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behavioral activation

P Linga Reddy, Shabana I Khan, Prija Ponnan, Mohit Tripathi, Diwan S Rawat
A novel series of 4-aminoquinoline-purine hybrids were synthesized and assessed for their antiplasmodial activity against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains of P. falciparum. It was envisaged that linking of the 4-aminoquinoline pharmacophore (targeting heme-detoxification pathway of malarial parasite) with the purine functionality (targeting plasmodial HG(X)PRT enzyme) will produce a hybrid antiplasmodial agent with increased potency. The synthesized hybrids displayed good antiplasmodial activities against both the sensitive and resistant strains of P...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Alessandro Frigo, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Gloria Sarasin, Marco Rossato, Raffaele De Caro, Arturo N Natali
The infrapatellar adipose body (Hoffa's fat pad, IFP) is situated between the patellar tendon, the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau. The IFP consists of lobules of white adipose tissue delimited by thin connective septa. The actual structural functionality of the IFP is debated and should pertain to a cushioning role in the knee joint, providing to distribute and to damp mechanical stresses during articular activity. The present study is aimed to analyze the correlation between histological configuration and mechanical properties of the IFP, compared to other adipose tissues, partially differentiated by composition and conformation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Wen-Bin Chiou, Wen-Hsiung Wu
OBJECTIVE: Building on recent advances showing that the engagement in episodic future thinking (EFT) rather than semantic future thinking (SFT) can induce individuals to delay gratification and that activation of the ideal self may promote goal attainment, we tested whether imagining life events after smoking cessation led to lower discounting and reduced smoking. METHOD: Ninety smokers (21 women, 69 men) with intentions to quit or reduce smoking were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: EFT, SFT, and control...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Julia Hollister, Amanda Owen Van Horne, Patricia Zebrowski
Purpose: The dual diathesis stressor model indicates that a mismatch between a child's endogenous linguistic abilities and exogenous linguistic contexts is one factor that contributes to stuttering behavior. In the present study, we used a developmental framework to investigate if reducing the gap between endogenous and exogenous linguistics factors would result in less disfluency for typical children, children who recover from stuttering (CWS-R), and children who persist. Method: Children between 28 and 43 months of age participated in this study: 8 typical children, 5 CWS-R, and 8 children who persist...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sadiq M Saad, Gurch Randhawa, Dong Pang
BACKGROUND: It is known that behavior in childhood is associated with certain physical and mental health problems in midlife. However, there is limited evidence on the role of childhood behavior problems in the development of hypertension in adulthood. The present study aimed to examine whether behavior problems in childhood influenced the risk of hypertension in midlife in the United Kingdom 1958 birth cohort. METHODS: The 1958 British birth cohort comprised 17,638 individuals born in the first week of March 1958 in the United Kingdom...
2016: PloS One
Pan Li, Wei Quan, Da Lu, Yan Wang, Hui-Hong Zhang, Shuai Liu, Rong-Cai Jiang, Yu-Ying Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for many vascular conditions, is associated with vascular cognitive disorders. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of MetS and its individual components with the risks of cognitive impairment and neurological dysfunction in patients after acute stroke. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 840 patients ranging in age from 53 to 89 years from the Tianjin area of North China...
2016: PloS One
Silvia Paldino, Dániel Kondor, Iva Bojic, Stanislav Sobolevsky, Marta C González, Carlo Ratti
We live in a world where digital trails of different forms of human activities compose big urban data, allowing us to detect many aspects of how people experience the city in which they live or come to visit. In this study we propose to enhance urban planning by taking into a consideration individual preferences using information from an unconventional big data source: dataset of geo-tagged photographs that people take in cities which we then use as a measure of urban attractiveness. We discover and compare a temporal behavior of residents and visitors in ten most photographed cities in the world...
2016: PloS One
Scinob Kuroki, Nobuhiro Hagura, Shin'ya Nishida, Patrick Haggard, Junji Watanabe
An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool), is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA) channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Trine Wiig Hage, Øyvind Rø, Anne Moen
On inpatient eating disorder units, resolving under-nutrition and reestablishing normal eating behavior are key treatment aims. Consequently, the provision of support at mealtimes is a core work task for patients with severe eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore staff deliberations and actions, as observed during staff-patient interactions at mealtimes on an inpatient eating disorder unit (EDU). We specifically aimed to characterize how and why staff members intervene during staff-patient interactions in which a refeeding script is activated...
December 9, 2016: Eating Disorders
Patrick Eisner, Martin Klasen, Dhana Wolf, Klaus Zerres, Thomas Eggermann, Albrecht Eisert, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Pegah Sarkheil, Krystyna A Mathiak, Florian Zepf, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: A gene-environment interaction between expression genotypes of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and adverse childhood experience increases the risk of antisocial behavior. However, the neural underpinnings of this interaction remain uninvestigated. A cortico-limbic circuit involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala is central to the suppression of aggressive impulses and is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). MAOA genotypes may modulate the vulnerability of this circuit and increase the risk for emotion regulation deficits after specific life events...
December 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Tatiana A Engel, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Marc A Gieselmann, Alexander Thiele, Tirin Moore, Kwabena Boahen
Neocortical activity is permeated with endogenously generated fluctuations, but how these dynamics affect goal-directed behavior remains a mystery. We found that ensemble neural activity in primate visual cortex spontaneously fluctuated between phases of vigorous (On) and faint (Off) spiking synchronously across cortical layers. These On-Off dynamics, reflecting global changes in cortical state, were also modulated at a local scale during selective attention. Moreover, the momentary phase of local ensemble activity predicted behavioral performance...
December 2, 2016: Science
Da Wang, Djurre H de Jong, Andreas Rühling, Volker Lesch, Karina Shimizu, Stephanie Wulff, Andreas Heuer, Frank Glorius, Hans-Joachim Galla
4,5-Dialkylated imidazolium lipid salts are a new class of lipid analogues showing distinct biological activities. The potential effects of the imidazolium lipids on artificial lipid membranes and the corresponding membrane interactions was analyzed. Therefore, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) was employed to create an established lipid monolayer model and a bilayer membrane. Mixed monolayers of DPPC and 4,5-dialkylimidazolium lipids differing by their alkyl chain length (C7, C11, and C15) were characterized by surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms using a Wilhelmy film balance in combination with epifluorescence microscopy...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Birte Martin-Bertelsen, Anan Yaghmur, Henrik Franzyk, Sarah Justesen, Jacob J K Kirkensgaard, Camilla Foged
Synthetic analogues of the cell-wall lipid monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) are promising as next-generation vaccine adjuvants. In the present study, the thermotropic phase behavior of an array of synthetic MMG analogues was examined by using simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering under excess water conditions. The MMG analogues differed in the alkyl chain lengths and in the stereochemistry of the polar glycerol headgroup or of the lipid tails (native-like versus alternative compounds). All MMG analogues formed poorly hydrated lamellar phases at low temperatures and inverse hexagonal (H2) phases at higher temperatures prior to melting...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hideaki Nakamura, Eva Koziolová, Petr Chytil, Kenji Tsukigawa, Jun Fang, Mamoru Haratake, Karel Ulbrich, Tomáš Etrych, Hiroshi Maeda
Many conjugates of water-soluble polymers with biologically active molecules were developed during the last two decades. Although, therapeutic effects of these conjugates are affected by the properties of carriers, the properties of the attached drugs appear more important than the same carrier polymer in this case. Pirarubicin (THP), a tetrahydropyranyl derivative of doxorubicin (DOX), demonstrated more rapid cellular internalization and potent cytotoxicity than DOX. Here, we conjugated the THP or DOX to N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer via a hydrazone bond...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Matthieu Autillo, Laetitia Guerin, Dominique Guillaumont, Philippe Moisy, Hélène Bolvin, Claude Berthon
The magnetic properties of actinide(IV) (An(IV)) cations are investigated in various solutions (HClO4, HCl, and HNO3) by the Evans NMR method. The magnetic susceptibilities measured in noncomplexing medium are compared with the previous studies, and the influence of the medium is verified with new measurements in complexing solutions. To rationalize these results, spin-orbit complete active space perturbation theory at second order calculations are performed on the free ions and on the aquo complexes to determine the nature of electronic states, the magnetic susceptibility, and the UV-visible-near-IR spectra...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Cheng-Yang Yue, Xiao-Wu Lei, Yong-Fang Han, Xin-Xiu Lu, Ya-Wei Tian, Jing Xu, Xiao-Fan Liu, Xin Xu
With mixed transition-metal (TM) complex, alkali-metal cations, or halogen anions as structure-directing agents, two types of two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic-organic hybrid silver bromides were prepared and structurally characterized as K[TM(2,2-bipy)3]2Ag6Br11 (TM = Ni (1), Co (2), Zn (3), Fe (4)) and [TM(2,2-bipy)3]2Ag13Br17 (TM = Ni (5), Co (6), Zn (7), Fe (8)). Compounds 1-4 feature 2D microporous anionic [Ag6Br11](5-) layers composed of [Ag3Br7] secondary building units based on AgBr4 tetrahedral units, and compounds 5-8 contain 2D [Ag13Br16](3-) layers built from the one-dimensional complex [Ag8Br12] and [Ag5Br8] chains...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Kamoladdin Egamberdiev, Sirojiddin Z Mirzaev, Udo Kaatze
The diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water mixtures of critical composition have been measured without and with small amounts of alkali halides added. The data have been analyzed in terms of power law behavior. Deviations from power law behavior indicate a coupling between the critical fluctuations in the local concentrations and the formation of mesoscopic molecular aggregates. The critical exponent of the fluctuation correlation length, the shear viscosity exponent, and the critical exponent of the relaxation rate of fluctuations have been evaluated to show noticeable influences from the salts...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michael B Ross, Marc R Bourgeois, Chad A Mirkin, George C Schatz
The magneto-optical Kerr effect is a striking phenomenon whereby the optical properties of a material change under an applied magnetic field. Though promising for sensing and data storage technology, these properties are typically weak in magnitude and are inherently limited by the bulk properties of the active magnetic material. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that plasmonic thin-film assemblies on a cobalt substrate can achieve tunable transverse magneto-optical (TMOKE) responses throughout the visible and near-infrared (300-900 nm)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Johnathan Turner, Abay Gadisa
Charge transport is a central issue in all types of organic electronic devices. In organic films, charge transport is crucially limited by film microstructure and the nature of the substrate/organic interface interactions. In this report, we discuss the influence of active layer thickness on space-charge limited hole transport in pristine polymer and polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction thin films (∼15-300 nm) in a diode structure. According to the results, the out-of-plane hole mobility in pristine polymers is sensitive to the degree of polymer chain aggregation...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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