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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#1
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342222/mechano-electric-feedback-effects-in-a-three-dimensional-3d-model-of-the-contracting-cardiac-ventricle
#2
Ani Amar, Sharon Zlochiver, Ofer Barnea
Mechano-electric feedback affects the electrophysiological and mechanical function of the heart and the cellular, tissue, and organ properties. To determine the main factors that contribute to this effect, this study investigated the changes in the action potential characteristics of the ventricle during contraction. A model of stretch-activated channels was incorporated into a three-dimensional multiscale model of the contracting ventricle to assess the effect of different preload lengths on the electrophysiological behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342178/chaos-and-multi-scroll-attractors-in-rcl-shunted-junction-coupled-jerk-circuit-connected-by-memristor
#3
Jun Ma, Ping Zhou, Bashir Ahmad, Guodong Ren, Chunni Wang
In this paper, a new four-variable dynamical system is proposed to set chaotic circuit composed of memristor and Josephson junction, and the dependence of chaotic behaviors on nonlinearity is investigated. A magnetic flux-controlled memristor is used to couple with the RCL-shunted junction circuit, and the dynamical behaviors can be modulated by changing the coupling intensity between the memristor and the RCL-shunted junction. Bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent are calculated to confirm the emergence of chaos in the improved dynamical system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#4
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342095/preparation-of-cyano-substituted-tetraphenylethylene-derivatives-and-their-applications-in-solution-processable-oleds
#5
Xiaoyi Sun, Lele Zhao, Xiao Han, Hui Liu, Yu Gao, Yanchun Tao, Haiquan Zhang, Bing Yang, Ping Lu
Creation of organic luminescent materials with high solid-state efficiency is of vital importance for their applications in optoelectronic fields. Here, a series of AIE luminogens (AIE gens), (Z)-2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)phenyl)-3-phenylacrylonitrile (SFC), and 2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)phenyl)fumaronitrile (DFC), utilizing 2,3,3-triphenylacrylonitrile and 2,3-diphenylfumaronitrile as respective centers, are designed and synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions with high yields...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342042/long-term-administration-of-salicylate-induced-changes-in-bdnf-expression-and-creb-phosphorylation-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-rats
#6
Bin Yi, Cong Wu, Runjie Shi, Kun Han, Haibin Sheng, Bei Li, Ling Mei, Xueling Wang, Zhiwu Huang, Hao Wu
HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether salicylate induces tinnitus through alteration of the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the auditory cortex (AC). BACKGROUND: Salicylate medication is frequently used for long-term treatment in clinical settings, but it may cause reversible tinnitus. Salicylate-induced tinnitus is associated with changes related to central auditory neuroplasticity...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341943/beneficial-effect-of-chronic-treatment-with-extracts-from-rhodiola-rosea-l-and-curcuma-longa-l-on-the-immunoreactivity-of-animals-subjected-to-a-chronic-mild-stress-model
#7
Liliya V Vasileva, Kremena Е Saracheva, Mariya V Ivanovska, Atanaska P Petrova, Emir Sucouglu, Mariana A Murdjeva, Damyanka P Getova-Spasova
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in depression. AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of extracts from Rhodiola and Curcuma on immunoreactivity of animals subjected to a chronic mild stress (CMS) model followed by lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=56) divided in 7 groups were treated orally with: distilled water 10 ml/kg (control and CMS model groups); Rhodiola 250 mg/kg; Rhodiola 500 mg/kg; Curcuma 250 mg/kg; Curcuma 500 mg/kg, Rhodiola 250 mg/kg and Curcuma 250 mg/kg...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341933/the-effects-of-platelet-lysate-patches-on-the-activity-of-tendon-derived-cells
#8
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Albina R Franco, Tamagno Pesqueira, Mariana B Oliveira, Pedro S Babo, Isabel B Leonor, João F Mano, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Platelet-derived biomaterials are widely explored as cost-effective sources of therapeutic factors, holding a strong potential for endogenous regenerative medicine. Particularly for tendon repair, treatment approaches that shift the injury environment are explored to accelerate tendon regeneration. Herein, genipin-crosslinked platelet lysate (PL) patches are proposed for the delivery of human-derived therapeutic factors in patch augmentation strategies aiming at tendon repair. Developed PL patches exhibited a controlled release profile of PL proteins, including bFGF and PDGF-BB...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341908/induction-of-au-methotrexate-conjugates-by-sugar-molecules-production-assembly-mechanism-and-bioassay-studies
#9
Wei-Yuan Wang, Xiu-Fen Zhao, Xiao-Han Ju, Ping Liu, Jing Li, Ya-Wen Tang, Shu-Ping Li, Xiao-Dong Li, Fu-Gui Song
Au-methotrexate (Au-MTX) conjugates induced by sugar molecules were produced by a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal growth method. Herein, the Au(III)-MTX complexes were used as the precursors to form Au-MTX conjugates. Addition of different types of sugar molecules with abundant hydroxyl groups resulted in the formation of Au-MTX conjugates featuring distinct characteristics that could be explained by the diverse capping mechanisms of sugar molecules. That is, the instant-capping mechanism of glucose favored the generation of peanut-like Au-MTX conjugates with high colloidal stability while the post-capping mechanism of dextran and sucrose resulted in the production of Au-MTX conjugates featuring excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties with a long-wavelength plasmon resonance near 630-760 nm...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#10
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341838/immobilization-of-cross-linked-tannase-enzyme-on-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-and-its-catalytic-behavior
#11
Chong-Boon Ong, Mohamad S M Annuar
Immobilization of cross-linked tannase on pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was successfully carried out. Cross-linking of tannase molecules was made via glutaraldehyde. The immobilized tannase exhibited significantly improved pH, thermal, and recycling stabilities. The optimal pH for both free- and immobilized tannase were observed at pH 5.0 with optimal operating temperature at 30 °C. Moreover, immobilized enzyme retained greater biocatalytic activities upon ten-repeated uses compared to free enzyme in solution...
January 17, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341465/p2y12-deficiency-in-mouse-impairs-noradrenergic-system-in-brain-and-alters-anxiety-like-neurobehavior-and-memory
#12
Fang Zheng, Qiang Zhou, Yin Cao, Hailian Shi, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu
Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2Y12 ), a G protein-coupled (GPCR) purinergic receptor, is widely distributed in nervous system and involved in the progression of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. The central noradrenergic system actively participates in a number of neurophysiological processes. Nevertheless, whether there is any direct relevance between P2Y12 and noradrenergic signal transduction remains unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lack of P2Y12 impaired noradrenergic signal transduction in mouse brain...
January 17, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341334/incidence-and-prognostic-impact-of-cytogenetic-aberrations-in-patients-with-systemic-mastocytosis
#13
Nicole Naumann, Mohamad Jawhar, Juliana Schwaab, Sebastian Kluger, Johannes Lübke, Georgia Metzgeroth, Henning D Popp, Nada Khaled, Hans-Peter Horny, Karl Sotlar, Peter Valent, Claudia Haferlach, Gudrun Göhring, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Manja Meggendorfer, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Nicholas C P Cross, Andreas Reiter, Alice Fabarius
The clinical behavior of systemic mastocytosis (SM) is strongly associated with activating mutations in KIT (D816V in >80% of cases), with the severity of the phenotype influenced by additional somatic mutations, e.g. in SRSF2, ASXL1 or RUNX1. Complex molecular profiles are frequently associated with the presence of an associated hematologic neoplasm (AHN) and an unfavorable clinical outcome. However, little is known about the incidence and prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations. We analyzed cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of 109 patients (KIT D816V+, n=102, 94%) with indolent (ISM, n=26) and advanced SM (n=83) with (n=73, 88%) or without AHN...
January 17, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341269/characterization-of-a-3xtg-ad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-background
#14
Jessica Virgili, Meryem Lebbadi, Cyntia Tremblay, Isabelle St-Amour, Caroline Pierrisnard, Audrey Faucher-Genest, Vincent Emond, Carl Julien, Frédéric Calon
No model fully recapitulates the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) expresses Aβ plaques and tau-laden neurofibrillary tangles, as well as synaptic and behavioral deficits, it does not display frank neuronal loss. Since old age is the most important risk factor in AD, senescence-related interactions might be lacking to truly establish an AD-like environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we bred the 3xTg-AD mouse with the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a model of accelerated aging...
January 17, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341200/human-agency-in-disaster-planning-a-systems-approach
#15
John Hamer Powell, Michael Hammond, Albert Chen, Navonil Mustafee
Current approaches to risk management place insufficient emphasis on the system knowledge available to the assessor, particularly in respect of the dynamic behavior of the system under threat, the role of human agents (HAs), and the knowledge available to those agents. In this article, we address the second of these issues. We are concerned with a class of systems containing HAs playing a variety of roles as significant system elements-as decisionmakers, cognitive agents, or implementers-that is, human activity systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340532/effects-of-light-dark-cycle-on-the-spatial-distribution-and-feeding-activity-of-fish-larvae-of-two-co-occurring-species-pisces-hypophthalmidae-and-sciaenidae-in-a-neotropical-floodplain-lake
#16
P H S Picapedra, P V Sanches, F A Lansac-Tôha
Most studies on mechanisms regulating fish larvae processes have focused on assessing the isolated effects of food distribution and feeding behavior. However, in natural ecosystems, fish larvae may strongly interact with zooplankton organisms in an array of complex, direct and indirect interdependencies. This study analyzed the spatial distribution, diet and feeding behavior of early stages of Hypophthalmus edentatus and Plagioscion squamosissimus, two fish species co-occurring in an isolated floodplain lake, during the light-dark cycle...
January 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340478/the-long-and-successful-journey-of-electrochemically-active-amino-acids-from-fundamental-adsorption-studies-to-potential-surface-engineering-tools
#17
André H B Dourado, Fabián C Pastrián, Susana I Córdoba DE Torresi
Proteins have been the subject of electrochemical studies. It is possible to apply electrochemical techniques to obtain information about their structure due to the presence of five electroactive amino acids that can be oriented to the outside of the peptidic chain. These amino acids are L-Tryptophan (L-Trp), L-Tyrosine (L-Tyr), L-Histidine (L-His), L-Methionine (L-Met) and L-Cysteine (L-Cys); their electrochemical behavior being subject of extensive research, but it is still controversial. No spectroscopic investigations have been reported on L-Trp, and due to the short life time of the intermediates, ex situ techniques cannot be employed, leading to a never-ending discussion about possible intermediates...
January 11, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340397/ligand-modification-of-uio-66-with-an-unusual-visible-light-photocatalytic-behavior-for-rhb-degradation
#18
Xixi Mu, Jifei Jiang, Fufang Chao, Yongbing Lou, Jinxi Chen
A series of isostructural UiO-66-X (X = H, NH2, Br, (OH)2, (SH)2) catalysts have been successfully synthesized by modifying different functional groups on the ligand. The effects of the ligand modification of UiO-66 were investigated for their photocatalytic activity of Rhodamine B degradation under visible light. Surprisingly, UiO-66-NH2 and UiO-66-(OH)2 which have narrow bandgaps and excellent visible light absorption do not show outstanding photocatalytic performances compared to UiO-66 and UiO-66-Br. Electrochemical test results indicated that the conduction band potential of UiO-66-X and the separation efficiency of electrons were quite important in these photocatalytic reactions, other than the electronic effect as reported...
January 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340071/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-microglial-functions-affecting-neuronal-survival-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#19
Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, Youngsik Woo, Soeun Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Yoontae Lee, Sang Ki Park, Irving L Weissman, G-One Ahn
Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339790/decoding-the-dynamic-representation-of-musical-pitch-from-human-brain-activity
#20
N Sankaran, W F Thompson, S Carlile, T A Carlson
In music, the perception of pitch is governed largely by its tonal function given the preceding harmonic structure of the music. While behavioral research has advanced our understanding of the perceptual representation of musical pitch, relatively little is known about its representational structure in the brain. Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded evoked neural responses to different tones presented within a tonal context. Multivariate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) was applied to "decode" the stimulus that listeners heard based on the underlying neural activity...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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