, Kerry Schofield, Margherita Malanchini
Mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematics motivation (MM) are important multi-dimensional non-cognitive factors in mathematics learning. While the negative relation between global MA and MM is well replicated, the relations between specific dimensions of MA and MM are largely unexplored. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to explore profiles of various aspects of MA (including learning MA and exam MA) and MM (including importance, self-perceived ability, and interest), to provide a more holistic understanding of the math-specific emotion and motivation experiences...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443458/the-functional-and-psychological-burden-of-empty-nose-syndrome
#7
Jamil Manji, Jayakar V Nayak, Andrew Thamboo
BACKGROUND: Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a debilitating disorder thought to arise as a postsurgical phenomenon from excessive loss of nasal tissues. Affected patients often report a profound impact on all aspects of life, but the extent of this burden has not been quantified. We sought to determine the association of ENS with mental health and functional impairments. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of individuals with ENS recruited from online ENS forums...
February 14, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441219/a-new-patient-with-potocki-lupski-syndrome-a-literature-review
#8
Andrea Domenico Praticò, Raffaele Falsaperla, Renata Rizzo, Martino Ruggieri, Alberto Verrotti, Piero Pavone
Speech delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral disturbances are the main clinical manifestations of Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Other features include infantile hypotonia, the absence of major dysmorphism, sleep disorders, and congenital anomalies, particularly of the cardiovascular system. A male patient with Potocki-Lupski syndrome is reported herein. He showed speech and borderline cognitive delay, behavioral troubles with no signs suggestive of autism, in the absence of major dysmorphism. A de novo 17p12-p11...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439745/some-problems-with-non-inferiority-tests-in-psychotherapy-research-psychodynamic-therapies-as-an-example
#9
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434092/water-diffusion-in-the-brain-of-chronic-hypoperfusion-model-mice-a-study-considering-the-effect-of-blood-flow
#10
Takuya Urushihata, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Chie Seki, Yasuhiko Tachibana, Manami Takahashi, Jeff Kershaw, Yuhei Takado, Ichio Aoki, Makoto Higuchi, Hiroshi Ito, Takayuki Obata
PURPOSE: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model mice were created by unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) surgery, which does not cause cerebral infarction, but which does cause long-term reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the occluded side. Cognitive dysfunction in this mouse model has been demonstrated in behavioral experiments, but neuron density change was not found in a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study. As a next step, in this study we investigated the injury of neuronal fibers in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model mice using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#11
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432610/accelerometer-physical-activity-is-associated-with-greater-gray-matter-volumes-in-older-adults-without-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Shannon Halloway, Konstantinos Arfanakis, JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E Schoeny, Susan J Pressler
Objectives: Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable health behavior that can protect against age-related gray matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Current studies of PA and gray matter failed to utilize device measures of PA and do not focus on adults >80 years. Thus, the purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations between accelerometer lifestyle PA and (a) gray matter volumes and (b) cognitive function, controlling for demographics and health status...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431654/enhanced-operant-extinction-and-prefrontal-excitability-in-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#13
Michael S Sidorov, Matthew C Judson, Hyojin Kim, Marie Rougie, Alejandra I Ferrer, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Natallia V Riddick, Sheryl S Moy, Benjamin D Philpot
Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428640/the-traffic-climate-in-china-the-mediating-effect-of-traffic-safety-climate-between-personality-and-dangerous-driving-behavior
#14
Qian Zhang, Yan Ge, Weina Qu, Kan Zhang, Xianghong Sun
Traffic safety climate is defined as road users' attitudes and perceptions of traffic in a specific context at a given point in time. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and to explore its relation to drivers' personality and dangerous driving behavior. A sample of 413 drivers completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Chinese version of the TCS, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and a demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to confirm a three-factor (external affective demands, internal requirements and functionality) solution of the TCS...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427848/targeting-alpha-band-oscillations-in-a-cortical-model-with-amplitude-modulated-high-frequency-transcranial-electric-stimulation
#15
Ehsan Negahbani, Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann, Flavio Frohlich
Non-invasive brain stimulation to target specific network activity patterns, e.g. transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has become an essential tool to understand the causal role of neuronal oscillations in cognition and behavior. However, conventional sinusoidal tACS limits the ability to record neuronal activity during stimulation and lacks spatial focality. One particularly promising new tACS stimulation paradigm uses amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency waveforms (AM-tACS) with a slow signal envelope that may overcome the limitations...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427292/intranasal-oxytocin-modulates-neural-functional-connectivity-during-human-social-interaction
#16
James K Rilling, Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426324/role-of-parental-and-environmental-characteristics-in-toddlers-physical-activity-and-screen-time-bayesian-analysis-of-structural-equation-models
#17
Eun-Young Lee, Kylie D Hesketh, Ryan E Rhodes, Christina M Rinaldi, John C Spence, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: Guided by the Socialization Model of Child Behavior (SMCB), this cross-sectional study examined direct and indirect associations of parental cognitions and behavior, the home and neighborhood environment, and toddlers' personal attributes with toddlers' physical activity and screen time. METHODS: Participants included 193 toddlers (1.6 ± 0.2 years) from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behavior habits (PREPS) project...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425951/a-novel-approach-to-challenging-ocd-related-beliefs-using-a-mobile-app-an-exploratory-study
#18
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425850/neuroprotective-effect-of-da-chuanxiong-formula-against-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-a-rat-controlled-cortical-impact-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Zhi-Ke Liu, Chun-Fai Ng, Hoi-Ting Shiu, Hing-Lok Wong, Wai-Ching Chin, Jin-Fang Zhang, Ping-Kuen Lam, Wai-Sang Poon, Clara Bik-San Lau, Ping-Chung Leung, Chun-Hay Ko
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Da Chuanxiong Formula (DCXF) is one of the famous herb pairs that contains dried rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Gastrodia elata Bl. in the mass ratio of 4:1. This classic representative traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat brain diseases like headache and migraine caused by blood stasis and wind pathogen. However, the therapeutic effect of DCXF on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported yet. AIM OF STUDY: The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DCXF and its underlying mechanisms in the controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI rat model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424766/social-connectedness-and-perceived-listening-effort-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users-a-grounded-theory-to-establish-content-validity-for-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-measure
#20
Sarah E Hughes, Hayley A Hutchings, Frances L Rapport, Catherine M McMahon, Isabelle Boisvert
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with hearing loss often report a need for increased effort when listening, particularly in challenging acoustic environments. Despite audiologists' recognition of the impact of listening effort on individuals' quality of life, there are currently no standardized clinical measures of listening effort, including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). To generate items and content for a new PROM, this qualitative study explored the perceptions, understanding, and experiences of listening effort in adults with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss before and after cochlear implantation...
February 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
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